Muscle wasting in myotonic dystrophies: a model of premature aging.
ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 or Steinert's disease) and type 2 (DM2) are multisystem disorders of genetic origin. Progressive muscular weakness, atrophy and myotonia are the most prominent neuromuscular features of these diseases, while other clinical manifestations such as cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance and cataracts are also common. From a clinical perspective, most DM symptoms are interpreted as a result of an accelerated aging (cataracts, muscular weakness and atrophy, cognitive decline, metabolic dysfunction, etc.), including an increased risk of developing tumors. From this point of view, DM1 could be described as a progeroid syndrome since a notable age-dependent dysfunction of all systems occurs. The underlying molecular disorder in DM1 consists of the existence of a pathological (CTG) triplet expansion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene, whereas (CCTG)n repeats in the first intron of the Cellular Nucleic acid Binding Protein/Zinc Finger Protein 9 (CNBP/ZNF9) gene cause DM2. The expansions are transcribed into (CUG)n and (CCUG)n-containing RNA, respectively, which form secondary structures and sequester RNA-binding proteins, such as the splicing factor muscleblind-like protein (MBNL), forming nuclear aggregates known as foci. Other splicing factors, such as CUGBP, are also disrupted, leading to a spliceopathy of a large number of downstream genes linked to the clinical features of these diseases. Skeletal muscle regeneration relies on muscle progenitor cells, known as satellite cells, which are activated after muscle damage, and which proliferate and differentiate to muscle cells, thus regenerating the damaged tissue. Satellite cell dysfunction seems to be a common feature of both age-dependent muscle degeneration (sarcopenia) and muscle wasting in DM and other muscle degenerative diseases. This review aims to describe the cellular, molecular and macrostructural processes involved in the muscular degeneration seen in DM patients, highlighting the similarities found with muscle aging.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common adult muscular dystrophy, characterized by autosomal dominant progressive myopathy, myotonia and multiorgan involvement. To date two distinct forms caused by similar mutations have been identified. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, Steinert's disease) was described more than 100 years ago and is caused by a (CTG)n expansion in DMPK, while myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) was identified only 18 years ago and is caused by a (CCTG)n expansion in ZNF9/CNBP. When transcribed into CUG/CCUG-containing RNA, mutant transcripts aggregate as nuclear foci that sequester RNA-binding proteins, resulting in spliceopathy of downstream effector genes. Despite clinical and genetic similarities, DM1 and DM2 are distinct disorders requiring different diagnostic and management strategies. DM1 may present in four different forms: congenital, early childhood, adult onset and late-onset oligosymptomatic DM1. Congenital DM1 is the most severe form of DM characterized by extreme muscle weakness and mental retardation. In DM2 the clinical phenotype is extremely variable and there are no distinct clinical subgroups. Congenital and childhood-onset forms are not present in DM2 and, in contrast to DM1, myotonia may be absent even on EMG. Due to the lack of awareness of the disease among clinicians, DM2 remains largely underdiagnosed. The delay in receiving the correct diagnosis after onset of first symptoms is very long in DM: on average more than 5 years for DM1 and more than 14 years for DM2 patients. The long delay in the diagnosis of DM causes unnecessary problems for the patients to manage their lives and anguish with uncertainty of prognosis and treatment.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant degenerative neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, atrophy, and myotonia with progeroid features. Although both DM1 and DM2 are characterized by skeletal muscle dysfunction and also share other clinical features, the diseases differ in the muscle groups that are affected. In DM1, distal muscles are mainly affected, whereas in DM2 problems are mostly found in proximal muscles. In addition, manifestation in DM1 is generally more severe, with possible congenital or childhood-onset of disease and prominent CNS involvement. DM1 and DM2 are caused by expansion of (CTG•CAG)n and (CCTG•CAGG)n repeats in the 3' non-coding region of DMPK and in intron 1 of CNBP, respectively, and in overlapping antisense genes. This critical review will focus on the pleiotropic problems that occur during development, growth, regeneration, and aging of skeletal muscle in patients who inherited these expansions. The current best-accepted idea is that most muscle symptoms can be explained by pathomechanistic effects of repeat expansion on RNA-mediated pathways. However, aberrations in DNA replication and transcription of the DM loci or in protein translation and proteome homeostasis could also affect the control of proliferation and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells or the maintenance and physiological integrity of muscle fibers during a patient's lifetime. Here, we will discuss these molecular and cellular processes and summarize current knowledge about the role of embryonic and adult muscle-resident stem cells in growth, homeostasis, regeneration, and premature aging of healthy and diseased muscle tissue. Of particular interest is that also progenitor cells from extramuscular sources, such as pericytes and mesoangioblasts, can participate in myogenic differentiation. We will examine the potential of all these types of cells in the application of regenerative medicine for muscular dystrophies and evaluate new possibilities for their use in future therapy of DM.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common adult muscular dystrophy, characterized by autosomal dominant progressive myopathy, myotonia and multiorgan involvement. To date two distinct forms caused by similar mutations have been identified. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, Steinert's disease) is caused by a (CTG)n expansion in DMPK, while myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is caused by a (CCTG)n expansion in CNBP. Despite clinical and genetic similarities, DM1 and DM2 are distinct disorders. The pathogenesis of DM is explained by a common RNA gain-of-function mechanism in which the CUG and CCUG repeats alter cellular function, including alternative splicing of various genes. However additional pathogenic mechanism like changes in gene expression, modifier genes, protein translation and micro-RNA metabolism may also contribute to disease pathology and to clarify the phenotypic differences between these two types of myotonic dystrophies.This review is an update on the latest findings specific to DM2, including explanations for the differences in clinical manifestations and pathophysiology between the two forms of myotonic dystrophies.
