Structural Insight into and Mutational Analysis of Family 11 Xylanases: Implications for Mechanisms of Higher pH Catalytic Adaptation.
ABSTRACT: To understand the molecular basis of higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases, we compared the structures of alkaline, neutral, and acidic active xylanases and analyzed mutants of xylanase Xyn11A-LC from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. SN5. It was revealed that alkaline active xylanases have increased charged residue content, an increased ratio of negatively to positively charged residues, and decreased Ser, Thr, and Tyr residue content relative to non-alkaline active counterparts. Between strands ?6 and ?7, alkaline xylanases substitute an ?-helix for a coil or turn found in their non-alkaline counterparts. Compared with non-alkaline xylanases, alkaline active enzymes have an inserted stretch of seven amino acids rich in charged residues, which may be beneficial for xylanase function in alkaline conditions. Positively charged residues on the molecular surface and ionic bonds may play important roles in higher pH catalytic adaptation of family 11 xylanases. By structure comparison, sequence alignment and mutational analysis, six amino acids (Glu16, Trp18, Asn44, Leu46, Arg48, and Ser187, numbering based on Xyn11A-LC) adjacent to the acid/base catalyst were found to be responsible for xylanase function in higher pH conditions. Our results will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of higher pH catalytic adaptation in family 11 xylanases and engineering xylanases to suit industrial applications.
Project description:Family 11 alkaline xylanases have great potential economic applications in the pulp and paper industry. In this study, we would improve the alkalophilicity of family 11 alkaline xylanase Xyn11A-LC from Bacillus sp. SN5, for the better application in this field.A random mutation library of Xyn11A-LC with about 10,000 clones was constructed by error-prone PCR. One mutant, M52-C10 (V116A and E135V), with improved alkalophilicity was obtained from the library. Site-directed mutation showed that the mutation E135V was responsible for the alkalophilicity of the mutant. The variant E135V shifted the optimum pH of the wild-type enzyme from 7.5 to 8.0. Compared to the relative activities of the wild type enzyme, those of the mutant E135V increased by 17.5, 18.9, 14.3 and 9.5 % at pH 8.5, 9.0, 9.5 and 10.0, respectively. Furthermore, Glu135 saturation mutagenesis showed that the only mutant to have better alkalophilicity than E135V was E135R. The optimal pH of the mutant E135R was 8.5, 1.0 pH units higher than that of the wild-type. In addition, compared to the wild-type enzyme, the mutations E135V and E135R increased the catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) by 57 and 37 %, respectively. Structural analysis showed that the residue at position 135, located in the eight-residue loop on the protein surface, might improve the alkalophilicity and catalytic activity by the elimination of the negative charge and the formation of salt-bridge.Mutants E135V and E135R with improved alkalophilicity were obtained by directed evolution and site saturation mutagenesis. The residue at position 135 in the eight-residue loop on the protein surface was found to play an important role in the pH activity profile of family 11 xylanases. This study provided alkalophilic mutants for application in bleaching process, and it was also helpful to understand the alkaline adaptation mechanism of family 11 xylanases.
Project description:Pseudomonas cellulosa is a highly efficient xylan-degrading bacterium. Genes encoding five xylanases, and several accessory enzymes, which remove the various side chains that decorate the xylan backbone, have been isolated from the pseudomonad and characterized. The xylanase genes consist of xyn10A, xyn10B, xyn10C, xyn10D, and xyn11A, which encode Xyn10A, Xyn10B, Xyn10C, Xyn10D, and Xyn11A, respectively. In this study a sixth xylanase gene, xyn11B, was isolated which encodes a 357-residue modular enzyme, designated Xyn11B, comprising a glycoside hydrolase family 11 catalytic domain appended to a C-terminal X-14 module, a homologue of which binds to xylan. Localization studies showed that the two xylanases with glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 11 catalytic modules, Xyn11A and Xyn11B, are secreted into the culture medium, whereas Xyn10C is membrane bound. xyn10C, xyn10D, xyn11A, and xyn11B were all abundantly expressed when the bacterium was cultured on xylan or beta-glucan but not on medium containing mannan, whereas glucose repressed transcription of these genes. Although all of the xylanase genes were induced by the same polysaccharides, temporal regulation of xyn11A and xyn11B was apparent on xylan-containing media. Transcription of xyn11A occurred earlier than transcription of xyn11B, which is consistent with the predicted mode of action of the encoded enzymes. Xyn11A, but not Xyn11B, exhibits xylan esterase activity, and the removal of acetate side chains is required for xylanases to hydrolyze the xylan backbone. A transposon mutant of P. cellulosa in which xyn11A and xyn11B were inactive displayed greatly reduced extracellular but normal cell-associated xylanase activity, and its growth rate on medium containing xylan was indistinguishable from wild-type P. cellulosa. Based on the data presented here, we propose a model for xylan degradation by P. cellulosa in which the GH11 enzymes convert decorated xylans into substituted xylooligosaccharides, which are then hydrolyzed to their constituent sugars by the combined action of cell-associated GH10 xylanases and side chain-cleaving enzymes.
