Sentinel lymph node biopsy in bladder cancer: Systematic review and technology update.
ABSTRACT: A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND); its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog) models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100). The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56) with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity.
Project description:<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 100 cervical cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery with SLN biopsy were included. Indocyanine green, carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), and a combination of both were used during surgeries. Detection rates, sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV) of SLN biopsy, and related factors were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>The overall and bilateral SLN detection rates were 92% (92/100) and 74% (74/100), respectively. Combined tracers had higher bilateral SLN detection rates than CNPs alone (<i>p</i>=0.005). Menopause and lymph node metastasis were associated with lower overall and bilateral SLN detection rates (<i>p</i> < 0.05). SLN biopsy sensitivity and NPV for lymph node metastasis in patients with at least one detected SLN were 81.8% (9/11) and 97.3% (72/74), respectively. Among those with bilateral detected SLNs, higher sensitivity and NPV of 87.5% (7/8) and 98.3% (57/58) were observed, respectively. SLN algorithm can ensure that all patients with lymph node metastasis are detected by SLN biopsy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>SLN biopsy appears to be safe and effective for specific cervical cancer patients with high detection rates and NPV in laparoscopic surgery, especially for those with detected bilateral SLNs and undergoing the SLN algorithm. Selecting suitable patients for SLN mapping has prospects for clinical application.
Project description:To identify suitable diagnostic tools and evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for inguinal lymph node metastasis in vulvar cancer.Data from 41 patients with vulvar cancer were evaluated retrospectively, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements, SLN biopsy status, groin lymph node metastasis, and prognosis.SLN biopsy was conducted in 12 patients who had stage I to III disease. Groin lymphadenectomy was omitted in five of the nine patients with negative SLNs. All SLN-negative patients who did not undergo groin lymphadenectomy showed no evidence of disease after treatment. On MRI, the long and short diameters of the inguinal node were significantly longer in metastasis-positive cases, compared with negative cases, in 25 patients whose nodes were evaluated pathologically (long diameter, 12.8 mm vs. 8.8 mm, p=0.025; short diameter, 9.2 mm vs. 6.7 mm, p=0.041). The threshold of >10.0 mm for the long axis gave a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 70.6%, 58.3%, and 92.3%, respectively, using a binary classification test. Decision tree analysis revealed a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 87.5%, 70.6%, and 76.0%, respectively, with the threshold of >10.0 mm for the long axis on MRI. The criteria of >10.0 mm for the long axis on MRI predicted an advanced stage and poorer prognosis using a validation set of 15 cases (p=0.028).Minimally invasive surgery after preoperative evaluation on MRI and SLN biopsy is a feasible strategy for patients with vulvar cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy with technetium 99 (99mTc) and/or blue dye-enhanced lymphoscintigraphy in vulval cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Sensitive searches of databases were performed upto October 2013. Studies with at least 75% of women with FIGO stage IB or II vulval cancer evaluating SLN biopsy with 99mTc, blue dye or both with reference standard of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (IFL) or clinical follow-up were included. Meta-analyses were performed using Meta-Disc version 1.4.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 2950 references, 29 studies (1779 women) were included; most of them evaluated 99mTc combined with blue dye. Of these, 24 studies reported results for SLN followed by IFL, and 5 reported clinical follow-up only for SLN negatives. Pooling of all studies was inappropriate because of heterogeneity. Mean SLN detection rates were 94.0% for 99mTc, 68.7% for blue dye and 97.7% for both. SLN biopsy had pooled sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 92-98%) with negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.9% in studies using 99mTc/blue dye, ultrastaging and immunohistochemistry with IFL as reference. Pooled sensitivity for SLN with clinical follow-up for SLN-negatives was 91% (85-95%) with NPV 95.6%. Patients undergoing SLN biopsy experienced less morbidity than those undergoing IFL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sentinel lymph node biopsy using 99mTC, blue dye and ultrastaging with immunohistochemistry is highly accurate when restricted to carefully selected patients, within a rigorous protocol, with close follow-up and where sufficient numbers for learning curve optimisation exist. Patients must make an informed choice between the slightly higher groin recurrence rates of SLN biopsy vs the greater morbidity of IFL.
