Dual inhibition of HDAC and EGFR signaling with CUDC-101 induces potent suppression of tumor growth and metastasis in anaplastic thyroid cancer.
ABSTRACT: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human malignancies that currently has no effective therapy. We performed quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) in three ATC cell lines using 3,282 clinically approved drugs and drug candidates, and identified 100 active agents. Enrichment analysis of active compounds showed that inhibitors of EGFR and histone deacetylase (HDAC) were most active. Of these, the first-in-class dual inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 and HDACs, CUDC-101, had the highest efficacy and lower IC50 than established drugs. We validated that CUDC-101 inhibited cellular proliferation and resulted in cell death by inducing cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. CUDC-101 also inhibited cellular migration in vitro. Mechanistically, CUDC-101 inhibited MAPK signaling and histone deacetylation in ATC cell lines with multiple driver mutations present in human ATC. The anticancer effect of CUDC-101 was associated with increased expression of p21 and E-cadherin, and reduced expression of survivin, XIAP, ?-catenin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin. In an in vivo mouse model of metastatic ATC, CUDC-101 inhibited tumor growth and metastases, and significantly prolonged survival. Response to CUDC-101 treatment in vivo was associated with increased histone 3 acetylation and reduced survivin expression. Our findings provide a preclinical basis to evaluate CUDC-101 therapy in ATC.
Project description:Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, with no effective treatment currently available. Previously, we identified agents active against ATC cells, both in vitro and in vivo, using quantitative high-throughput screening of 3282 clinically approved drugs and small molecules. Here, we report that combining two of these active agents, carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, and CUDC-101, a histone deacetylase and multi-kinase inhibitor, results in increased, synergistic activity in ATC cells. The combination of carfilzomib and CUDC-101 synergistically inhibited cellular proliferation and caused cell death in multiple ATC cell lines harboring various driver mutations observed in human ATC tumors. This increased anti-ATC effect was associated with a synergistically enhanced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased caspase 3/7 activity induced by the drug combination. Mechanistically, treatment with carfilzomib and CUDC-101 increased p21 expression and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein cleavage. Our results suggest that combining carfilzomib and CUDC-101 would offer an effective therapeutic strategy to treat ATC.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis. New treatment options are urgently required to improve patient outcomes. One promising new class of anticancer drugs are synthetic histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) which modulate chromatin structure and gene expression by blocking histone deacetylation. In this study, we aimed at comparing the in vitro capacities of the HDACi SAHA and CUDC-101 to increase radiosensitivity of human pancreatic tumor cell lines. Therefore, three pancreatic cancer cell lines (Su.86.86, MIA Paca-2, T3M-4) were treated with SAHA (1.5-5 µM) or CUDC-101 (0.25-3 µM) and after 24 h irradiated. Cell proliferation, clonogenic survival and apoptosis was determined. Additionally, cell lysates were investigated for the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. CUDC-101 and SAHA increased the radiation sensitivity of pancreatic tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. This was evidenced by cell proliferation and clonogenic survival. Furthermore, enhanced radiation sensitivity after CUDC-101 or SAHA treatment was confirmed for Su.86.86 and T3M-4 cells in a 3-D microtissue approach. Increased amounts of subG1 cells and diminished full length PARP-1 suggest increased radiation-induced apoptosis after SAHA or CUDC-101 treatment. The comparison of both inhibitors in these assays manifested CUDC-101 as more potent radiosensitizer than SAHA. In line, western blot quantification of the apoptosis-inhibitory proteins XIAP and survivin showed a stronger down-regulation in response to CUDC-101 treatment than after SAHA application. These proteins may contribute to the synergy between HDAC inhibition and radiation response. In conclusion, these preclinical results suggest that treatment with the HDAC inhibitors CUDC-101 or SAHA can enhance radiation-induced cytotoxicity in human pancreatic cells. However, comparison of both inhibitors identified the multi target inhibitor CUDC-101 as more potent radiosensitizer than the HDAC inhibitor SAHA.
