Serum Bilirubin and Disease Progression in Mild COPD.
ABSTRACT: COPD is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin has potent antioxidant actions, and higher concentrations have been shown to protect against oxidative stress. The relation between serum bilirubin and COPD progression is unknown.Serum bilirubin was measured in 4,680 smokers aged 35 to 60 years old with mild to moderate airflow limitation. The relationship of serum bilirubin to postbronchodilator FEV? and rate of FEV1 decline over 3 to 9 years was determined using regression modeling. Total and disease-specific mortality were also ascertained.Serum bilirubin was positively related to FEV? (P < .001). Serum bilirubin was also negatively related to the annual decline in FEV? when adjusted for baseline demographics, pack-years smoked, and baseline measures of lung function (P = .01). Additionally, serum bilirubin was negatively associated with risk of death from coronary heart disease (P = .03); however, the relationships between bilirubin and other mortality end points were not statistically significant (P > .05).Bilirubin is inversely related to COPD disease severity and progression. Higher serum bilirubin concentration was associated with a higher FEV? and less annual decline in FEV?. Bilirubin was also associated with less coronary heart disease mortality. These data support the hypothesis that bilirubin has a protective effect on COPD disease progression, possibly through its antioxidant actions. Bilirubin may prove useful as an easily accessible and readily available blood-based COPD biomarker.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Trials of disease modifying therapies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) provide challenges for detecting physiological and patient centred outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to monitor decline in health status in Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and determine its' relationship to conventional physiology.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients recruited to the UK-AATD database with a median follow up of 7 years (IQR 5-10) were studied to determine annual change in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), FEV<sub>1</sub>, gas transfer and their feasibility of use in future trials.<h4>Results</h4>Annual decline in SGRQ had a wide range, was greater for patients with established COPD and correlated with decline in FEV<sub>1</sub> (p?<?0.0001). Total score decline was greater (p?<?0.05) for those with accelerated FEV<sub>1</sub> decline (median?=?1.07 points/year) compared to those without (median?=?0.51). Power calculations indicated effective intervention would not achieve MCID for the SGRQ unless the timeframe was extended for up to 8 years. More than 5000 patients/arm would be required for a statistically significant modest effect over 3 years even in those with rapid FEV<sub>1</sub> decline.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Despite AATD being a rapidly declining form of COPD, deterioration in SGRQ was slow consistent with ageing and the chronic nature of disease progression. Power calculations indicate the numbers needed to detect a difference with disease modifying therapies would be prohibitive especially in this rare cause of COPD. These data have important implications for future study design of disease modifying therapies even in COPD not associated with AATD.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the significance of decreased FEV(1) in non-COPD, nonasthmatic healthy subjects. We hypothesized that a lower FEV(1) in these subjects is a potential marker of an increased susceptibility to obstructive lung disease such as asthma and COPD. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1505 Japanese adults. We divided the population of healthy adults with no respiratory diseases whose FEV(1)/FVC ratio was ≥ 70% (n = 1369) into 2 groups according to their prebronchodilator FEV(1) (% predicted) measurements: < 80% (n = 217) and ≥ 80% (n = 1152). We compared clinical data - including gender, age, smoking habits, total IgE levels, and annual decline of FEV(1) - between these 2 groups. In addition, as our group recently found that TSLP variants are associated with asthma and reduced lung function, we assessed whether TSLP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with baseline lung function in non-COPD, nonasthmatic healthy subjects (n = 1368). Although about half of the subjects with lower FEV(1) had never smoked, smoking was the main risk factor for the decreased FEV(1) in non-COPD, nonasthmatic subjects. However, the subjects with lower FEV(1) had a significantly higher annual decline in FEV(1) independent of smoking status. Airflow obstruction was associated with increased levels of total serum IgE (P = 0.029) and with 2 functional TSLP SNPs (corrected P = 0.027-0.058 for FEV(1)% predicted, corrected P = 0.015-0.033 for FEV(1)/FVC). This study highlights the importance of early recognition of a decreased FEV(1) in healthy subjects without evident pulmonary diseases because it predicts a rapid decline in FEV(1) irrespective of smoking status. Our series of studies identified TSLP variants as a potential susceptibility locus to asthma and to lower lung function in non-COPD, nonasthmatic healthy subjects, which may support the contention that genetic determinants of lung function influence susceptibility to asthma.