In-line Filtration Decreases Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Renal and Hematologic Dysfunction in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients.
ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently leads to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with concomitant organ malfunction. Infused particles may exacerbate inflammatory syndromes since they activate the coagulation cascade and alter inflammatory response or microvascular perfusion. In a randomized, controlled, prospective trial, we have previously shown that particle-retentive in-line filtration prevented major complications in critically ill children. Now, we investigated the effect of in-line filtration on major complications in the subgroup of cardiac patients. Children admitted to tertiary pediatric intensive care unit were randomized to either control or filter group obtaining in-line filtration throughout complete infusion therapy. Risk differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of several complications such as SIRS, sepsis, mortality, various organ failure and dysfunction were compared between both groups using the Wald method. 305 children (n = 150 control, n = 155 filter group) with cardiac diseases were finally analyzed. The majority was admitted after cardiac surgery with CPB. Risk of SIRS (-11.3 %; 95 % CI -21.8 to -0.5 %), renal (-10.0 %; 95 % CI -17.0 to -3.0 %) and hematologic (-8.1 %; 95 % CI -14.2 to -0.2 %) dysfunction were significantly decreased within the filter group. No risk differences were demonstrated for occurrence of sepsis, any other organ failure or dysfunctions between both groups. Infused particles might aggravate a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with subsequent organ malfunction in pediatric cardiac intensive care patients. Particle-retentive in-line filtration might be effective in preventing SIRS and maintaining renal and hematologic function. In-line filtration offers a novel therapeutic option to decrease morbidity in cardiac intensive care.
Project description:PURPOSE:Particulate contamination due to infusion therapy carries a potential health risk for intensive care patients. METHODS:This single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of filtration of intravenous fluids on the reduction of complications in critically ill children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A total of 807 subjects were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 406) or filter group (n = 401), with the latter receiving in-line filtration. The primary endpoint was reduction in the rate of overall complications, which included the occurrence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, organ failure (circulation, lung, liver, kidney) and thrombosis. Secondary objectives were a reduction in the length of stay on the PICU and overall hospital stay. Duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality were also analyzed. FINDINGS:Analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall complication rate (n = 166 [40.9 %] vs. n = 124 [30.9 %]; P = 0.003) for the filter group. In particular, the incidence of SIRS was significantly lower (n = 123 [30.3 %] vs. n = 90 [22.4 %]; P = 0.01). Moreover the length of stay on PICU (3.89 [95 % confidence interval 2.97-4.82] vs. 2.98 [2.33-3.64]; P = 0.025) and duration of mechanical ventilation (14.0 [5.6-22.4] vs. 11.0 [7.1-14.9] h; P = 0.028) were significantly reduced. CONCLUSION:In-line filtration is able to avert severe complications in critically ill patients. The overall complication rate during the PICU stay among the filter group was significantly reduced. In-line filtration was effective in reducing the occurrence of SIRS. We therefore conclude that in-line filtration improves the safety of intensive care therapy and represents a preventive strategy that results in a significant reduction of the length of stay in the PICU and duration of mechanical ventilation (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00209768).
