Metagenomic Assembly and Draft Genome Sequence of an Uncharacterized Prevotella sp. from Nelore Rumen.
ABSTRACT: Prevotella is one of the most abundant genera in bovine rumen, although no genome has yet been assembled by a metagenomics approach applied to Brazilian Nelore. We report the draft genome sequence of Prevotella sp., comprising 2,971,040 bp, obtained using the Illumina sequencing platform. This genome includes 127 contigs and presents a low 48% GC.
Project description:Background:The success of different species of ruminants in the colonization of a diverse range of environments is due to their ability to digest and absorb nutrients from cellulose, a complex polysaccharide found in leaves and grass. Ruminants rely on a complex and diverse microbial community, or microbiota, in a unique compartment known as the rumen to break down this polysaccharide. Changes in microbial populations of the rumen can affect the host's development, health, and productivity. However, accessing the rumen is stressful for the animal. Therefore, the development and use of alternative sampling methods are needed if this technique is to be routinely used in cattle breeding. To this end, we tested if the fecal microbiome could be used as a proxy for the rumen microbiome due to its accessibility. We investigated the taxonomic composition, diversity and inter-relations of two different GIT compartments, rumen and feces, of 26 Nelore (Bos indicus) bulls, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metabarcoding of bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa. Results:We identified 4265 Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) from bacteria, 571 from archaea, and 107 from protozoa, of which 143 (96 bacteria and 47 archaea) were found common between both microbiomes. The most prominent bacterial phyla identified were Bacteroidetes (41.48%) and Firmicutes (56.86%) in the ruminal and fecal microbiomes, respectively, with Prevotella and Ruminococcaceae UCG-005 the most relatively abundant genera identified in each microbiome. The most abundant archaeal phylum identified was Euryarchaeota, of which Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, a methanogen, was the prevalent archaeal species identified in both microbiomes. Protozoa were found exclusively identified in the rumen with Bozasella/Triplumaria being the most frequent genus identified. Co-occurrence among ruminal and fecal ASVs reinforces the relationship of microorganisms within a biological niche. Furthermore, the co-occurrence of shared archaeal ASVs between microbiomes indicates a dependency of the predominant fecal methanogen population on the rumen population. Conclusions:Co-occurring microorganisms were identified within the rumen and fecal microbiomes, which revealed a strong association and inter-dependency between bacterial, archaeal and protozoan populations of the same microbiome. The archaeal ASVs identified as co-occurring between GIT compartments corresponded to the methanogenic genera Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera and represented 26.34% of the overall archaeal sequencesdiversity in the rumen and 42.73% in feces. Considering that these archaeal ASVs corresponded to a significant part of the overall diversity of both microbiomes, which is much higher if one includes the interactions of these co-occurring with other rumen archaea ASVs, we suggest that fecal methanogens could be used as a proxy of ruminal methanogens.
Project description:Japanese goats fed a diet of 50% Timothy grass and 50% concentrate with increasing levels of the anti-methanogenic compound, bromochloromethane (BCM) were investigated with respect to the microbial population and functional shifts in the rumen. Microbial ecology methods identified species that exhibited positive and negative responses to the increasing levels of BCM. The methane-inhibited rumen appeared to adapt to the higher H2 levels by shifting fermentation to propionate which was mediated by an increase in the population of H2-consuming Prevotella and Selenomonas spp. Metagenomic analysis of propionate production pathways was dominated by genomic content from these species. Reductive acetogenic marker gene libraries and metagenomics analysis indicate that reductive acetogenic species do not play a major role in the BCM treated rumen.