Project description:PURPOSE:CUDC-101 is a small molecule that simultaneously inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and histone deacetylase (HDAC) with preclinical activity in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CUDC-101 with cisplatin-radiotherapy in the treatment of HNSCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:CUDC-101 monotherapy was administered intravenously three times weekly (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for a one-week run-in, then continued with concurrent cisplatin (100 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks) and external beam radiation (70 Gy to gross disease) over 7 weeks. RESULTS:Twelve patients with intermediate or high-risk HNSCC enrolled. Eleven were p16INKa (p16)-negative. The MTD of CUDC-101-based combination therapy was established at 275 mg/m(2)/dose. Five patients discontinued CUDC-101 due to an adverse event (AE); only one was considered a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), at the MTD. Pharmacokinetic evaluation suggested low accumulation with this dosing regimen. HDAC inhibition was demonstrated by pharmacodynamic analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), tumor biopsies, and paired skin biopsies. Paired tumor biopsies demonstrated a trend of EGFR inhibition. At 1.5 years of median follow-up, there has been one recurrence and two patient deaths (neither attributed to CUDC-101). The remaining nine patients are free of progression. CONCLUSIONS:CUDC-101, cisplatin, and radiation were feasible in intermediate-/high-risk patients with HNSCC, with no unexpected patterns of AE. Although the MTD was identified, a high rate of DLT-independent discontinuation of CUDC-101 suggests a need for alternate schedules or routes of administration.
Project description:PURPOSE:Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but lethal malignancy without any effective therapy. The aim of this study is to use a high-throughput drug library screening to identify a novel therapeutic agent that targets dysregulated genes/pathways in ATC. EXPERIMENTALDESIGN:We performed quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) in ATC cell lines using a compound library of 3,282 drugs. Dysregulated genes in ATC were analyzed using genome-wide expression analysis and immunohistochemistry in human ATC tissue samples and ATC cell lines. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed for determining drug activity, effectiveness of targeting, and the mechanism of action. RESULTS:qHTS identified 100 active compounds in three ATC cell lines. One of the most active agents was the first-in-class survivin inhibitor YM155. Genome-wide expression analysis and immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of survivin in human ATC tissue samples, and survivin was highly expressed in all ATC cell lines tested. YM155 significantly inhibited ATC cellular proliferation. Mechanistically, YM155 inhibited survivin expression in ATC cells. Furthermore, YM155 treatment reduced claspin expression, which was associated with S-phase arrest in ATC cells. In vivo, YM155 significantly inhibited growth and metastases and prolonged survival. CONCLUSIONS:Our data show that YM155 is a promising anticancer agent for ATC and that its target, survivin, is overexpressed in ATC. Our findings support the use of YM155 in clinical trials as a therapeutic option in advanced and metastatic ATC.
Project description:Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent disease expected to cause the death of more than 27,000 Americans in 2015. There are only a few available treatments for CRPC, making the discovery of new drugs an urgent need. We report that CUDC-101 (an inhibitor od HER2/NEU, EGFR and HDAC) inhibits both the full length AR (flAR) and the AR variant AR-V7. This observation prompted experiments to discover which of the known activities of CUDC-101 is responsible for the inhibition of flAR/AR-V7 signaling. We used pharmacologic and genetic approaches, and found that the effect of CUDC-101 on flAR and AR-V7 was duplicated only by other HDAC inhibitors, or by silencing the HDAC isoforms HDAC5 and HDAC10. We observed that CUDC-101 treatment or AR-V7 silencing by RNAi equally reduced transcription of the AR-V7 target gene, PSA, without affecting viability of 22Rv1 cells. However, when cellular proliferation was used as an end point, CUDC-101 was more effective than AR-V7 silencing, raising the prospect that CUDC-101 has additional targets beside AR-V7. In support of this, we found that CUDC-101 increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, and decreased that of the oncogene HER2/NEU. To determine if CUDC-101 reduces growth in a xenograft model of prostate cancer, this drug was given for 14 days to castrated male SCID mice inoculated with 22Rv1 cells. Compared to vehicle, CUDC-101 reduced xenograft growth in a statistically significant way, and without macroscopic side effects. These studies demonstrate that CUDC-101 inhibits wtAR and AR-V7 activity and growth of 22Rv1 cells in vitro and in vivo. These effects result from the ability of CUDC-101 to target not only HDAC signaling, which was associated with decreased flAR and AR-V7 activity, but multiple additional oncogenic pathways. These observations raise the possibility that treatment of CRPC may be achieved by using similarly multi-targeted approaches.
