Simultaneous Pathoproteomic Evaluation of the Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex and Secondary Changes in the mdx-4cv Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
ABSTRACT: In skeletal muscle, the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex forms a membrane-associated assembly of relatively low abundance, making its detailed proteomic characterization in normal versus dystrophic tissues technically challenging. To overcome this analytical problem, we have enriched the muscle membrane fraction by a minimal differential centrifugation step followed by the comprehensive label-free mass spectrometric analysis of microsomal membrane preparations. This organelle proteomic approach successfully identified dystrophin and its binding partners in normal versus dystrophic hind limb muscles. The introduction of a simple pre-fractionation step enabled the simultaneous proteomic comparison of the reduction in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and secondary changes in the mdx-4cv mouse model of dystrophinopathy in a single analytical run. The proteomic screening of the microsomal fraction from dystrophic hind limb muscle identified the full-length dystrophin isoform Dp427 as the most drastically reduced protein in dystrophinopathy, demonstrating the remarkable analytical power of comparative muscle proteomics. Secondary pathoproteomic expression patterns were established for 281 proteins, including dystrophin-associated proteins and components involved in metabolism, signalling, contraction, ion-regulation, protein folding, the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Key findings were verified by immunoblotting. Increased levels of the sarcolemmal Na+/K+-ATPase in dystrophic leg muscles were also confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Thus, the reduction of sample complexity in organelle-focused proteomics can be advantageous for the profiling of supramolecular protein complexes in highly intricate systems, such as skeletal muscle tissue.
Project description:The full-length dystrophin protein isoform of 427 kDa (Dp427), the absence of which represents the principal abnormality in X-linked muscular dystrophy, is difficult to identify and characterize by routine proteomic screening approaches of crude tissue extracts. This is probably related to its large molecular size, its close association with the sarcolemmal membrane, and its existence within a heterogeneous glycoprotein complex. Here, we used a careful extraction procedure to isolate the total protein repertoire from normal versus dystrophic mdx-4cv skeletal muscles, in conjunction with label-free mass spectrometry, and successfully identified Dp427 by proteomic means. In contrast to a considerable number of previous comparative studies of the total skeletal muscle proteome, using whole tissue proteomics we show here for the first time that the reduced expression of this membrane cytoskeletal protein is the most significant alteration in dystrophinopathy. This agrees with the pathobiochemical concept that the almost complete absence of dystrophin is the main defect in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that the mdx-4cv mouse model of dystrophinopathy exhibits only very few revertant fibers. Significant increases in collagens and associated fibrotic marker proteins, such as fibronectin, biglycan, asporin, decorin, prolargin, mimecan, and lumican were identified in dystrophin-deficient muscles. The up-regulation of collagen in mdx-4cv muscles was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. Thus, this is the first mass spectrometric study of crude tissue extracts that puts the proteomic identification of dystrophin in its proper pathophysiological context.
Project description:The neuromuscular disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a multi-systemic disease that is caused by a primary abnormality in the X-chromosomal Dmd gene. Although progressive skeletal muscle wasting and cardio-respiratory complications are the most serious symptoms that are directly linked to the almost complete loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, dystrophic patients also suffer from gastrointestinal dysfunction. In order to determine whether proteome-wide changes potentially occur in the gastrointestinal system due to dystrophin deficiency, total tissue extracts from the interface between the stomach wall and the pancreas of the mdx-4cv model of dystrophinopathy were analysed by mass spectrometry. Following the proteomic establishment of both smooth muscle markers of the gastrointestinal system and key enzymes of the pancreas, core members of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, including dystrophin, dystroglycans, sarcoglycans, dystrobrevins and syntrophins were identified in this tissue preparation. Comparative proteomics revealed a drastic reduction in dystrophin, sarcoglycan, dystroglycan, laminin, titin and filamin suggesting loss of cytoskeletal integrity in mdx-4cv smooth muscles. A concomitant increase in various mitochondrial enzymes is indicative of metabolic disturbances. These findings agree with abnormal gastrointestinal function in dystrophinopathy.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy is primarily characterized by progressive muscle wasting due to deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin but is also associated with body-wide cellular disturbances in a variety of non-muscle tissues. In this study, we have focused on the comparative proteomic analysis of the spleen and established considerable changes in this crucial secondary lymphoid organ from the genetic mdx-4cv mouse model of dystrophinopathy. An apparent short isoform of dystrophin and associated glycoproteins were identified in spleen by mass spectrometry but appear not be affected in muscular dystrophy. In contrast, the mdx-4cv spleen showed significant proteome-wide changes in other protein species that are involved in metabolism, signaling, and cellular architecture. Since the spleen plays a key role in the immune response, these proteomic alterations may reflect pathophysiological cross talk between the lymphoid system and dystrophic muscles, which are affected by both fiber degeneration and inflammation.
