Ubiquitination of CD86 is a key mechanism in regulating antigen presentation by dendritic cells.
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) require costimulatory molecules such as CD86 to efficiently activate T cells for the induction of adaptive immunity. DCs maintain minimal levels of CD86 expression at rest, but upregulate levels upon LPS stimulation. LPS-stimulated DCs produce the immune suppressive cytokine IL-10 that acts in an autocrine manner to regulate CD86 levels. Interestingly, the underlying molecular mechanism behind the tight control of CD86 is not completely understood. In this study, we report that CD86 is ubiquitinated in DCs via MARCH1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and that this ubiquitination plays a key role in CD86 regulation. Ubiquitination at lysine 267 played the most critical role for this regulation. CD86 is ubiquitinated in MARCH1-deficient DCs to a much lesser degree than in wild-type DCs, which also correlated with a significant increase in CD86 expression. Importantly, CD86 is continuously ubiquitinated in DCs following activation by LPS, and this was due to the autocrine IL-10 inhibition of MARCH1 downregulation. Accordingly, DCs lacking MARCH1 and DCs expressing ubiquitination-resistant mutant CD86 both failed to regulate CD86 in response to autocrine IL-10. DCs expressing ubiquitination-resistant mutant CD86 failed to control their T cell-activating abilities at rest as well as in response to autocrine IL-10. These studies suggest that ubiquitination serves as an important mechanism by which DCs control CD86 expression and regulate their Ag-presenting functions.
Project description:Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) are critically important for the maintenance of immunological tolerance, immune homeostasis, and prevention of autoimmunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the major targets of Treg-mediated suppression. Some studies have suggested that Treg-mediated suppression of DC function is mediated by the interaction of CTLA-4 on Tregs with CD80/CD86 on the DCs resulting in downregulation of CD80/CD86 expression and a decrease in costimulation. We have re-examined the effects of Tregs on mouse DC function in a model in which Ag-specific, induced Tregs (iTregs) are cocultured with DCs in the absence of T effector cells. iTreg-treated DCs are markedly defective in their capacity to activate naive T cells. iTregs from CTLA-4-deficient mice failed to induce downregulation of CD80/CD86, but DCs treated with CTLA-4-deficient iTregs still exhibited impaired capacity to activate naive T cells. The iTreg-induced defect in DC function could be completely reversed by anti-IL-10, and IL-10-deficient iTregs failed to downregulate DC function. iTreg-treated DCs expressed high levels of MARCH1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, recently found to degrade CD86 and MHC class II on the DCs and expressed lower levels of CD83, a molecule involved in neutralizing the function of MARCH1. Both the enhanced expression of MARCH1 and the decreased expression of CD83 were mediated by IL-10 produced by the iTregs. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that a major suppressive mechanism of DC function by iTregs is secondary to the effects of IL-10 on MARCH1 and CD83 expression.
Project description:The activation of naïve T cells requires antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), and the process of antigen presentation is regulated over the course of DC maturation. One key aspect of this regulation is the cell surface up-regulation upon DC maturation of peptide·MHC-II complexes and the costimulatory molecule CD86. It is now clear that these critical induction events involve changes in ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of MHC-II and CD86 by the E3 ligase membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (MARCH1). Although ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of MHC-II has been well characterized, much less is known regarding the post-transcriptional regulation of CD86 expression. Here, we examined the physical and functional interaction between CD86 and MARCH1. We observed that CD86 is rapidly endocytosed in the presence of MARCH1 followed by lysosome-dependent degradation. Furthermore, we found that the association between CD86 and MARCH1 was conferred primarily by the transmembrane domains of the respective proteins. In contrast to MHC-II, which has a single, conserved ubiquitin acceptor site in the cytosolic domain, we found that multiple lysine residues in the cytosolic tail of CD86 could support ubiquitination consistent with the relative lack of sequence conservation across species within the CD86 cytosolic domain. These findings suggest that MARCH1 recruits multiple substrates via transmembrane domain-mediated interactions to permit substrate ubiquitination in the face of diverse cytosolic domain sequences.