Project description:Lymph node status is the most important predictive factor in colorectal carcinoma. Recurrences occur in 20% of the patients without lymph node metastases. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a tool to facilitate identification of micrometastatic disease and aberrant lymphatic drainage. We studied the feasibility of in vivo SLN detection in a multi-centre setting and evaluated nodal micro-staging using immunohistochemistry (IHC).Sub-serosal injection with Patent Blue dye was used in the SLN procedure in 69 patients operated for localized colon cancer in six Dutch hospitals. Each SLN was examined with routine haematoxylin-eosin staining. In tumour-negative SLNs, we performed CK7/8 or 18 IHC.The procedure was successful in 67 of 69 patients (97%). The SLN was negative in 43 patients. In three cases, it was false negative, resulting in a negative predictive value of 93% and an accuracy of 96%. In 24 of 27 patients with lymph node metastases in a successful SLN procedure, the SLN was positive (sensitivity 89%). In 15 patients, the SLN was the only positive node (21%). In nine patients, we only found micrometastases or isolated tumour cells, resulting in 18% upstaging. Aberrant lymphatic drainage was seen in three patients (4%).The SLN procedure in localized colon carcinoma is reliable in a multi-centre setting. It is helpful to identify patients who would be classified as stage II with conventional staging (18%) and who might benefit from adjuvant treatment.
Project description:Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been proposed as an alternative to up-front elective neck dissection (END) for determination of pathologic nodal status in patients undergoing surgical treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with clinically negative neck (cN0). Sentinel lymph node biopsy using current standard tracer agents and imaging adjuncts such as radiolabeled sulfur-colloid and planar lymphoscintigraphy (LS), however, is associated with several drawbacks.To assess the preliminary utility of technetium Tc 99m (99mTc)-tilmanocept, a novel molecular imaging agent for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, in OSCC.Prospective, nonrandomized, single-arm, part of an ongoing phase 3 clinical trial. Patients had previously untreated, clinically and radiographically node-negative OSCC (T1-4aN0M0) at an academic tertiary referral center.Patients received a single dose of 50 µg 99mTc-tilmanocept injected peritumorally followed by dynamic planar LS and fused single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) prior to surgery. Surgical intervention consisted of excision of the primary tumor and radioguided SLN dissection followed by planned END. The excised lymph nodes (SLNs and non-SLNs) underwent histopathologic evaluation for presence of metastatic disease.False-negative rate and negative predictive value of SLNB using 99mTc-tilmanocept and comparison of planar LS with SPECT/CT in SLN localization.Twelve of 20 patients (60%) had metastatic neck disease on pathologic examination. All 12 had at least 1 SLN positive for metastases. No patients had a positive END node who did not have at least 1 positive SLN. These data yield a false-negative rate of 0% and negative predictive value of 100% using 99mTc-tilmanocept in this setting. Dynamic planar LS and SPECT/CT revealed a mean (range) number of hot spots per patient of 2.9 (1-7) and 3.7 (1-12), respectively. Compared with planar LS, SPECT/CT identified additional putative SLNs in 11 of 20 cases (55%).The high negative predictive value and low false-negative rate in identification of occult metastases shows 99mTc-tilmanocept to be a promising agent in SLN identification in patients with OSCC. Use of SPECT/CT improves preoperative SLN localization including delineation of SLN locations near the primary tumor when compared with planar LS imaging.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00911326.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>We determined the diagnostic performance of <sup>18</sup>F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography for detecting nodal metastases in patients with muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer before radical cystectomy.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Preoperative <sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scans (208) were retrospectively reviewed. Scans were routinely performed in 185 patients with muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer between August 2012 and February 2017, all of whom underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Analyses were stratified by clinical node involvement and chemotherapy status. The diagnostic performance of <sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography was assessed according to sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value.<h4>Results</h4>Lymph node metastases at time of pelvic lymph node dissection were present in 21.8% of those without suspicious nodes on computerized tomography (clinically node negative) and 52.6% of those with suspicious nodes on computerized tomography (clinically node positive). Median metastatic focus size was 5 mm. In clinically node negative cases <sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography rarely detected nodal metastases (sensitivity 7% to 23%). In clinically node positive cases negative <sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography was useful in ruling out lymph node metastases (sensitivity 92% to 100%). This study was limited by its mixed population and focus on pelvic nodal metastases only.<h4>Conclusions</h4><sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography appears to be most useful for better characterization of enlarged nodes identified by computerized tomography. Routine preoperative <sup>18</sup>F-FDG positron emission tomography/computerized tomography has limited utility in clinically node negative cases.
