Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis.
ABSTRACT: Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21(T). Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure.
Project description:Two genes, md1 and md2, coding for multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette transporters were identified in Mycoplasma hominis PG21. Expression of these two genes, quantified by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR, was significantly increased in ethidium bromide-resistant strains of M. hominis compared to that in M. hominis PG21.
Project description:The mechanisms of intrinsic resistance of Mycoplasma hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides were investigated in comparison with those of M. pneumoniae, which is naturally susceptible to macrolides. Radiolabeled erythromycin was not accumulated by M. hominis PG21, but addition of an ABC transporter inhibitor increased the level of erythromycin uptake more than two times, suggesting the existence of an active efflux process. The affinity of [(14)C]erythromycin to ribosomes isolated from M. hominis was dramatically reduced relative to that to ribosomes isolated from M. pneumoniae. The nucleotide sequences of 23S rRNA of both ribosomal operons rrnA and rrnB and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of M. hominis were obtained. Compared to the sequence of M. pneumoniae, M. hominis harbored a G2057A transition in its 23S rRNA sequence, as did M. fermentans, another mycoplasma that is erythromycin resistant. An additional C2610U change was also found in the sequence of M. hominis. Moreover, two M. hominis clinical isolates with acquired resistance to 16-membered macrolides were examined for mutations in domain II and domain V of 23S rRNA and in ribosomal proteins L4 and L22. Compared to the sequence of reference strain PG21, one isolate harbored a A2059G transition and a C2611U transition in one of the two rrn operons, while the other one was mutated only at position 2059, also on the same operon. No mutation was found in the two ribosomal protein sequences. Overall, the present study is an exhaustive characterization of the intrinsic resistance of M. hominis to 14- and 15-membered macrolides and the first description of mycoplasma clinical isolates resistant to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin antibiotics harboring a mutation at position 2611 in the 23S rRNA.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Mycoplasma hominis were selected in vitro from the PG21 susceptible reference strain either by multistep selection on increasing concentrations of various fluoroquinolones or by one-step selection on agar medium with ofloxacin. The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the structural genes encoding the A and b subunits of DNA gyrase were amplified by PCR, and the nucleotide sequences of eight multistep-selected resistant strains were compared to those of susceptible strain PG21. Four high-level resistant mutants that were selected on norfloxacin or ofloxacin contained a C-to-T transition in the gyrA QRDR, leading to substitution of Ser-83 by Leu in the GyrA protein. Analysis of the sequence of the gyrB QRDR of the eight multistep-selected mutants did not reveal any difference compared to that of the gyrB QRDR of the reference strain M. hominis PG21. Similar analyses of eight one-step-selected mutants did not reveal any base change in the gyrA and gyrB QRDRs. These results suggest that in M. hominis, like in other bacterial species, a gyrA mutation at Ser-83 is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 has been determined and the gene content ascribed. The 715,165-bp chromosome contains 620 genes, including 14 carried by a strain-variable prophage genome related to Mycoplasma fermentans MFV-1 and Mycoplasma arthritidis MAV-1. Comparative analysis with the genome of M. hominis PG21(T) reveals distinctive arrangements of repeat-containing surface proteins.
Project description:A monoclonal antibody was used to characterize a 135-kDa surface-located membrane protein (Lmp1) generally present in Mycoplasma hominis strains. The monoclonal antibody, 552, was applied to identify the corresponding gene in an expression library of M. hominis PG21 DNA. The M. hominis PG21 lmp1 gene was sequenced, and its gene product was characterized with the goal of elucidating the structure and function of Lmp1. A total of 7,196 bp in the lmp1 region was sequenced. An open reading frame of 4,032 bp, encoding a protein of 1,344 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 147,000, was identified. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence predicted a hydrophilic protein with a basic pI (10.0). The N-terminal 24 amino acids were a typical leader sequence. Downstream from the first 726 nucleotides, six similar direct repeats of 471 nucleotides were found. In repeat 7, a single-base substitution, C-->A, gave rise to the stop codon of lmp1. Thus, the C-terminal 945 amino acids were encoded by the 471-bp direct repeats. As evidenced by Southern blot analysis, the gene encoding the 135-kDa antigen is part of a multigene family. One of the genes, lmp2, was situated directly downstream from lmp1 where the direct repeats continued.