Project description:Infused particles induce thrombogenesis, impair microcirculation and modulate immune response. We have previously shown in critically ill children, that particle-retentive in-line filtration reduced the overall complication rate of severe events, length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. We now evaluated the influence of in-line filtration on different organ function and thereby elucidated the potential underlying pathophysiological effects of particle infusion.In this single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial 807 critically ill children were assigned to either control (n = 406) or filter group (n = 401), the latter receiving in-line filtration for complete infusion therapy. Both groups were compared regarding the differences of incidence rates and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of different organ dysfunction as defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 2005.The incidence rates of respiratory (-5.06%; 95% CI, -9.52 to -0.59%), renal (-3.87%; 95% CI, -7.58 to -0.15%) and hematologic (-3.89%; 95% CI, -7.26 to -0.51%) dysfunction were decreased in the filter group. No difference was demonstrated for the occurrence rates of cardiovascular, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction between both groups.In-line filtration has beneficial effects on the preservation of hematologic, renal and respiratory function in critically ill patients. The presented clinical data further support our hypothesis regarding potential harmful effects of particles. In critically ill patients infused particles may lead to further deterioration of the microcirculation, induce a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with consecutive negative effects on organ function.ClinicalTrials.gov number; NCT00209768.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a commonly used technique in cardiac surgery. CPB is however associated with a strong induction of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which in conjunction with ischemia and reperfusion may lead to multiple organ failure. The aim of the study was to establish and characterize a CPB rat model incorporating deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with a specific focus on the extent of the inflammatory reactions and organ damage as a groundwork for novel therapeutics against SIRS and I/R induced organ injury.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Male Wistar rats (n?=?6) were cannulated for CPB, connected to a heart-lung-machine (HLM) and cooled to a temperature of 16°C before they underwent 45 minutes of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with global ischaemia. Arrest was followed by rewarming and 60 minutes of reperfusion. Haemodynamic and vital parameters were recorded throughout the CPB procedure. Only animals displaying sinus rhythm throughout reperfusion were utilized for analysis. Rats were euthanized and tissue samples were harvested. Blood gas analysis was performed and blood samples were taken. Induction of organ damage was examined by analysis of protein levels and phosphorylation status of kinases and stress proteins. Results were compared to animals (n?=?6) which did not undergo CPB.<h4>Results</h4>CPB induced leucocytosis and an increase of interleukin-6 and TNF-? plasma values indicating an inflammatory response. Markers of tissue damage and dysfunction, such as troponin T, creatinine and AST were elevated. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was induced in all examined organs. Activation of MAPK and induction of heat shock proteins occurred in an organ-specific manner with most pronounced effects in heart, lungs and kidneys.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The presented CPB rat model shows the induction of SIRS and activation of specific signalling cascades. SIRS seems not to be provoked during DHCA and is elicited mainly during reperfusion. This model might be suitable to test the efficacy of therapeutics applied in major heart surgery with and without DHCA.
Project description:Virus filtration is a key clearance unit operation in the manufacture of recombinant protein, monoclonal antibody, and plasma-derived biopharmaceuticals. Recently, a consensus has developed among filter manufacturers and end users about the desirability of a common nomenclature and a standardized test for classifying and identifying virus-retentive filters. The Parenteral Drug Association virus filter task force has chosen PR772 as the model bacteriophage to standardize nomenclature for large-pore-size virus-retentive filters (filters designed to retain viruses larger than 50 to 60 nm in size). Previously, the coliphage PR772 (Tectiviridae family) has been used in some filtration studies as a surrogate for mammalian viruses of around 50 to 60 nm. In this report, we describe specific properties of PR772 critical to the support of its use for the standardization of virus filters. The complete genomic sequence of virulent phage PR772 was determined. Its genome contains 14,946 bp with an overall G+C content of 48.3 mol%, and 32 open reading frames of at least 40 codons. Comparison of the PR772 nucleotide sequence with the genome of Tectiviridae family prototype phage PRD1 revealed 97.2% identity at the DNA level. By dynamic light-scattering analysis, its hydrodynamic diameter was measured as 82 +/- 6 nm, consistent with use in testing large-virus-retentive filters. Finally, dynamic light-scattering analysis of PR772 preparations purified on CsCl gradients showed that the phage preparations are largely monodispersed. In summary, PR772 appears to be an appropriate model bacteriophage for standardization of nomenclature for larger-pore-size virus-retentive filters.