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a community based integrated intervention for early prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Eight healthcare units in two communities. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1062 people aged 40-89, 872 (101 with COPD and 771 without COPD) who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were allocated to the intervention or the usual care programmes. INTERVENTION: Participants randomly assigned to integrated intervention (systematic health education, intensive and individualised intervention, treatment, and rehabilitation) or usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual rate of decline in forced expiratory rate in one second (FEV(1)) before use of bronchodilator. RESULTS: Annual rate of decline in FEV(1) was significantly lower in the intervention community than the control community, with an adjusted difference of 19 ml/year (95% confidence interval 3 to 36) and 0.9% (0.1% to 1.8%) of predicted values (all P<0.05), as well as a lower annual rate of decline in FEV(1)/FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio (adjusted difference 0.6% (0.1% to 1.2%) P=0.029). There were also higher rates of smoking cessation (21% v 8%, P<0.004) and lower cumulative death rates from all causes (1% v 3%, P<0.009) in the intervention community than in the control community during the four year follow-up. Improvements in knowledge of COPD and smoking hazards, outdoor air quality, environmental tobacco smoke, and working conditions were also achieved (all P<0.05). The difference in cumulative incidence rate of COPD (both around 4%) and cumulative death rate from COPD (2% v 11%) did not reach significance between the two communities. CONCLUSIONS: A community based integrated intervention can have a significant impact on the prevention and management of COPD, mainly reflected in the annual rate of decline in FEV(1). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-00000532).
Project description:A study was undertaken to determine if quantitative CT estimates of lung parenchymal overinflation and airway dimensions in smokers with a normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) can predict the rapid decline in FEV(1) that leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Study participants (n = 143; age 45-72 years; 54% male) were part of a lung cancer screening trial, had a smoking history of >30 pack years and a normal FEV(1) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline (mean (SD) FEV(1) 99.4 (12.8)%, range 80.2-140.7%; mean (SD) FEV(1)/FVC 77.9 (4.4), range 70.0-88.0%). An inspiratory multislice CT scan was acquired for each subject at baseline. Custom software was used to measure airway lumen and wall dimensions; the percentage of the lung inflated beyond a predicted maximal lung inflation, the low attenuation lung area with an x ray attenuation lower than -950 HU and the size distribution of the overinflated lung areas and the low attenuation area were described using a cluster analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that these CT measurements combined with other baseline characteristics might identify those who would develop an excessive annual decline in FEV(1).The mean (SD) annual change in FEV(1) was -2.3 (4.7)% predicted (range -23.0% to +8.3%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the annual change in FEV(1)%predicted was significantly associated with baseline percentage overinflated lung area measured on quantitative CT, FEV(1)% predicted, FEV(1)/FVC and gender.Quantitative CT scan evidence of overinflation of the lung predicts a rapid annual decline in FEV(1) in smokers with normal FEV(1).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The impact of interventions on the progressive course of COPD is currently assessed by the slope of the annual decline in FEV? determined from serial measurements of the post-, in preference to the pre-, bronchodilator FEV?. We therefore compared the yearly slope and the variability of the slope of the pre- versus the post-bronchodilator FEV? in men and women with mild to moderate COPD who participated in the 5-year Lung Health Study (LHS).