Project description:A multiple xylanase system with high levels of xylanase activity produced from Penicillium oxalicum GZ-2 using agricultural waste as a substrate has been previously reported. However, the eco-physiological properties and origin of the multiplicity of xylanases remain unclear. In the present study, eight active bands were detected using zymography, and all bands were identified as putative xylanases using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. These putative xylanases are encoded by six different xylanase genes. To evaluate the functions and eco-physiological properties of xylanase genes, xyn10A, xyn11A, xyn10B and xyn11B were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzymes xyn10A and xyn10B belong to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 xylanases, while xyn11A and xyn11B belong to GH11 xylanases. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant proteins revealed that all enzymes exhibited xylanase activity against xylans but with different substrate specificities, properties and kinetic parameters. These results demonstrated that the production of multiple xylanases in P. oxalicum GZ-2 was attributed to the genetic redundancy of xylanases and the post-translational modifications, providing insight into a more diverse xylanase system for the efficient degradation of complex hemicelluloses.
Project description:Two xylanase-encoding genes, named xyn11A and xyn10B, were isolated from a genomic library of Cellulomonas pachnodae by expression in Escherichia coli. The deduced polypeptide, Xyn11A, consists of 335 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 34,383 Da. Different domains could be identified in the Xyn11A protein on the basis of homology searches. Xyn11A contains a catalytic domain belonging to family 11 glycosyl hydrolases and a C-terminal xylan binding domain, which are separated from the catalytic domain by a typical linker sequence. Binding studies with native Xyn11A and a truncated derivative of Xyn11A, lacking the putative binding domain, confirmed the function of the two domains. The second xylanase, designated Xyn10B, consists of 1,183 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 124,136 Da. Xyn10B also appears to be a modular protein, but typical linker sequences that separate the different domains were not identified. It comprises a N-terminal signal peptide followed by a stretch of amino acids that shows homology to thermostabilizing domains. Downstream of the latter domain, a catalytic domain specific for family 10 glycosyl hydrolases was identified. A truncated derivative of Xyn10B bound tightly to Avicel, which was in accordance with the identified cellulose binding domain at the C terminus of Xyn10B on the basis of homology. C. pachnodae, a (hemi)cellulolytic bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut of herbivorous Pachnoda marginata larvae, secretes at least two xylanases in the culture fluid. Although both Xyn11A and Xyn10B had the highest homology to xylanases from Cellulomonas fimi, distinct differences in the molecular organizations of the xylanases from the two Cellulomonas species were identified.
Project description:Most common industrial xylanases are produced from filamentous fungi. In this study, the codon-optimized xynA gene encoding xylanase A from the fungus Penicilium citrinum was successfully synthesized and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The levels of secreted enzyme activity under the control of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PGAP) and alcohol oxidase 1 (PAOX1) promoters were compared. The Pc Xyn11A was produced as a soluble protein and the total xylanase activity under the control of PGAP and PAOX1 was 34- and 193-fold, respectively, higher than that produced by the native strain of P. citrinum. The Pc Xyn11A produced under the control of the PAOX1 reached a maximum activity of 676 U/mL when induced with 1% (v/v) methanol every 24 h for 5 days. The xylanase was purified by ion exchange chromatography and then characterized. The enzyme was optimally active at 55 °C and pH 5.0 but stable over a broad pH range (3.0-9.0), retaining more than 80% of the original activity after 24 h or after pre-incubation at 40 °C for 1 h. With birchwood xylan as a substrate, Pc Xyn11A showed a Km(app) of 2.8 mg/mL, and a kcat of 243 s-1. The high level of secretion of Pc Xyn11A and its stability over a wide range of pH and moderate temperatures could make it useful for a variety of biotechnological applications.