Project description:Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression and turn-over are regulated via its ubiquitination by the membrane associated RING-CH 1 (MARCH1) E3 ligase. Unexpectedly, we show that MHC II ubiquitination also impacts MHC I. Lack of MARCH1 in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) resulted in a significant reduction in surface MHC I expression. This decrease was not directly caused by changes in MARCH1 ubiquitination of MHC I but indirectly by altered MHC II trafficking in the absence of its ubiquitination. Deletion of MHC II in March1-/- cells restored normal MHC I surface expression and replacement of wild type MHC II by a variant that could not be ubiquitinated caused a reduction in MHC I expression. Furthermore, these cells displayed inefficient presentation of peptide and protein antigen via MHC I to CD8+ T cells. In summary, we describe an unexpected intersection between MHC I and MHC II such that the surface expression of both molecules are indirectly and directly regulated by MARCH1 ubiquitination, respectively.
Project description:Membrane-associated RING-CH1 (MARCH1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates ubiquitination of MHCII in dendritic cells (DCs). MARCH1-mediated MHCII ubiquitination in DCs is known to regulate MHCII surface expression, thereby controlling DC-mediated T cell activation in vitro. However, its role at steady state or in vivo is not clearly understood. Here, we show that MARCH1 deficiency resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of thymus-derived regulatory T cells (T reg cells) in mice. A specific ablation of MHCII ubiquitination also significantly reduced the number of thymic T reg cells. Indeed, DCs deficient in MARCH1 or MHCII ubiquitination both failed to generate antigen-specific T reg cells in vivo and in vitro, although both exhibited an increased capacity for antigen presentation in parallel with the increased surface MHCII. Thus, MARCH1-mediated MHCII ubiquitination in DCs is required for proper production of naturally occurring T reg cells, suggesting a role in balancing immunogenic and regulatory T cell development.
Project description:Type I IFNs are key mediators of immune defense against viruses and bacteria. Type I IFNs were also previously implicated in protection against fungal infection, but their roles in antifungal immunity have not been thoroughly investigated. A recent study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal ?-glucans stimulate IFN-? production by dendritic cells (DCs) following detection by the Dectin-1 receptor, but the effects of ?-glucan-induced type I IFNs have not been defined. We investigated whether type I IFNs regulate CD8 T cell activation by fungal ?-glucan particle-stimulated DCs. We demonstrate that ?-glucan-stimulated DCs induce CD8 T cell proliferation, activation marker (CD44 and CD69) expression, and production of IFN-?, IL-2, and granzyme B. Moreover, we show that type I IFNs support robust CD8 T cell activation (proliferation and IFN-? and granzyme B production) by ?-glucan-stimulated DCs in vitro and in vivo due to autocrine effects on the DCs. Specifically, type I IFNs promote Ag presentation on MHC I molecules, CD86 and CD40 expression, and the production of IL-12 p70, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-? by ?-glucan-stimulated DCs. We also demonstrate a role for autocrine type I IFN signaling in bacterial LPS-induced DC maturation, although, in the context of LPS stimulation, this mechanism is not so critical for CD8 T cell activation (promotes IFN-? production but not proliferation or granzyme B production). This study provides insight into the mechanisms underlying CD8 T cell activation during infection, which may be useful in the rational design of vaccines directed against pathogens and tumors.
Project description:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression in dendritic cells (DCs). We show here that 2 signaling pathways downstream of PI3K, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), differentially regulate the expression of IL-12 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, enhanced IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated DCs, whereas the activation of mTOR by lentivirus-mediated transduction of a constitutively active form of Rheb suppressed the production of IL-12. The inhibition of protein secretion or deletion of IL-10 cancelled the effect of rapamycin, indicating that mTOR regulates IL-12 expression through an autocrine action of IL-10. In contrast, GSK3 positively regulates IL-12 production through an IL-10-independent pathway. Rapamycin-treated DCs enhanced Th1 induction in vitro compared with untreated DCs. LiCl, an inhibitor of GSK3, suppressed a Th1 response on Leishmania major infection in vivo. These results suggest that mTOR and GSK3 pathways regulate the Th1/Th2 balance though the regulation of IL-12 expression in DCs. The signaling pathway downstream of PI3K would be a good target to modulate the Th1/Th2 balance in immune responses in vivo.
