Conditional immortalization of primary adipocyte precursor cells.
ABSTRACT: The production of new adipocytes requires the differentiation of adipocyte precursor (AP) cells residing within the adipose tissue stromal-vascular compartment. The objective was to obtain an immortalized primary adipogenic cell line derived from FACS isolated committed APs using the conditional expression of SV40 T antigen. Adipocyte precursors were isolated from white adipose tissue (WAT) using FACS to remove non-adipogenic cell populations from mice expressing a conditionally regulated SV40 T antigen. APs were maintained by continuous culture and induced to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Adipogenesis, determined by Oil Red O staining, was assessed with each passage and compared to wildtype controls. Adipogenic capability was rapidly lost with increased passage number in committed APs with concurrent reduction in cell proliferation and expression of essential late adipogenic genes, including Ppar? and C/ebp?. Thus, FACS purified committed APs have limited capability to undergo expansion and subsequent adipogenic differentiation in vitro even if they are immortalized with the SV40 T antigen.
Project description:Prostate tumor cells frequently show the features of osteoblasts, which are differentiated from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We examined human prostate cancer cell lines and clinical prostate cancer specimens for additional bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell properties.Prostate cancer cell lines were induced for osteoblastogenic and adipogenic differentiation, detected by standard staining methods and confirmed by lineage-specific marker expression. Abnormal expression of the markers was then assessed in clinical prostate cancer specimens.After osteoblastogenic induction, cells of the LNCaP lineage, PC-3 lineage, and DU145 displayed osteoblastic features. Upon adipogenic induction, PC-3 lineage and DU145 cells differentiated into adipocyte-like cells. The adipocyte-like cancer cells expressed brown adipocyte-specific markers, suggesting differentiation along the brown adipocyte lineage. The adipogenic differentiation was accompanied by growth inhibition, and most of the adipocyte-like cancer cells were committed to apoptotic death. During cyclic treatments with adipogenic differentiation medium and then with control medium, the cancer cells could commit to repeated adipogenic differentiation and retrodifferentiation. In clinical prostate cancer specimens, the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a brown fat-specific marker, was enhanced with the level of expression correlated to disease progression from primary to bone metastatic cancers.This study thus revealed that prostate cancer cells harbor the stem cell properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The abnormally expressed adipogenic UCP1 protein may serve as a unique marker, while adipogenic induction can be explored as a differentiation therapy for prostate cancer progression and bone metastasis.
Project description:The intestinal epithelium is a major site of interaction with pathogens. In bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immune responses against enteric pathogens. This study is aimed at establishing a stable bovine intestinal epithelial cell line that can be maintained by a continuous passage so that studies on innate immune responses against various enteric pathogens can be performed. The main goal was to establish pure cultures of primary and immortalized bovine intestinal epithelial cells from the ileum and then characterize them biochemically and immunologically. Mixed epithelial and fibroblast bovine ileal intestinal cultures were first established from a 2-day old calf. Limiting dilution method was used to obtain a clone of epithelial cells which was characterized using immunocytochemistry (ICC). The selected clone BIEC-c4 was cytokeratin positive and expressed low levels of vimentin, confirming the epithelial cell phenotype. Early passage BIEC-c4 cells were transfected with either simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), or human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16E6/E7 genes to establish three immortalized BIEC cell lines. The expression of SV40, hTERT and HPV E6/E7 genes in immortalized BIECs was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence assays also confirmed the expression of SV40, hTERT and HPV E6 proteins. The immortalized BIECs were cytokeratin positive and all except HPV-BIECs expressed low levels of vimentin. A growth kinetics study indicated that there were no significant differences in the doubling time of immortalized BIECs as compared to early passage BIEC-c4 cells. All four BIEC types expressed TLR 1-10 genes, with TLR 3 and 4 showing higher expression across all cell types. These newly established early passage and immortalized BIEC cell lines should serve as a good model for studying infectivity, pathogenesis and innate immune responses against enteric pathogens.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Progenitor cell-based cardiomyocyte regeneration holds great promise of repairing an injured heart. Although cardiomyogenic differentiation has been reported for a variety of progenitor cell types, the biological factors that regulate effective cardiomyogenesis remain largely undefined. Primary cardiomyogenic progenitors (CPs) have a limited life span in culture, hampering the CPs' in vitro and in vivo studies. The objective of this study is to investigate if primary CPs isolated from fetal mouse heart can be reversibly immortalized with SV40 large T and maintain long-term cell proliferation without compromising cardiomyogenic differentiation potential. METHODS: Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from mouse E15.5 fetal heart, and immortalized retrovirally with the expression of SV40 large T antigen flanked with loxP sites. Expression of cardiomyogenic markers were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. The immortalization phenotype was reversed by using an adenovirus-mediated expression of the Cre reconbinase. Cardiomyogenic differentiation induced by retinoids or dexamethasone was assessed by an ?-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) promoter-driven reporter. RESULTS: We demonstrate that the CPs derived from mouse E15.5 fetal heart can be efficiently immortalized by SV40 T antigen. The conditionally immortalized CPs (iCP15 clones) exhibit an increased proliferative activity and are able to maintain long-term proliferation, which can be reversed by Cre recombinase. The iCP15 cells express cardiomyogenic markers and retain differentiation potential as they can undergo terminal differentiate into cardiomyctes under appropriate differentiation conditions although the iCP15 clones represent a large repertoire of CPs at various differentiation stages. The removal of SV40 large T increases the iCPs' differentiation potential. Thus, the iCPs not only maintain long-term cell proliferative activity but also retain cardiomyogenic differentiation potential. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the reported reversible SV40 T antigen-mediated immortalization represents an efficient approach for establishing long-term culture of primary cardiomyogenic progenitors for basic and translational research.