<h4>Methods</h4>Data were analyzed from 4484 of the 5887 LHS participants who had measurements of pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV? at baseline (screening visit 2) and all five annual visits. The annual rate of decline in FEV? (±SE) measured pre- and post-bronchodilator from the first to the fifth annual visit was estimated separately using a random coefficient model adjusted for relevant covariates. Analyses were performed separately within each of the three randomized intervention groups. In addition, individual rates of decline in pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV? were also determined for each participant. Furthermore, sample sizes were estimated for determining the significance of differences in slopes of decline between different interventions using pre- versus post-bronchodilator measurements.<h4>Results</h4>Within each intervention group, mean adjusted and unadjusted slope estimates were slightly higher for the pre- than the post-bronchodilator FEV? (range of differences 2.6-5.2 ml/yr) and the standard errors around these estimates were only minimally higher for the pre- versus the post-bronchodilator FEV? (range 0.05-0.11 ml/yr). Conversely, the standard deviations of the mean FEV? determined at each annual visit were consistently slightly higher (range of differences 0.011 to 0.035 L) for the post- compared to the pre-bronchodilator FEV?. Within each group, the proportion of individual participants with a statistically significant slope was similar (varying by only 1.4 to 2.7%) comparing the estimates from the pre- versus the post-bronchodilator FEV?. However, sample size estimates were slightly higher when the pre- compared to the post-bronchodilator value was used to determine the significance of specified differences in slopes between interventions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Serial measurements of the pre-bronchodilator FEV? are generally sufficient for comparing the impact of different interventions on the annual rate of change in FEV?.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in the defence against bacterial infections that are common in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We studied all tagging SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 and their associations with the level and change over time of both FEV(1) and sputum inflammatory cells in moderate-to-severe COPD. Nine TLR2 SNPs and 17 TLR4 SNPs were genotyped in 110 COPD patients. Associations of SNPs with lung function and inflammatory cells in induced sputum were analyzed cross-sectionally with linear regression and longitudinally with linear mixed-effect models. Two SNPs in TLR2 (rs1898830 and rs11938228) were associated with a lower level of FEV(1) and accelerated decline of FEV(1) and higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells. None of the TLR4 SNPs was associated with FEV(1) level. Eleven out of 17 SNPs were associated with FEV(1) decline, including rs12377632 and rs10759931, which were additionally associated with higher numbers of sputum inflammatory cells at baseline and with increase over time. This is the first longitudinal study showing that tagging SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 are associated with the level and decline of lung function as well as with inflammatory cell numbers in induced sputum in COPD patients, suggesting a role in the severity and progression of COPD.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine if gene-environment interactions between cigarette smoking and interleukin-6 (IL6), interferon-? (IFNG), interleukin-1? (IL1B), or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with lung function decline and cardiovascular disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL6, IFNG, IL1B, and IL1RN were genotyped in the Lung Health Study and correlated with rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) over 5 years, baseline FEV(1), serum protein levels, cardiovascular disease, and interactions with smoking.The IL6 rs2069825 single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with the rate of decline of prebronchodilator FEV(1) (P = 0.049), and was found to have a significant interaction (P = 0.004) with mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. There was also a significant interaction of IFNG rs2069727 with smoking on prebronchodilator (P = 0.008) and postbronchodilator (P =0.01) FEV(1.) The IL6 polymorphism was also associated with cardiovascular disease in heterozygous individuals (P = 0.044), and was found to have a significant interaction with smoking (P = 0.024). None of the genetic variants were associated with their respective serum protein levels.The results suggest interactions of IL6 rs2069825 and IFNG rs2069727 single nucleotide polymorphisms with cigarette smoking on measures of lung function. The IL6 rs2069825 single nucleotide polymorphism also interacted with smoking to affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients.