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In critically ill children, in-line microfilters may reduce the incidence of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), the overall complication and organ dysfunction rate. No data on the use of in-line microfilters exist in critically ill adults. METHODS:In this prospective, randomized, controlled open-label study, we evaluated the influence of in-line microfilters on systemic immune activation in 504 critically ill adults with a central venous catheter in place and an expected length of stay in the intensive care unit >24 h. Patients were randomized to have in-line microfilters placed into all intravenous lines (intervention group) or usual care (control group). The primary endpoint was the number of intensive care unit days with SIRS. Secondary endpoints were the incidence of SIRS, SIRS criteria per day, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay, the incidence of acute lung injury, maximum C-reactive protein, maximum white blood cell count, incidence of new candida and/or central-line-associated bloodstream infections, incidence of new thromboembolic complications, cumulative insulin requirements and presence of hyper- or hypoglycemia. RESULTS:The study groups did not differ in any baseline variable. There was no difference in the number of days in the intensive care unit with SIRS between microfilter and control patients [2 (0.8-4.7) vs. 1.8 (0.7-4.4), p = 0.62]. Except for a higher incidence of SIRS in microfilter patients (99.6 vs. 96.8 %, p = 0.04), no difference between the groups was observed in any secondary outcome parameter. Results did not change when only patients with an intensive care unit length of stay of greater than 7 days were included in the analysis. The rate of adverse events was comparable between microfilter and control patients. In two patients allocated to the microfilter group, the study intervention was discontinued for technical reasons. Use of in-line microfilters was associated with additional costs. CONCLUSIONS:The use of in-line microfilters failed to modulate systemic inflammation and clinical outcome parameters in critically ill adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials NCT01534390.
Project description:Five to thirty percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery present with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have a 2- to 10-fold higher 30-day mortality risk. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) creates a whole body systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that could impair pulmonary function. Impaired pulmonary function can, however, be attenuated by pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) solution.The Pulmonary Protection Trial (PP-Trial) randomizes 90 patients undergoing CPB-dependent cardiac surgery to evaluate whether pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution reduces postoperative pulmonary dysfunction in COPD patients. Further, we aim for a non-randomized evaluation of postoperative pulmonary function after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI). The primary outcome measure is the oxygenation index measured from anesthesia induction to the end of surgery and until 24 hours after anesthesia induction for a total of six evaluations.Patients with COPD may be impaired by hypoxemia and SIRS. Thus, prolonged recovery and even postoperative complications and death may be reflected by the degree of hypoxemia and SIRS. The limited sample size does not aim for confirmatory conclusions on mortality, cardiovascular complications or risk of pneumonia and sepsis, but the PP-Trial is considered an important feasibility trial paving the road for a multicenter confirmatory trial.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01614951.
Project description:Surgical correction of congenital cardiac malformations or aortocoronary bypass surgery in many cases implies the use of cardiopulmonary-bypass (CPB). However, a possible negative impact of CPB on internal organs such as brain, kidney, lung and liver cannot be neglected. In general, CPB initiates a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) which is presumably caused by contact of blood components with the surface of CPB tubing. Moreover, during CPB the heart typically undergoes a period of cold ischemia, and the other peripheral organs a global low flow hypoperfusion. As a result, a plethora of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines is released activating different biochemical pathways, which finally may result in the occurrence of microthrombosis, microemboli, in depletion of coagulation factors and haemorrhagic diathesis besides typical ischemia-reperfusion injuries. In our review we will focus on possible pharmacological interventions in patients to decrease negative effects of CPB and to improve post-operative outcome with regard to heart and other organs like brain, kidney, or lung.