Project description:Extraocular muscles (EOMs) represent a specialized type of contractile tissue with unique cellular, physiological, and biochemical properties. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, EOMs stay functionally unaffected in the course of disease progression. Therefore, it was of interest to determine their proteomic profile in dystrophinopathy. The proteomic survey of wild type mice and the dystrophic <i>mdx-4cv</i> model revealed a broad spectrum of sarcomere-associated proteoforms, including components of the thick filament, thin filament, M-band and Z-disk, as well as a variety of muscle-specific markers. Interestingly, the mass spectrometric analysis revealed unusual expression levels of contractile proteins, especially isoforms of myosin heavy chain. As compared to diaphragm muscle, both proteomics and immunoblotting established isoform MyHC14 as a new potential marker in wild type EOMs, in addition to the previously identified isoforms MyHC13 and MyHC15. Comparative proteomics was employed to establish alterations in the protein expression profile between normal EOMs and dystrophin-lacking EOMs. The analysis of <i>mdx-4cv</i> EOMs identified elevated levels of glycolytic enzymes and molecular chaperones, as well as decreases in mitochondrial enzymes. These findings suggest a process of adaptation in dystrophin-deficient EOMs via a bioenergetic shift to more glycolytic metabolism, as well as an efficient cellular stress response in EOMs in dystrophinopathy.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a highly progressive muscle wasting disease with a complex pathophysiology that is based on primary abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. In order to study potential changes in the oligomerization of high-molecular-mass protein complexes in dystrophic skeletal muscle, chemical crosslinking was combined with mass spectrometric analysis. The biochemical stabilization of protein interactions was carried out with the homo-bifunctional and amine-reactive agent bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate, followed by protein shift analysis in one-dimensional gels. The proteomic approach identified 11 and 15 protein species in wild type versus dystrophic microsomal fractions, respectively, as well as eight common proteins, with an electrophoretic mobility shift to very high molecular mass following chemical crosslinking. In dystrophin-deficient preparations, several protein species with an increased tendency of oligomerisation were identified as components of the sarcolemma and its associated intra- and extracellular structures, as well as mitochondria. This included the sarcolemmal proteins myoferlin and caveolin, the cytoskeletal components vimentin and tubulin, extracellular collagen alpha-1(XII) and the mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. These changes are probably related to structural and metabolic adaptations, especially cellular repair processes, which agrees with the increased oligomerisation of myosin-3, myosin-9 and actin, and their role in cellular regeneration and structural adjustments in dystrophinopathy.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein expression patterns in the muscle subtypes from mdx mice may be due to dissimilar downstream events, including differences in muscle structure or compensatory mechanisms that counteract pathophysiological processes. The interosseus muscle from mdx mice possibly represents a naturally protected phenotype.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Comprehensive genetic testing for dystrophinopathy can detect ?95% of pathogenic variants in the dystrophin gene (DMD) and is often the preferred diagnostic approach. METHODS:We reviewed pathology reports for muscle biopsies evaluated at the University of Iowa with a pathological diagnosis of dystrophinopathy based on dystrophic histopathology and abnormal immunofluorescence staining: reduced to absent dystrophin, expression of utrophin, and loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS:The percentage of muscle biopsies with dystrophinopathy has been stable since 1997. Among 2,298 biopsies evaluated between 2011 and 2016, 72 (3.1%) had pathologic features of dystrophinopathy. Median age at biopsy was 8 years (range, 0.66-84). Half had undergone DMD genetic testing prior to biopsy. Clinical phenotypes recorded on requisitions were typical of muscular dystrophy for 57 (79%) biopsies. DISCUSSION:Muscle biopsy continues to play an important role in the diagnosis of dystrophinopathy, particularly in patients with later symptom onset, comorbidities, or normal DMD genetic testing results. Muscle Nerve, 2018.