Project description:To identify differences in rumen function as a result of feeding monensin to beef cattle, rumen fluid metagenomics and metabolomics analyses were used to evaluate the functional attributes and metabolites of rumen microbiota in beef steers fed no or 200 mg/d of monensin. Eight rumen-fistulated steers were used in the study for a period of 53 days. Rumen fluid samples were collected on the last day of the experiment. Monensin increased the relative abundance of Selenomonas sp. ND2010, Prevotella dentalis, Hallella seregens, Parabacteroides distasonis, Propionispira raffinosivorans, and Prevotella brevis, but reduced the relative abundance of Robinsoniella sp. KNHs210, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium symbiosum, Burkholderia sp. LMG29324, and Clostridium butyricum. Monensin increased the relative abundance of functional genes involved in amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. A total of 245 metabolites were identified. Thirty-one metabolites were found to be differentially expressed. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed metabolites revealed upregulated metabolic pathways associated with metabolism of linoleic acid and some amino acids. These findings confirm that monensin affects rumen fermentation of forage-fed beef cattle by modulating the rumen microbiome, and by reducing amino acid degradation and biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in the rumen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In ruminants, early rumen development is vital for efficient fermentation that converts plant materials to human edible food such as milk and meat. Here, we investigate the extent and functional basis of host-microbial interactions regulating rumen development during the first 6 weeks of life. RESULTS:The use of microbial metagenomics, together with quantification of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and qPCR, reveals the colonization of an active bacterial community in the rumen at birth. Colonization of active complex carbohydrate fermenters and archaea with methyl-coenzyme M reductase activity was also observed from the first week of life in the absence of a solid diet. Integrating microbial metagenomics and host transcriptomics reveals only 26.3% of mRNA transcripts, and 46.4% of miRNAs were responsive to VFAs, while others were ontogenic. Among these, one host gene module was positively associated with VFAs, while two other host gene modules and one miRNA module were negatively associated with VFAs. Eight host genes and five miRNAs involved in zinc ion binding-related transcriptional regulation were associated with a rumen bacterial cluster consisting of Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcus. CONCLUSION:This three-way interaction suggests a potential role of bacteria-driven transcriptional regulation in early rumen development via miRNAs. Our results reveal a highly active early microbiome that regulates rumen development of neonatal calves at the cellular level, and miRNAs may coordinate these host-microbial interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, we reported that some dairy cows could produce high amounts of milk with high amounts of protein (defined as milk protein yield [MPY]) when a population was raised under the same nutritional and management condition, a potential new trait that can be used to increase high-quality milk production. It is unknown to what extent the rumen microbiome and its metabolites, as well as the host metabolism, contribute to MPY. Here, analysis of rumen metagenomics and metabolomics, together with serum metabolomics was performed to identify potential regulatory mechanisms of MPY at both the rumen microbiome and host levels. RESULTS:Metagenomics analysis revealed that several Prevotella species were significantly more abundant in the rumen of high-MPY cows, contributing to improved functions related to branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. In addition, the rumen microbiome of high-MPY cows had lower relative abundances of organisms with methanogen and methanogenesis functions, suggesting that these cows may produce less methane. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the relative concentrations of rumen microbial metabolites (mainly amino acids, carboxylic acids, and fatty acids) and the absolute concentrations of volatile fatty acids were higher in the high-MPY cows. By associating the rumen microbiome with the rumen metabolome, we found that specific microbial taxa (mainly Prevotella species) were positively correlated with ruminal microbial metabolites, including the amino acids and carbohydrates involved in glutathione, phenylalanine, starch, sucrose, and galactose metabolism. To detect the interactions between the rumen microbiome and host metabolism, we associated the rumen microbiome with the host serum metabolome and found that Prevotella species may affect the host's metabolism of amino acids (including glycine, serine, threonine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, cysteine, and methionine). Further analysis using the linear mixed effect model estimated contributions to the variation in MPY based on different omics and revealed that the rumen microbial composition, functions, and metabolites, and the serum metabolites contributed 17.81, 21.56, 29.76, and 26.78%, respectively, to the host MPY. CONCLUSIONS:These findings provide a fundamental understanding of how the microbiome-dependent and host-dependent mechanisms contribute to varied individualized performance in the milk production quality of dairy cows under the same management condition. This fundamental information is vital for the development of potential manipulation strategies to improve milk quality and production through precision feeding. Video Abstract.