Project description:Skeletal muscle biopsies from DM1, DM2, idiopathic DM (DMx), and non-DM NMD patients were compared to those from normal individuals, with focus on MEF2 and MEF2-related genes. Keywords: 7 diseases and 2 normal (fetal and adult) groups Overall design: Skeletal muscle biopsies from 10 DM1 biopsies, 20 DM2 biopsies, 16 DMx (DM-like, no DMPK or ZNF9 expansion), 5 BMD (Becker Muscular Dystrophy), 1 MC-AD (Myotonia Congenita-Autosomal Dominant), 3 DMD (Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy), 4 TMD (Tibial Muscular Dystrophy), 3 Normal Fetal and 6 Normal individuals
Project description:Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are dominantly inherited muscle disorders characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness, and wasting. The reasons for sarcopenia in DMs are uncleared and multiple factors are involved. Irisin, a positive hormone regulator of muscle growth and bone, may play a role.To investigate (1) circulating irisin in a series of DM1 and DM2 male patients compared with healthy controls and (2) the relationships between irisin and anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal parameters.This is a cross-sectional study. Fasting blood samples for glucometabolic, gonadic, bone markers, and irisin were collected from 28 ambulatory DM1, 10 DM2, and 23 age-matched healthy male subjects. Body composition and bone mineralization [bone mineral density (BMD)] were measured by DEXA. Echocardiographic assessment and visceral adiposity, namely, liver and epicardial fat, were investigated by ultrasound. Irisin released from cultured myotubes derived from 3 DM1, 3 DM2, and 3 healthy donors was assayed.Plasma irisin levels were definitely lower in both DM1 and DM2 patients than in controls with no difference between DM1 and DM2. Irisin released from DM1 and DM2 myotubes was similar to that released from myotubes of the non-DM donors, though diabetic DM2 myotubes released more irisin than DM1 myotubes. There was no correlation between irisin and muscle strength or lean mass in both DM1 and DM2 patients. In DM1 patients, plasma irisin levels correlated negatively with oxygen consumption and positively with insulin resistance, while in DM2 patients plasma irisin levels positively correlated with fat mass at arms and legs levels. No correlation with visceral fat, left ventricular mass, and gonadal hormones could be detected. In both DM1 and DM2 patients, legs BMD parameters positively correlated with plasma irisin levels.Plasma irisin is reduced in both DM1 and DM2 male patients likely reflecting muscle mass reduction. Moreover, insulin resistance may contribute to modulation of plasma irisin in DM1 patients. The irisin-mediated cross talk muscle-adipose tissue-bone may be active also in the male myotonic dystrophies' model.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy and encompasses both skeletal muscle and cardiac complications. DM is nucleotide repeat expansion disorder in which type 1 (DM1) is due to a trinucleotide repeat expansion on chromosome 19 and type 2 (DM2) arises from a tetranucleotide repeat expansion on chromosome 3. Developing representative models of DM in animals has been challenging due to instability of nucleotide repeat expansions, especially for DM2, which is characterized by nucleotide repeat expansions often greater than 5,000 copies. To investigate mechanisms of human DM, we generated cellular models of DM1 and DM2. We used regulated MyoD expression to reprogram urine-derived cells into myotubes. In this myogenic cell model, we found impaired dystrophin expression, in the presence of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) foci, and aberrant splicing in DM1 but not in DM2 cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from healthy controls and DM1 and DM2 subjects, and we differentiated these into cardiomyocytes. DM1 and DM2 cells displayed an increase in RNA foci concomitant with cellular differentiation. iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from DM1 but not DM2 had aberrant splicing of known target genes and MBNL sequestration. High-resolution imaging revealed tight association between MBNL clusters and RNA foci in DM1. Ca2+ transients differed between DM1- and DM2 iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, and each differed from healthy control cells. RNA-sequencing from DM1- and DM2 iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes revealed distinct misregulation of gene expression, as well as differential aberrant splicing patterns. Together, these data support that DM1 and DM2, despite some shared clinical and molecular features, have distinct pathological signatures.