Project description:Endo-beta-1,4-xylanases of the family 11 glycosyl-hydrolases are catalytically active over a wide range of pH. Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38 belongs to this family, and its optimum pH for enzymatic activity is 6. Xyn11 from Bacillus agaradhaerens and XylJ from Bacillus sp. 41M-1 share 85% sequence identity and have been described as highly alkalophilic enzymes. In an attempt to better understand the alkalophilic adaptation of xylanases, the three-dimensional structures of Xyn11 and Xyl1 were compared. This comparison highlighted an increased number of salt-bridges and the presence of more charged residues in the catalytic cleft as well as an eight-residue-longer loop in the alkalophilic xylanase Xyn11. Some of these charges were introduced in the structure of Xyl1 by site-directed mutagenesis with substitutions Y16D, S18E, G50R, N92D, A135Q, E139K, and Y186E. Furthermore, the eight additional loop residues of Xyn11 were introduced in the homologous loop of Xyl1. In addition, the coding sequence of the XylJ catalytic domain was synthesized by recursive PCR, expressed in a Streptomyces host, purified, and characterized together with the Xyl1 mutants. The Y186E substitution inactivated Xyl1, but the activity was restored when this mutation was combined with the G50R or S18E substitutions. Interestingly, the E139K mutation raised the optimum pH of Xyl1 from 6 to 7.5 but had no effect when combined with the N92D substitution. Modeling studies identified the possible formation of an interaction between the introduced lysine and the substrate, which could be eliminated by the formation of a putative salt-bridge in the N92D/E139K mutant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Replacing fossil fuel with renewable sources such as lignocellulosic biomass is currently a promising alternative for obtaining biofuel and for fighting against the consequences of climate change. However, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic biomass residues constitutes a major limitation for its widespread use in industry. The efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials requires the complementary action of multiple enzymes including xylanases and ?-xylosidases, which are responsible for cleaving exo- and endoxylan linkages, that release oligocarbohydrates that can be further processed by other enzymes. RESULTS:We have identified the endo-?-1,4-xylanase Xyl2 from Fusarium oxysporum as a promising glycoside hydrolase family 11 enzyme for the industrial degradation of xylan. To characterize Xyl2, we have cloned the synthetic optimized gene and expressed and purified recombinant Xyl2 to homogeneity, finally obtaining 10 mg pure Xyl2 per liter of culture. The crystal structure of Xyl2 at 1.56 Å resolution and the structure of a methyl-xylopyranoside Xyl2 complex at 2.84 Å resolution cast a highly detailed view of the active site of the enzyme, revealing the molecular basis for the high catalytic efficiency of Xyl2. The kinetic analysis of Xyl2 demonstrates high xylanase activity and non-negligible ?-xylosidase activity under a variety of experimental conditions including alkaline pH and elevated temperature. Immobilizing Xyl2 on a variety of solid supports enhances the enzymatic properties that render Xyl2 a promising industrial biocatalyst, which, together with the detailed structural data, may establish Xyl2 as a platform for future developments of industrially relevant xylanases. CONCLUSIONS:F. oxysporum Xyl2 is a GH11 xylanase which is highly active in free form and immobilized onto a variety of solid supports in a wide pH range. Furthermore, immobilization of Xyl2 on certain supports significantly increases its thermal stability. A mechanistic rationale for Xyl2's remarkable catalytic efficiency at alkaline pH is proposed on the basis of two crystallographic structures. Together, these properties render Xyl2 an attractive biocatalyst for the sustainable industrial degradation of xylan.