Project description:Ruminants provide essential nutrition for billions of people worldwide. The rumen is a specialized stomach that is adapted to the breakdown of plant-derived complex polysaccharides. The genomes of the rumen microbiota encode thousands of enzymes adapted to digestion of the plant matter that dominates the ruminant diet. We assembled 4,941 rumen microbial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) using approximately 6.5 terabases of short- and long-read sequence data from 283 ruminant cattle. We present a genome-resolved metagenomics workflow that enabled assembly of bacterial and archaeal genomes that were at least 80% complete. Of note, we obtained three single-contig, whole-chromosome assemblies of rumen bacteria, two of which represent previously unknown rumen species, assembled from long-read data. Using our rumen genome collection we predicted and annotated a large set of rumen proteins. Our set of rumen MAGs increases the rate of mapping of rumen metagenomic sequencing reads from 15% to 50-70%. These genomic and protein resources will enable a better understanding of the structure and functions of the rumen microbiota.
Project description:The rumen microbiota is strongly associated with host health, nutrient absorption, and adaptability. However, the composition, functioning and adaptability of rumen microbiota in Tibetan sheep (TS) across different phenological periods are unclear. In this study we used sequencing of the V4-V5 region of 16S rRNA, qPCR technology and metagenomics to investigate the adaption of rumen microbiota to forage in different stages of phenology. In a grassy period, due to the high nutritional quality of the forage, TS can produce high concentrations of NH3-N and short fatty acids by increasing the content of key bacteria in the rumen, such as Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, Succiniclasticum, Treponema, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Prevotella ruminicola, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens to aid in growth. In the withering period, there was a positive correlation between microorganisms which indicated the closely cooperation between microorganisms, and metagenomic analysis showed that the high genes (GHs and CBMs) and subtribe (GH8, GH12, GH45, GH6, GH9, GH5, GH10, GH3, GH52, GH11, GH57, CBM1, CBM4, CBM6, CBM16, CBM37, CBM13, CBM35, CBM42, CBM32, and CBM62) that encode cellulolytic enzymes were significantly increased when the host faced low quantity and quality of forage. Genes involved in metabolic pathways, fatty acid biosynthesis and biosynthesis of antibiotics were significantly enriched, which indicated that rumen microbiota could improve plant biomass deconstruction and energy maintenance in the face of nutritional deficiencies. In the regreen period, both the composition and function of rumen microbiota had obvious disadvantages, therefore, to improve the competitiveness of microorganisms, we suggest TS should be supplemented with high-protein feed. This study is of great significance for exploring the high altitude adaptability of TS.
Project description:Strictly anaerobic Prevotella spp. are characterized by their vast metabolic potential. As members of the Prevotellaceae family, they represent the most abundant organisms in the rumen and are typically found in monogastrics such as pigs and humans. Within their largely anoxic habitats, these bacteria are considered to rely primarily on fermentation for energy conservation. A recent study of the rumen microbiome identified multiple subunits of the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) belonging to different Prevotella spp. Commonly, the NQR is associated with biochemical energy generation by respiration. The existence of this Na+ pump in Prevotella spp. may indicate an important role for electrochemical Na+ gradients in their anaerobic metabolism. However, detailed information about the potential activity of the NQR in Prevotella spp. is not available. Here, the presence of a functioning NQR in the strictly anaerobic model organism P. bryantii B14 was verified by conducting mass spectrometric, biochemical, and kinetic experiments. Our findings propose that P. bryantii B14 and other Prevotella spp. retrieved from the rumen operate a respiratory NQR together with a fumarate reductase which suggests that these ruminal bacteria utilize a sodium motive force generated during respiratory NADH:fumarate oxidoreduction.