Project description:<b>Background:</b>Determination of risks for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression could improve strategies to reduce progression to ESKD. The eGFR Study recruited a cohort of adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (Indigenous Australians) from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, aiming to address the heavy CKD burden experienced within these communities.<br><br><b>Methods:</b>Using data from the eGFR study, we explored the association of baseline liver function tests (LFTs) (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin and albumin) and full blood count (FBC) indices (white blood cell and red blood cell counts and haemoglobin) with annual eGFR decline and renal outcomes (first of 30% decline in eGFR with a follow-up eGFR <?60?mL/min/1.73?m<sup>2</sup>, initiation of renal replacement therapy, or renal death). Comparisons of baseline variables across eGFR categories were calculated using analysis of variance and logistic regression as appropriate. Linear and multivariable regression models were used to estimate the annual change in eGFR for changes in FBC indices and LFTs. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for developing renal outcome for changes in baseline FBC indices and LFTs.<br><br><b>Results:</b>Of 547 participants, 540 had at least one baseline measure of LFTs and FBC indices. The mean age was 46.1 (14.7) years and 63.6% were female. The median follow-up was 3.1 (IQR 2.8-3.6) years. Annual decline in eGFR was associated with low serum albumin (p?<?0.001) and haemoglobin (p?=?0.007). After adjustment for age, gender, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, diabetes, BMI, CRP, WHR, alcohol consumption, cholesterol and triglycerides, low serum albumin (p?<?0.001), haemoglobin (p?=?0.012) and bilirubin (p?=?0.011) were associated with annual decline in eGFR. Renal outcomes were inversely associated with serum albumin (p?<?0.001), bilirubin (p?=?0.012) and haemoglobin (p?<?0.001) and directly with GGT (p?=?0.007) and ALP (p?<?0.001). Other FBC indices and LFTs were not associated with annual decline in eGFR or renal outcomes.<br><br><b>Conclusions:</b>GGT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin and haemoglobin independently associate with renal outcomes. Contrary to findings from other studies, no association was found between renal outcomes and other FBC indices. These findings may help focus strategies to prevent disease progression in this high-risk population.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) cluster as a risk factor for nicotine dependency and COPD. We investigated whether SNPs in the nAChR cluster are associated with smoking habits and lung function decline, and if these potential associations are independent of each other. The SNPs rs569207, rs1051730 and rs8034191 in the nAChR cluster were analyzed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 1,390) that was followed for 25 years. We used GEE and LME models to analyze the associations of the SNPs with quitting or restarting smoking and with the annual FEV(1) decline respectively. Individuals homozygote (CC) for rs569207 were more likely to quit smoking (OR (95%CI) = 1.58 (1.05-2.38)) compared to wild-type (TT) individuals. Individuals homozygote (TT) for rs1051730 were less likely to quit smoking (0.64 (0.42; 0.97)) compared to wild-type (CC) individuals. None of the SNPs was significantly associated with the annual FEV(1) decline in smokers and ex-smokers. We show that SNPs in the nAChR region are associated with smoking habits such as quitting smoking, but have no significant effect on the annual FEV(1) decline in smokers and ex-smokers, suggesting a potential role of these SNPs in COPD development via smoking habits rather than via direct effects on lung function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine which probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), -174G/C, in the promoter region of IL6. It was hypothesised that IL6 SNPs influence susceptibility for impaired lung function and COPD in smokers. METHODS:Seven and five SNPs in IL6 were genotyped in two nested case-control samples derived from the Lung Health Study (LHS) based on phenotypes of rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) over 5 years and baseline FEV(1) at the beginning of the LHS. Serum IL6 concentrations were measured for all subjects. A partially overlapping panel of nine IL6 SNPs was genotyped in 389 cases of COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) and 420 controls from the Normative Aging Study (NAS). RESULTS:In the LHS, three IL6 SNPs were associated with decline in FEV(1) (0.023< or =p< or =0.041 in additive models). Among them, the IL6_-174C allele was associated with a rapid decline in lung function. The association was more significant in a genotype-based analysis (p = 0.006). In the NETT-NAS study, IL6_-174G/C and four other IL6 SNPs, all of which are in linkage disequilibrium with IL6_-174G/C, were associated with susceptibility to COPD (0.01< or =p< or =0.04 in additive genetic models). CONCLUSION:The results suggest that the IL6_-174G/C SNP is associated with a rapid decline in FEV(1) and susceptibility to COPD in smokers.