Project description:Industrial applications of xylanases have made this enzyme an important subject of applied research work. Function of this particular enzyme is to degrade or hydrolyze the plentiful polysaccharide xylan, an important component of hemicellulose. It mainly cleaves the backbone of xylan that is made up of a number of xylose residues connected with ?-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Fungi with mycelia are regarded as the best producer of xylanases. These varied xylanases not only differ in their sizes and shapes but also differ in their physicochemical properties. Depending on the optimum pH in which they work best, they have been classified into (1) acidophilic xylanases active at low pH or acidic pH range, (2) alkaliphilic xylanases that are active at high or alkaline pH range and (3) neutral xylanases having pH optima in the neutral range between pH 5 and 7. Other researchers have classified the xylanases also on the basis of their structural properties, kinetic parameters, etc. This review discusses the molecular structures of some acidophilic xylanases and the molecular basis of low pH optima observed for their activities. It also discusses their unique catalytic mechanism and actual role of the catalytic residues found in them. Apart from these, the review also discusses different applications of these acidophilic xylanases in different industries. The article concludes with brief suggestions about how these acidophilic xylanases can be created employing the techniques of genetic engineering and concepts of synthetic evolution, using the traits of the known acidophilic xylanases discussed in the review.
Project description:Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38 belongs to the low molecular mass family 11 of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. Its three-dimensional structure has been solved at 2.0 A and its optimum temperature and pH for enzymatic activity are 60 degrees C and 6.0, respectively. Aspergillus kawachii xylanase XynC belongs to the same family but is an acidophilic enzyme with an optimum pH of 2.0. Structural comparison of Xyl1 and XynC showed differences in residues surrounding the two glutamic acid side chains involved in the catalysis that could be responsible for the acidophilic adaptation of XynC. Mutations W20Y, N48D, A134E, and Y193W were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and combined in multiple mutants. Trp 20 and Tyr 193 are involved in substrate binding. The Y193W mutation inactivated Xyl1 whereas W20Y decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 to 5.0 and slightly increased its specific activity. The N48D mutation also decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 by one unit. The A134E substitution did not induce any change, but when combined with N48D, a synergistic effect was observed with a 1.4 unit decrease in the optimum pH. Modeling showed that the orientations of residue 193 and of the fully conserved Arg 131 are different in acidophilic and "alkaline" xylanases whereas the introduced Tyr 20 probably modifies the pKa of the acid-base catalyst via residue Asn 48. Docking of a substrate analog in the catalytic site highlighted striking differences between Xyl1 and XynC in substrate binding. Hydrophobicity calculations showed a correlation between acidophilic adaptation and a decreased hydrophobicity around the two glutamic acid side chains involved in catalysis.
Project description:Xylanases produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS) from xylan and have thus attracted increasing attention for their usefulness in industrial applications. Previously, we demonstrated that the GH11 xylanase XynLC9 from Bacillus subtilis formed xylobiose and xylotriose as major products with negligible production of xylose when digesting corncob-extracted xylan. Here, we aimed to improve the catalytic performance of XynLC9 via protein engineering. Based on sequence and structural comparisons of XynLC9 with the xylanases Xyn2 from Trichoderma reesei and Xyn11A from Thermobifida fusca, we identified the N-terminal residues 5-YWQN-8 in XynLC9 as engineering hotspots and subjected this sequence to site-saturation and iterative mutagenesis. The mutants W6F/Q7H and N8Y possessed a 2.6- and 1.8-fold higher catalytic activity than XynLC9, respectively, and both mutants were also more thermostable. Kinetic measurements suggested that W6F/Q7H and N8Y had lower substrate affinity, but a higher turnover rate (k<sub>cat</sub>), which resulted in increased catalytic efficiency compared to wild type XynLC9. Furthermore, the W6F/Q7H mutant displayed a 160% increase in the yield of XOS from corncob-extracted xylan. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the W6F/Q7H and N8Y mutations led to an enlarged volume and surface area of the active site cleft, which provided more space for substrate entry and product release, and thus accelerated the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The molecular evolution approach adopted in this study provides the design of a library of sequences that captures a meaning functional diversity in a limited number of protein variants.