Project description:Understanding the relationship between ingested plant material and the attached microbiome is essential for developing methodologies to improve ruminant nutrient use efficiency. We have previously shown that perennial ryegrass (PRG) rumen bacterial colonization events follow a primary (up to 4 h) and secondary (after 4 h) pattern based on the differences in diversity of the attached bacteria. In this study, we investigated temporal niche specialization of primary and secondary populations of attached rumen microbiota using metagenomic shotgun sequencing as well as monitoring changes in the plant chemistry using mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Metagenomic Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) taxonomical analysis of shotgun metagenomic sequences showed that the genera Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Prevotella, and Selenomonas dominated the attached microbiome irrespective of time. MG-RAST also showed that Acidaminococcus, Bacillus, Butyrivibrio, and Prevotella rDNA increased in read abundance during secondary colonization, whilst Blautia decreased in read abundance. MG-RAST Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional analysis also showed that the primary function of the attached microbiome was categorized broadly within "metabolism;" predominantly amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and transport. Most sequence read abundances (51.6, 43.8, and 50.0% of COG families pertaining to amino acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, respectively) within these categories were higher in abundance during secondary colonization. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis confirmed that the PRG-attached microbiota present at 1 and 4 h of rumen incubation possess a similar functional capacity, with only a few pathways being uniquely found in only one incubation time point only. FT-IR data for the plant residues also showed that the main changes in plant chemistry between primary and secondary colonization was due to increased carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. This study confirmed primary and secondary colonization events and supported the hypothesis that functional changes occurred as a consequence of taxonomical changes. Sequences within the carbohydrate metabolism COG families contained only 3.2% of cellulose activities, on average across both incubation times (1 and 4 h), suggesting that degradation of the plant cell walls may be a key rate-limiting factor in ensuring the bioavailability of intra-plant nutrients in a timely manner to the microbes and ultimately the animal. This suggests that a future focus for improving ruminant nutrient use efficiency should be altering the recalcitrant plant cell wall components and/or improving the cellulolytic capacity of the rumen microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microorganisms are responsible for fermentation within the rumen and have been reported to contribute to the variation in feed efficiency of cattle. However, to what extent the breed affects the rumen microbiome and its association with host feed efficiency is unknown. Here, rumen microbiomes of beef cattle (n?=?48) from three breeds (Angus, Charolais, Kinsella composite hybrid) with high and low feed efficiency were explored using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, aiming to identify differences between functional potentials and activities of same rumen microbiomes and to evaluate the effects of host breed and feed efficiency on the rumen microbiome. RESULTS:Rumen metagenomes were more closely clustered together and thus more conserved among individuals than metatranscriptomes, suggesting that inter-individual functional variations at the RNA level were higher than those at the DNA level. However, while mRNA enrichment significantly increased the sequencing depth of mRNA and generated similar functional profiles to total RNA-based metatranscriptomics, it led to biased abundance estimation of several transcripts. We observed divergent rumen microbial composition (metatranscriptomic level) and functional potentials (metagenomic level) among three breeds, but differences in functional activity (metatranscriptomic level) were less apparent. Differential rumen microbial features (e.g., taxa, diversity indices, functional categories, and genes) were detected between cattle with high and low feed efficiency, and most of them were breed-specific. CONCLUSIONS:Metatranscriptomes represent real-time functional activities of microbiomes and have the potential to better associate rumen microorganisms with host performances compared to metagenomics. As total RNA-based metatranscriptomics seem to avoid potential biases caused by mRNA enrichment and allow simultaneous use of rRNA for generation of compositional profiles, we suggest their use for linking the rumen microbiome with host phenotypes in future studies. However, if exploration of specific lowly expressed genes is desired, mRNA enrichment is recommended as it will enhance the resolution of mRNA. Finally, the differential microbial features observed between efficient and inefficient steers tended to be specific to breeds, suggesting that interactions between host breed genotype and the rumen microbiome contribute to the variations in feed efficiency observed. These breed-associated differences represent an opportunity to engineer specific rumen microbiomes through selective breeding of the hosts.