Project description:Within APCs, ubiquitination regulates the trafficking of immune modulators such as MHC class II and CD86 (B7.2) molecules. MARCH1 (membrane-associated RING-CH), a newly identified ubiquitin E3 ligase expressed in APCs, ubiquitinates MHC class II, thereby reducing its surface expression. Following LPS-induced maturation of dendritic cells, MARCH1 mRNA is down-regulated and MHC class II is redistributed to the cell surface from endosomal compartments. Here, we show that MARCH1 expression is also regulated at the posttranscriptional level. In primary dendritic cell and APC cell lines of murine origin, MARCH1 had a half-life of <30 min. MARCH1 degradation appears to occur partly in lysosomes, since inhibiting lysosomal activity stabilized MARCH1. Similar stabilization was observed when MARCH1-expressing cells were treated with cysteine protease inhibitors. Mutational analyses of MARCH1 defined discrete domains required for destabilization, proper localization, and functional interaction with substrates. Taken together, these data suggest that MARCH1 expression is regulated at a posttranscriptional level by trafficking within the endolysosomal pathway where MARCH1 is proteolyzed. The short half-life of MARCH1 permits very rapid changes in the levels of the protein in response to changes in the mRNA, resulting in efficient induction of Ag presentation once APCs receive maturational signals.
Project description:IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine interfering with antigen presentation by inducing the intracellular sequestration of MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules. Here we studied the contribution of membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) ubiquitin ligase family members to the IL-10-induced down-regulation of MHC-II molecules. We found that MARCH1 and MARCH8 proteins are the most potent family members for the down-regulation of MHC-II surface expression in transfected cells, but only MARCH1 mRNA expression is strongly induced by IL-10 in human primary monocytes. We detected mono- and poly-ubiquitinated forms of MHC-II molecules both in IL-10-treated monocytes and in cells transfected with MARCH1. We also show direct interaction between MHC-II and MARCH1 molecules in co-immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of MARCH1 reverses IL-10-induced MHC-II down-regulation in primary monocytes. Thus, the immunosuppressive effect of IL-10 on antigen presentation is mediated through induced expression of MARCH1.
Project description:Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is required to induce T cell immunity, whereas immature DCs can induce immune tolerance. Although the transcription factor STAT5 is suggested to participate in DC maturation, its role in this process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of STAT5 inhibition on LPS-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs). We inhibited STAT5 by treating Mo-DCs with JQ1, a selective inhibitor of BET epigenetic readers, which can suppress STAT5 function. We found that JQ1 inhibits LPS-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation, thereby attenuating its transcriptional activity in Mo-DCs. The diminished STAT5 activity results in impaired maturation of Mo-DCs, as indicated by defective upregulation of costimulatory molecules and CD83, as well as reduced secretion of IL-12p70. Expression of constitutively activated STAT5 in JQ1-treated Mo-DCs overcomes the effects of JQ1 and enhances the expression of CD86, CD83, and IL-12. The activation of STAT5 in Mo-DCs is mediated by GM-CSF produced following LPS stimulation. Activated STAT5 then leads to increased expression of both GM-CSF and GM-CSFR, triggering an autocrine loop that further enhances STAT5 signaling and enabling Mo-DCs to acquire a more mature phenotype. JQ1 decreases the ability of Mo-DCs to induce allogeneic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, JQ1 leads to a reduced generation of inflammatory CD8(+) T cells and decreased Th1 differentiation. Thus, JQ1 impairs LPS-induced Mo-DC maturation by inhibiting STAT5 activity, thereby generating cells that can only weakly stimulate an adaptive-immune response. Therefore, JQ1 could have beneficial effects in treating T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infects the human gastric mucosa causing a chronic infection that is the primary risk factor for gastric cancer development. Recent studies demonstrate that H. pylori promotes tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) development indicating that this bacterium evades the host immune response. However, the signaling pathways involved in modulating DC activation during infection remain unclear. Here, we report that H. pylori infection activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and splenic DCs isolated ex vivo. Isogenic cagA-, cagE-, vacA- and urease-mutants exhibited levels of phosphoSTAT3 that were comparable to in the wild-type (WT) parent strain. H. pylori-infected BMDCs produced increased immunosuppressive IL-10, which activated STAT3 in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Neutralization of IL-10 prevented H. pylori-mediated STAT3 activation in both BMDCs and splenic DCs. In addition, anti-IL-10 treatment of infected H. pylori-BMDCs was associated with increased CD86 and MHC II expression and enhanced proinflammatory IL-1? cytokine secretion. Finally, increased CD86 and MHC II expression was detected in H. pylori-infected STAT3 knockout DCs when compared to WT controls. Together, these results demonstrate that H. pylori infection induces IL-10 secretion in DCs, which activates STAT3, thereby modulating DC maturation and reducing IL-1? secretion. These findings identify a host molecular mechanism by which H. pylori can manipulate the innate immune response to potentially favor chronic infection and promote carcinogenesis.