Project description:The prevailing pathomechanistic paradigm for myotonic dystrophy (DM) is that aberrant expression of embryonic/fetal mRNA/protein isoforms accounts for most aspects of the pleiotropic phenotype. To identify aberrant isoforms in skeletal muscle of DM1 and DM2 patients, we performed exon-array profiling and RT-PCR validation on the largest DM sample set to date, including Duchenne, Becker and tibial muscular dystrophy (NMD) patients as disease controls, and non-disease controls. Strikingly, most expression and splicing changes in DM patients were shared with NMD controls. Comparison between DM and NMD identified almost no significant differences. We conclude that DM1 and DM2 are essentially identical for dysregulation of gene expression, and DM expression changes represent a subset of broader spectrum dystrophic changes. We found no evidence for qualitative splicing differences between DM1 and DM2. While some DM-specific splicing differences exist, most of the DM splicing differences were also seen in NMD controls. SSBP3 exon 6 missplicing was observed in all diseased muscle and led to reduced protein. We conclude there is no widespread DM-specific spliceopathy in skeletal muscle and suggest that missplicing in DM (and NMD) may not be the driving mechanism for the muscle pathology, since the same pathways show expression changes unrelated to splicing.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 (DM1 and DM2) are genetic diseases in which mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG or CCUG repeats cause cellular dysfunction by altering the processing or metabolism of specific mRNAs and miRNAs. The toxic effects of mutant RNA are mediated partly through effects on proteins that regulate alternative splicing. Here we show that alternative splicing of exon 29 (E29) of Ca(V)1.1, a calcium channel that controls skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, is markedly repressed in DM1 and DM2. The extent of E29 skipping correlated with severity of weakness in tibialis anterior muscle of DM1 patients. Two splicing factors previously implicated in DM1, MBNL1 and CUGBP1, participated in the regulation of E29 splicing. In muscle fibers of wild-type mice, the Ca(V)1.1 channel conductance and voltage sensitivity were increased by splice-shifting oligonucleotides that induce E29 skipping. In contrast to human DM1, expression of CUG-expanded RNA caused only a modest increase in E29 skipping in mice. However, forced skipping of E29 in these mice, to levels approaching those observed in human DM1, aggravated the muscle pathology as evidenced by increased central nucleation. Together, these results indicate that DM-associated splicing defects alter Ca(V)1.1 function, with potential for exacerbation of myopathy.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) are the two most common adult muscular dystrophies and have progressive and often disabling manifestations. Higher levels of medication adherence lead to better health outcomes, especially important to patients with DM and FSHD because of their multisystem manifestations and complexity of care. However, medication adherence has not previously been studied in a large cohort of DM type 1 (DM1), DM type 2 (DM2), and FSHD patients. The purpose of our study was to survey medication adherence and disease manifestations in patients enrolled in the NIH-supported National DM and FSHD Registry. The study was completed by 110 DM1, 49 DM2, and 193 FSHD patients. Notable comorbidities were hypertension in FSHD (44 %) and DM2 (37 %), gastroesophageal reflux disease in DM1 (24 %) and DM2 (31 %) and arrhythmias (29 %) and thyroid disease (20 %) in DM1. Each group reported high levels of adherence based on regimen complexity, medication costs, health literacy, side effect profile, and their beliefs about treatment. Only dysphagia in DM1 was reported to significantly impact medication adherence. Approximately 35 % of study patients reported polypharmacy (taking 6 or more medications). Of the patients with polypharmacy, the DM1 cohort was significantly younger (mean 55.0 years) compared to DM2 (59.0 years) and FSHD (63.2 years), and had shorter disease duration (mean 26 years) compared to FSHD (26.8 years) and DM2 (34.8 years). Future research is needed to assess techniques to ease pill swallowing in DM1 and to monitor polypharmacy and potential drug interactions in DM and FSHD.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a recently discovered adult muscular dystrophy. Similar to DM1, this disease causes progressive debilitating weakness, clinical myotonia, and early cataracts and is thought to cause widespread physiologic dysfunction of multiple organ systems.To analyze and compile the laboratory abnormalities of patients with DM2.Baseline DM2 laboratory data were compiled representing 68 different types of laboratory tests and 1442 total studies.University medical center.Eighty-three adults with genetically confirmed or clinically probable DM2 were identified. Of these patients, 49 had documented baseline laboratory screening.The individual frequencies of abnormal laboratory values in the population with DM2 studied.Of the 1442 studies, results for 359 (24.9%) were outside of their standard reference ranges. Of the 68 types of laboratory tests studied, 43 had values from 15 or more different patients with DM2. The relative frequency of an abnormally elevated laboratory value was greater than 50% in several tests, including the levels of creatine kinase, total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase. In addition, serum levels of IgG were low in 75% of all patients with DM2 tested, and absolute lymphocyte counts were low in 54% of all patients with DM2 tested.There is a high frequency of laboratory abnormalities in patients with DM2. These abnormalities provide insight into the widespread pathologic manifestations of DM2 and may form a basis for clinical monitoring and disease screening.