Project description:Keloids are benign skin tumors with a high recurrence rate following surgical excision. Abnormal intracellular signaling is one of the key mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Over?activated phosphoinositide 3?kinase/RAC?alpha serine/threonine?protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway and overproduction of histone deacetylases 2 (HDAC2) have also been observed in keloid fibroblasts (KFs). The present study aimed to explore the possibility of reversing the KF pathological phenotype using CUDC?907, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and HDACs. KFs and keloid xenografts were treated with CUDC?907 to examine its inhibitory effects on the pathological activities of KFs in vitro and in vivo. CUDC?907 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and extracellular matrix deposition of in vitro cultured KFs and also suppressed collagen accumulation and disrupted the capillaries of keloid explants ex vivo and in vivo. A mechanistic study of CUDC?907 revealed the initiation of cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase along with the enhanced expression of cyclin?dependent kinase inhibitor 1 and decreased expression of cyclin B in cells treated with CUDC?907. CUDC?907 not only inhibited AKT and mTOR phosphorylation and promoted the acetylation of histone H3, but also significantly inhibited the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and Erk. These preclinical data demonstrating its anti?keloid effects suggest that CUDC?907 may represent a candidate drug for systemic keloid therapy.
Project description:CUDC-907, a dual PI3K/HDAC inhibitor, has been proposed to have therapeutic potential in hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms of its effects in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) remain elusive. We show that CLL cells are sensitive to CUDC-907, even under conditions similar to the protective microenvironment of proliferation centres. CUDC-907 inhibited PI3K/AKT and HDAC activity, as expected, but also suppressed RAF/MEK/ERK and STAT3 signalling and reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1. Moreover, CUDC-907 downregulated cytokines BAFF and APRIL and their receptors BAFFR, TACI, and BCMA, thus blocking BAFF-induced NF-?B signalling. T cell chemokines CCL3/4/17/22 and phosphorylation of CXCR4 were also reduced by CUDC-907. These data indicated that CUDC-907 abrogates different protective signals and suggested that it might sensitize CLL cells to other drugs. Indeed, combinations of low concentrations of CUDC-907 with inhibitors of BCL2, BTK, or the NF-?B pathway showed a potent synergistic effect. Our data indicate that, apart from its known functions, CUDC-907 blocks multiple pro-survival pathways to overcome microenvironment protection in CLL cells. This provides a rationale to evaluate the clinical relevance of CUDC-907 in combination therapies with other targeted inhibitors.
Project description:Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a highly malignant cancer that often involves a deregulation of c-Myc. It has been shown that c-Myc plays a pivotal role in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes and is involved in early neoplastic development, resulting in poor progression. Hence, suppression of c-Myc overexpression is a potential strategy for pancreatic cancer therapy. CUDC-907 is a novel dual-acting inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). It has shown potential efficiency in patients with lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or thyroid cancer, as well as in solid tumors with c-Myc alterations, but the evidence is lacking for how CUDC-907 regulates c-Myc. In this study, we investigated the effect of CUDC-907 on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that CUDC-907 potently inhibited the proliferation of 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 6.7 to 54.5?nM. Furthermore, we revealed the antitumor mechanism of CUDC-907 in Aspc-1, PANC-1, and Capan-1 pancreatic cancer cells: it suppressed the HDAC6 subunit, thus downregulating c-Myc protein levels, which was a mode of action distinct from the existing mechanisms. Consistently, the extraordinary antitumor activity of CUDC-907 accompanied by downregulation of c-Myc and Ki67 expression in tumor tissue was observed in a human pancreatic cancer Aspc-1 xenograft nude mouse model in vivo. Our results suggest that CUDC-907 can be a valuable therapeutic option for treating pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Project description:We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a (64)Cu-labeled histone deacetylase (HDAC) imaging probe, which was obtained by introduction of metal chelator through click reaction of HDAC inhibitor CUDC-101 and then radiolabeled with (64)Cu. The resulting (64)Cu-labeled compound 7 ([(64)Cu]7) was identified as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe to noninvasively visualize HDAC expression in vivo. Cell based competitive assay established the specific binding of [(64)Cu]7 to HDACs. Biodistribution and small-animal microPET/CT studies further showed that [(64)Cu]7 had high tumor to background ratio in the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, a triple-negative breast cancer with high expression of HDACs. To our knowledge, [(64)Cu]7 thus represents the first (64)Cu-labeled PET HDAC imaging probe, which exhibits nanomolar range binding affinity and capability to imaging HDAC expression in triple-negative breast cancer in vivo.