Project description:The identification of factors that define adipocyte precursor potential has important implications for obesity. Preadipocytes are fibroblastoid cells committed to becoming round lipid-laden adipocytes. In vitro, this differentiation process is facilitated by confluency, followed by adipogenic stimuli. During adipogenesis, a large number of cytostructural genes are repressed before adipocyte gene induction. Here we report that the transcriptional repressor transcription factor 7-like 1 (TCF7L1) binds and directly regulates the expression of cell structure genes. Depletion of TCF7L1 inhibits differentiation, because TCF7L1 indirectly induces the adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in a manner that can be replaced by inhibition of myosin II activity. TCF7L1 is induced by cell contact in adipogenic cell lines, and ectopic expression of TCF7L1 alleviates the confluency requirement for adipocytic differentiation of precursor cells. In contrast, TCF7L1 is not induced during confluency of non-adipogenic fibroblasts, and, remarkably, forced expression of TCF7L1 is sufficient to commit non-adipogenic fibroblasts to an adipogenic fate. These results establish TCF7L1 as a transcriptional hub coordinating cell-cell contact with the transcriptional repression required for adipogenic competency.
Project description:A better understanding of the mechanisms of beige and brown adipogenesis is needed for developing strategies to prevent and treat obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Phytanic acid (PA) exists in a wide range of foods, especially in milk fat and marine foods, but its effects on obesity and beige adipogenesis remain poorly defined. The objective is to investigate the effects and regulatory mechanisms of PA in the beige adipogenesis. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, PA elevated the expression of brown adipogenic markers, suggesting that PA promotes beige adipogenic differentiation in committed adipogenic cells. In uncommitted C3H10T1/2 cells, while PA increased PGC1? expression, it did not increase brown adipogenic regulators PRDM16 or UCP1 expression, suggesting that PA had no significant effects on brown adipocyte commitment. PA also enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption. Promotion of both mitochondriogenesis and beige adipogenic differentiation were blocked by using PPAR? antagonist or with Ppar? knockdown, showing that PA-mediated beige/brown adipogenic differentiation is dependent on PPAR?. Additionally, the PA-regulated effect is independent on ?3-adrenergic receptor. Taken together, PA promotes beige adipogenic differentiation, but not the commitment of progenitor cells to the brown adipocyte lineage. PPAR? is a key mediator during PA-induced beige/brown adipogenic differentiation.
Project description:The role of Ahnak in obesity has been reported previously. Loss of Ahnak leads to decreased Bmp4/Smad1 signaling, resulting in the downregulation of adipocyte differentiation. However, the biological significance of Ahnak remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Ahnak-mediated impaired adipogenesis results in decreased Bmpr1? transcriptional expression. To confirm this, Ahnak siRNA was used to knock-down Ahnak in C3H10T1/2 and primary stromal vascular fraction cells. Ahnak siRNA transfected cells showed suppression of Bmpr1? expression and decreased BMP4/ Bmpr1? signaling. The differential adipogenesis was further confirmed by knock-down of Bmpr1? in C3H10T1/2 cells, which resulted in reduced adipogenesis. Moreover, stable Ahnak knock-out C3H10T1/2 cells stably transfected with Ahnak CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid suppressed expression of Bmpr1? and prevented differentiation into adipocytes. Furthermore, we developed immortalized pre-adipocytes from wild-type or Ahnak Knock-out mice's stromal vascular fraction (SVF) to confirm the function of Ahnak in pre-adipocyte transition. Immortalized Ahnak knock-out SVF cells showed lower level of Bmpr1? expression, evidence by their impaired BMP4/Bmpr1? signaling. Upon adipogenic induction, immortalized Ahnak knock-out SVF cells exhibited a marked decrease in adipocyte differentiation compared with immortalized wild-type pre-adipocytes. Furthermore, over-expression of Bmpr1? restored the adipogenic activity of Ahnak knock-out C3H10T1/2 cells and immortalized Ahnak knock-out SVF cells. Our data reveal the missing link in Ahnak-mediated adipose tissue remodeling and suggest that precise regulation of Ahnak in adipose tissue might have a therapeutic advantage for metabolic disease treatment.