Project description:Patients with clinically node-positive breast cancer planned for neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NAST) may draw advantages from the nodal downstaging effect and reduce the extent of axillary surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) performed after NAST. Since there are concerns about lower sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection and higher false-negative rates (FNR) in this setting, our aim was to define the accuracy of SLNB after NAST.This Swedish national multicenter trial prospectively recruited 195 breast cancer patients from ten hospitals with T1-T4d biopsy-proven node-positive disease planned for NAST between October 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015. Clinically node-negative axillary status after NAST was not mandatory. SLNB was always attempted and followed by a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).The SLN identification rate was 77.9% (152/195) but improved to 80.7% (138/171) with dual mapping. The median number of SLNs was two (range 1-5). A positive SLNB was found in 52% (79/152), almost 66% (52/79) of whom had additional positive non-sentinel lymph nodes. The overall pathologic nodal response rate was 33.3% (66/195). The overall FNR was 14.1% (13/92) but decreased to 4% (2/50) when only patients with two or more sentinel nodes were analyzed.In biopsy-proven node-positive breast cancer, SLNB after NAST is feasible even though the identification rate is lower than in clinically node-negative patients. Since the overall FNR is unacceptably high, the omission of ALND should only be considered if two or more SLNs are identified.
Project description:<h4>Opinion statement</h4>As the use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NAST) increases, the optimal management of the axilla has become increasingly complex. Consensus among professional organizations is that those patients with clinically negative axillary nodes who are being considered for NAST should undergo a sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy following NAST. If a positive SLN is subsequently identified, an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is the current standard of care. For patients with clinically node-positive disease, SLN biopsy is a reasonable option for those with a good response to NAST. Patients should undergo SLN mapping with a dual dye technique. Additionally, at least 2 lymph nodes should be removed, including the previously biopsied and marked lymph node with cancer. In this setting, the identification and false negative rates are acceptable. Patients found to have a negative SLN at this time may be spared the morbidity associated with ALND. Patients found to have persistently positive lymph nodes following NAST, either clinically or pathologically, should undergo a complete ALND.
Project description:Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has become the standard of care for lymph node staging in melanoma and the most important predictor of survival in clinically node-negative disease. Previous guidelines recommend completion lymph node dissection (CLND) in cases of positive SLN; however, the lymph nodes recovered during CLND are only positive in a minority of these cases. Recent evidence suggests that conservative management (i.e. observation) has similar outcomes compared to CLND. We sought to review the most current literature regarding the management of SLN in metastatic melanoma and to discuss potential future directions.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To assess the rate of bilateral sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection with indocyanine green (ICG), to evaluate the sensitivity and the negative predictive value of cervical cancer patients undergoing open radical hysterectomy; to compare open versus minimally invasive SLN biopsy performance and to assess factors related to no/unilateral SLN mapping.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with FIGO 2018 stage IA1 with lymph-vascular space involvement to IIB and IIIC1p cervical carcinoma who underwent SLN mapping with ICG followed by systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy between 05/2017 and 06/2020. Patients were divided according to surgical approach for statistical analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Eighty-five patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven (31.8%) underwent open and 58 (68.2%) underwent minimally invasive SLN mapping. No difference in any SLN mapping (laparotomy 92.6% and minimally invasive 91.4%) or in SLN bilateral detection (laparotomy 72.0% and minimally invasive 84.9%) (p?=?0.850 and p?=?0.222, respectively), in median number of SLNs mapped and retrieved (2 in both groups, p?=?0.165) and in site of SLN mapping per hemi-pelvis (right side, p?=?0273 and left side, p?=?0.618) was evident between open and minimally invasive approach. Per-patient sensitivity of SLN biopsy in laparotomy was 83.3% (95% CI 35.9-99.6%) and the negative predictive value was 95.0% (95% CI 76.0-99.1%). No difference in per-patient sensitivity was noted between two approaches (p?=?0.300). None of the analyzed variables was associated with no/unilateral SLN mapping.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The use of ICG to detect SLN in cervical cancer treated with open surgery allows a bilateral detection, sensitivity and negative predictive value comparable to minimally invasive surgery with potential advantages of ICG compared to other tracers.