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the progression of muscular dystrophy, and recent studies have reported the role of MMP-10 in skeletal muscle pathology of young dystrophic mice. Nevertheless, its involvement in dystrophin-deficient hearts remains unexplored. Here, we aimed to investigate the involvement of MMP-10 in the progression of severe muscular dystrophy and to characterize MMP-10 loss in skeletal and cardiac muscles of aged dystrophic mice. We examined the histopathological effect of MMP-10 ablation in aged <i>mdx</i> mice, both in the hind limb muscles and heart tissues. We found that MMP-10 loss compromises survival rates of aged <i>mdx</i> mice, with skeletal and cardiac muscles developing a chronic inflammatory response. Our findings indicate that MMP-10 is implicated in severe muscular dystrophy progression, thus identifying a new area of research that could lead to future therapies for dystrophic muscles.
Project description:In this article, we illustrate the application of difference in-gel electrophoresis for the proteomic analysis of dystrophic skeletal muscle. The mdx diaphragm was used as a tissue model of dystrophinopathy. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a widely employed protein separation method in proteomic investigations. Although two-dimensional gels usually underestimate the cellular presence of very high molecular mass proteins, integral membrane proteins and low copy number proteins, this method is extremely powerful in the comprehensive analysis of contractile proteins, metabolic enzymes, structural proteins and molecular chaperones. This gives rise to two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation as the method of choice for studying contractile tissues in health and disease. For comparative studies, fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis has been shown to provide an excellent biomarker discovery tool. Since aged diaphragm fibres from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy closely resemble the human pathology, we have carried out a mass spectrometry-based comparison of the naturally aged diaphragm versus the senescent dystrophic diaphragm. The proteomic comparison of wild type versus mdx diaphragm resulted in the identification of 84 altered protein species. Novel molecular insights into dystrophic changes suggest increased cellular stress, impaired calcium buffering, cytostructural alterations and disturbances of mitochondrial metabolism in dystrophin-deficient muscle tissue.
Project description:X-linked muscular dystrophy is a highly progressive disease of childhood and characterized by primary genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene. Senescent mdx specimens were used for a large-scale survey of potential age-related alterations in the dystrophic phenotype, because the established mdx animal model of dystrophinopathy exhibits progressive deterioration of muscle tissue with age. Since the mdx tibialis anterior muscle is a frequently used model system in muscular dystrophy research, we employed this particular muscle to determine global changes in the dystrophic skeletal muscle proteome. The comparison of mdx mice aged 8 weeks versus 22 months by mass-spectrometry-based proteomics revealed altered expression levels in 8 distinct protein species. Increased levels were shown for carbonic anhydrase, aldolase, and electron transferring flavoprotein, while the expressions of pyruvate kinase, myosin, tropomyosin, and the small heat shock protein Hsp27 were found to be reduced in aged muscle. Immunoblotting confirmed age-dependent changes in the density of key muscle proteins in mdx muscle. Thus, segmental necrosis in mdx tibialis anterior muscle appears to trigger age-related protein perturbations due to dystrophin deficiency. The identification of novel indicators of progressive muscular dystrophy might be useful for the establishment of a muscle subtype-specific biomarker signature of dystrophinopathy.