Project description:Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is associated with spontaneous preterm labor and adverse pregnancy outcome, and Mycoplasma hominis often is present. However, the pathogenic process by which M hominis invades the amniotic cavity and gestational tissues, often resulting in chorioamnionitis and preterm birth, remains unknown. We hypothesized that strains of M hominis vary genetically with regards to their potential to invade and colonize the amniotic cavity and placenta.We sequenced the entire genomes of 2 amniotic fluid isolates and a placental isolate of M hominis from pregnancies that resulted in preterm births and compared them with the previously sequenced genome of the type strain PG21. We identified genes that were specific to the amniotic fluid/placental isolates. We then determined the microbial burden and the presence of these genes in another set of subjects from whom samples of amniotic fluid had been collected and were positive for M hominis.We identified 2 genes that encode surface-located membrane proteins (Lmp1 and Lmp-like) in the sequenced amniotic fluid/placental isolates that were truncated severely in PG21. We also identified, for the first time, a microbial gene of unknown function that is referred to in this study as gene of interest C that was associated significantly with bacterial burden in amniotic fluid and the risk of preterm delivery in patients with preterm labor.A gene in M hominis was identified that is associated significantly with colonization and/or infection of the upper reproductive tract during pregnancy and with preterm birth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mycoplasma hominis is a human urogenital pathogen involved in gynaecological, neonatal and extra-genital infections. However, no versatile genetic tools are currently available to study the pathogenicity of this bacterium. Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) is a reverse-genetic method that combines point mutations induced by chemical mutagenesis with a DNA screening technique. We used ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) that introduces C-G to T-A transition mutations to generate a library of M. hominis mutants. As a proof of concept, mutagenized organisms were screened for mutations in two target genes previously associated with the mycoplasma pathogenicity, the vaa gene encoding an adhesin lipoprotein and the oppA gene encoding the main ectoATPase of the bacterium. The resulting mutants were evaluated using functional assays, an adhesion to HeLa cell assay for vaa-mutants and an ATPase activity test for oppA-mutants. RESULTS:A 1200-clone library was generated by exposing M. hominis PG21 to 9 mg/mL EMS for 3 h. To identify mutants of interest, targeted gene fragments were amplified, heat-denatured, slowly reannealed and digested with the mismatch-specific endonuclease ENDO1. If multiple alleles were present in the PCR amplicons, these alleles formed heteroduplexes during reannealing that were specifically cleaved by ENDO1 at mismatching positions. A total of four vaa-mutants and two oppA-mutants harbouring missense mutations were obtained and fully sequenced. Zero to eight additional mutations were identified in the genomes of each mutant. The vaa-mutants were tested for adhesion to immobilized HeLa cells but their adhesion was not significantly different from the adhesion of M. hominis PG21. One of the two oppA-mutants that were tested for ATPase activity presented a higher affinity for its ATP substrate than the parental strain. CONCLUSION:For the first time, we demonstrated that M. hominis gene-targeted mutants could be successfully obtained using this TILLING strategy. In the absence of robust genetic tools for studying M. hominis, the TILLING strategy that can target any gene of the genome could help to elucidate gene functions and to better understand the pathogenesis of this human pathogenic species.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis is a heterogeneous species with DNA-DNA hybridization values ranging from 51 to 100%. We report here the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of a strain (183) that greatly differs from the type strain (PG21) of this species. Comparison of 16S rDNA sequences from these two strains showed limited differences, indicating that the two strains belong to the same rRNA species complex. Using these nucleotide sequence data, we established a rapid method for the detection of M. hominis by using polymerase chain reaction. This method was shown to be sensitive and specific when tested with reference strains and clinical isolates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hominis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, post partum fever, sepsis and infections of the central nervous system often leading to serious conditions. Association with development of female infertility has also been suggested, but different publications present different results. We developed a sensitive and fast diagnostic real-time PCR to test clinical samples from women undergoing laparoscopic examination before fertility treatment. To develop a test for the detection and quantification of M. hominis we selected a housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), as a target. RESULTS: Real-time PCR was optimized to detect 10 copies of M. hominis PG21 genomic DNA. A fluorescence signal was measured for all 20 other M. hominis isolates, and melting curves analysis showed variations in the melting temperature in agreement with sequence variation in the region of the probes. There was no amplification of other mycoplasmal DNA and human DNA. Eighty-three patient cervical swab samples from infertile women were cultured for M. hominis in the BEa medium. Two of the samples (2.4%) were positive after 48 hours of incubation. The real-time PCR detected the same two samples positive, and the DNA concentrations in the clinical specimens were calculated to 37.000 copies/ml and 88.500 copies/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that real-time PCR may prove to be a rapid alternative to the traditional cultivation method. Information on bacterial load in genital swabs can be obtained. The assay allowed detection of M. hominis in a closed system reducing the risk of contamination by amplicon carry-over.
Project description:The features of Mycoplasma in human organ such lung and urinary tract are enigmatic. Here, the role of M. hominis in regard to biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 was investigated. Although M. hominis were inferred to not impact on UPEC bacterial fitness including growth and productions of signaling molecules as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and indole, we found that the presence of M. hominis dramatically decreased biofilm formation of UPEC CFT073 as well as slightly repressed attachment and cytotoxicity of that. Importantly, this activity was observed on UPEC strain specifically, not enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain that exists on intestine. Whole-transcriptome profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed PhoPQ system and anti-termination protein (encoded by ybcQ) participates on the reduction of biofilm formation by M. hominis (corroborated by qRT-PCR). Furthermore, collaborating with previous report that toxin-antitoxin (TA) system involved in biofilm formation, M. hominis increased on the transcriptions of toxin genes including hha (toxin gene in Hha-TomB TA system) and pasT (toxin part in PasT-PasI TA system). Hence, we propose that one possible role of M. hominis is to influence bacterial biofilm formation in urinary tract. Only fourteen genes were induced (2.5-fold) by the presence of M. hominis in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm cells. Among upregulated genes, ybcQ (encodes anti-termination protein Q homolog) and phoP/phoQ (encode DNA-binding response regulators in two-component regulatory system), were induced by the presence of M. hominis. Two-condition experiment, UPEC CFT073 alone vs. UPEC CFT073 with Mycoplasma hominis PG21 (10^5 ccu/ml). For preparing the total RNA, UPEC CFT073 cells were grown at 37°C in biofilm cells on glass wool with or without M. hominis for 24 h.