Project description:The objective of the present study was to investigate whether lymphopenia occurring after heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is related to apoptosis and or sepsis in children. The design was a prospective cohort study in a third level care hospital in Mexico City. In total, 68 children (31 girls and 37 boys) with congenital cardiopathy who needed corrective cardiac surgery with or without CPB were included. The samples were obtained from central blood before, immediately after and 24 h after surgery. Complete blood counts and lymphocyte apoptosis were analyzed. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis and the type of microorganism were recorded. A total of 53 patients received CPB and 15 did not. Lymphocyte count decreased after surgery in both groups (P<0.001). However, neutrophil count increased markedly in both groups. Apoptosis of B (CD19+) lymphocytes was higher in the non-CPB group (14, 2 and 21% before, immediately after and 24 h after surgery, respectively) than the CPB group (0, 2 and 3%, respectively), but apoptosis of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+) was higher in the CPB group (5, 4 and 3% before, immediately after and 24 h after surgery, respectively) than in the non-CPB group (2, 3 and 2%, respectively). However, the extent of apoptosis of T and B lymphocytes after surgery did not differ between groups. The CPB group had more complications than the non-CPB group [38 (71.7%) vs. 9 (60.0%)]. In conclusion, the decrease in lymphocyte count may be related to apoptosis of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in children receiving cardiac surgery with CPB and to apoptosis of B lymphocytes in those not receiving CPB. The decreased lymphocyte counts in both groups suggested that CPB is not the main cause of this decrease. Children who received CPB during surgery had more complications, such as sepsis and cardiogenic shock than did those who did not receive CPB.
Project description:Pulmonary function frequently deteriorates after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases risk of respiratory complications after CPB. Cysteinyl leukotrienes are important mediators of respiratory dysfunction. Their role during cardiac surgery and its lung complications is incompletely understood. We studied whether production of cysteinyl leukotrienes changes during and after cardiac surgery with CPB and differs between patients with and without COPD.Patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 10) moderate-to-severe COPD undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB were prospectively included. Plasma and urinary cysteinyl leukotriene and leukotriene B(4) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after anesthesia induction, at end of CPB, after CPB, and 2 hours after intensive care unit admission. Gas exchange and respiratory mechanics were also assessed.Patients with COPD had larger airway resistances after CPB and chest closure (P < .001), lower ratio of arterial Po(2) to inspired oxygen fraction at intensive care unit admission (215 ± 37 vs 328 ± 30 mm Hg, P < .05), and longer postoperative mechanical ventilation (13.7 ± 5.8 vs 6.8 ± 3.4 hours, P < .01). Urinary cysteinyl leukotriene concentrations increased with time in both groups (P < .01), but more in patients with than without COPD (P < .05). Plasma cysteinyl leukotriene concentrations increased significantly between baseline and intensive care unit admission in patients with but not without COPD (P < .01). Concentrations of leukotriene B(4) in plasma and urine did not increase significantly with time and were not different between groups.Release of cysteinyl leukotrienes increases during cardiac surgery with CPB and is larger in patients with than without COPD. This may be related to higher lung and airway production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and neutrophil activation in patients with COPD.
Project description:Congenital heart disease (CHD) often requires surgical intervention, and is sometimes associated with life-threatening post-operative complications. We have investigated some factors of the innate immune system involved in the initiation or regulation of complement lectin pathway activation (MASP-1, MASP-2 MASP-3, MAp19, MAp44, ficolin-3) and related them to complications and prognosis in 190 pediatric patients undergoing CHD repair with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Patients with MAp44 levels ≤1.81 µg/ml more frequently experienced low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS), renal insufficiency, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiorgan dysfunction (MODS). Low MASP-3 (≤5.18 µg/ml) and high MASP-1 (≥11.7 µg/ml) levels were often associated with fatal outcome. Low ficolin-3 concentrations (≤10.1 µg/ml) were more common among patients experiencing SIRS and MODS than in those without complications. However, patients suffering from SIRS and MODS with low ficolin-3 had a much better prognosis (91% survival vs. 37% among other patients; p = 0.007). A discriminating value of 12.7 µg/ml ficolin-3 yielded 8% vs. 60% mortality (p = 0.001). Our data extend the knowledge concerning involvement of proteins of the lectin pathway in development of post-CPB complications. The potential prognostic value of low preoperative MAp44 and high preoperative ficolin-3 seems promising and warrants independent confirmation.