Project description:Proper regulation of white and brown adipogenic differentiation is important for maintaining an organism's metabolic profile in a homeostatic state. The recent observations showing that the p53 tumor suppressor plays a role in metabolism raise the question of whether it is involved in the regulation of white and brown adipocyte differentiation. By using several in vitro models, representing various stages of white adipocyte differentiation, we found that p53 exerts a suppressive effect on white adipocyte differentiation in both mouse and human cells. Moreover, our in vivo analysis indicated that p53 is implicated in protection against diet-induced obesity. In striking contrast, our data shows that p53 exerts a positive regulatory effect on brown adipocyte differentiation. Abrogation of p53 function in skeletal muscle committed cells reduced their capacity to differentiate into brown adipocytes and histological analysis of brown adipose tissue revealed an impaired morphology in both embryonic and adult p53-null mice. Thus, depending on the specific adipogenic differentiation program, p53 may exert a positive or a negative effect. This cell type dependent regulation reflects an additional modality of p53 in maintaining a homeostatic state, not only in the cell, but also in the organism at large.
Project description:The stem cell differentiation paradigm is based on the progression of cells through generations of daughter cells that eventually become restricted and committed to one lineage resulting in fully differentiated cells. Herein, we report on the differentiation of adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) towards adipogenic and osteogenic lineages using established protocols. Lineage specific geneswere evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR relative to two reference genes. The expression of osteoblast-associated genes (alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin)was detected in hMSCs that underwent adipogenesis. When normalized, the expression of adipocyte marker genes (adiponectin, fatty acid binding protein P4, and leptin) increasedin a time-dependent manner during adipogenic induction. Adiponectin and leptin were also detected in osteoblast-induced cells. Lipid vacuoles that represent the adipocyte phenotype were only present in the adipogenic induction group. Conforming to the heterogeneous nature of hMSCs and the known plasticity between osteogenic and adipogenic lineages, these data indicatea marker overlap between MSC-derived adipocytes and osteoblasts. Weproposea careful consideration of experimental conditions such as investigated timepoints, selected housekeeping genesand the evidence indicating lack of differentiation into other lineageswhen evaluating hMSC differentiation.
Project description:The cranial suture complex is a heterogeneous tissue consisting of osteogenic progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and suture mesenchyme. The fusion of cranial sutures is a highly coordinated and tightly regulated process during development. Craniosynostosis is a congenital malformation caused by premature fusion of cranial sutures. While the progenitor cells derived from the cranial suture complex should prove valuable for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying suture development and pathogenic premature suture fusion, primary human cranial suture progenitors (SuPs) have limited life span and gradually lose osteoblastic ability over passages. To overcome technical challenges in maintaining sufficient and long-term culture of SuPs for suture biology studies, we establish and characterize the reversibly immortalized human cranial suture progenitors (iSuPs). Using a reversible immortalization system expressing SV40 T flanked with FRT sites, we demonstrate that primary human suture progenitor cells derived from the patent sutures of craniosynostosis patients can be efficiently immortalized. The iSuPs maintain long-term proliferative activity, express most of the consensus MSC markers and can differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages upon BMP9 stimulation in vitro and in vivo. The removal of SV40 T antigen by FLP recombinase results in a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in the endogenous osteogenic and adipogenic capability in the iSuPs. Therefore, the iSuPs should be a valuable resource to study suture development, intramembranous ossification and the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis, as well as to explore cranial bone tissue engineering.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to give rise to multiple cell types, such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes. However, the molecular events responsible for the lineage specification and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells remain unclear. Using gene expression profile studies, we determined that Scavenger receptor class A, member 5 (SCARA5) is a novel mediator of adipocyte commitment. SCARA5 was expressed at a higher level in committed A33 preadipocyte cells compared to C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells. Gain- and loss-of-function studies likewise revealed that SCARA5 acts as a mediator of adipocyte commitment and differentiation in both A33 and C3H10T1/2 cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of SCARA5 in A33 cells markedly inhibited the adipogenic potential, whereas overexpression of SCARA5 enhanced adipocyte differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells. We also demonstrated that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK signaling pathways is associated with the SCARA5-mediated response, thereby modulating adipocyte lineage commitment and adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, glucocorticoids induced the expression of SCARA5 in differentiating adipocytes through glucocorticoids response elements (GRE) in the SCARA5 promoter. Taken together, our study demonstrates that SCARA5 is a positive regulator in adipocyte lineage commitment and early adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.