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Maternal ambient air pollution exposure preconception and during early gestation and offspring congenital orofacial defects.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Maternal air pollution exposure has been related to orofacial clefts but the literature is equivocal. Potential chronic preconception effects have not been studied. OBJECTIVES:Criteria air pollutant exposure during three months preconception and gestational weeks 3-8 was studied in relation to orofacial defects. METHODS:Among 188,102 live births and fetal deaths from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002-2008), 63 had isolated cleft palate (CP) and 159 had isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ±CP). Exposures were estimated using a modified Community Multiscale Air Quality model. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations adjusted for site/region and maternal demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI per interquartile increase in each pollutant. RESULTS:Preconception, carbon monoxide (CO; OR=2.24; CI: 1.21, 4.16) and particulate matter (PM) ?10 µm (OR=1.72; CI: 1.12, 2.66) were significantly associated with CP, while sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with CL ±CP (OR=1.93; CI: 1.16, 3.21). During gestational weeks 3-8, CO remained a significant risk for CP (OR=2.74; CI: 1.62, 4.62) and nitrogen oxides (NOx; OR=3.64; CI: 1.73, 7.66) and PM ?2.5 µm (PM2.5; OR=1.74; CI: 1.15, 2.64) were also related to the risk. Analyses by individual week revealed that positive associations of NOx and PM2.5 with CP were most prominent from weeks 3-6 and 3-5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to several criteria air pollutants preconception and during early gestation was associated with elevated odds for CP, while CL ±CP was only associated with preconception SO2 exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. METHODS:Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ? 2.5?m (PM2.5) and PM2.5 constituents, PM ? 10?m (PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1-24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Preconception maternal exposure to NOX (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. CONCLUSION:Maternal exposures to NOx and SO2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation.
Project description:Maternal asthma and air pollutants have been independently associated with preeclampsia but rarely studied together. Our objective was to comprehensively evaluate preeclampsia risk based on the interaction of maternal asthma and air pollutants. Preeclampsia and asthma diagnoses, demographic and clinical data came from electronic medical records for 210,508 singleton deliveries. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models estimated preconception, first and second trimester and whole pregnancy exposure to: particulate matter (PM)<2.5 and <10µm, ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO); PM2.5 constituents; volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Asthma-pollutant interaction adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preeclampsia were calculated by interquartile range for criteria pollutants and high exposure (?75th percentile) for PAHs and VOCs. Asthmatics had higher risk associated with first trimester NOx and SO2 and whole pregnancy elemental carbon (EC) exposure than non-asthmatics, but only EC significantly increased risk (RR=1.11, CI:1.03-1.21). Asthmatics also had a 10% increased risk associated with second trimester CO. Significant interactions were observed for nearly all VOCs and asthmatics had higher risk during all time windows for benzene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene and toluene while most PAHs did not increase risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambient air pollutants may increase preterm birth (PTB) risk, but critical exposure windows are uncertain. The interaction of asthma and pollutant exposure is rarely studied. OBJECTIVE:We sought to assess the interaction of maternal asthma and air pollutant exposures in relation to PTB risk. METHODS:Electronic medical records for 223,502 US deliveries were linked with modified Community Multiscale Air Quality model outputs. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations estimated the odds ratio and 95% CIs for PTB on the basis of the interaction of maternal asthma and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns, ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) per interquartile range. For each gestational week 23 to 36, exposures among women who delivered were compared with those remaining pregnant. Three-month preconception, whole pregnancy, weeks 1 to 28, and the last 6 weeks of gestation averages were also evaluated. RESULTS:On assessing PTB by gestational week, we found that significant asthma interactions were sporadic before 30 weeks but more common during weeks 34 to 36, with higher risk among mothers with asthma for NOx, CO, and SO2 exposure and an inverse association with O3 in week 34. Odds of PTB were significantly higher among women with asthma for CO and NOx exposure preconception and early in pregnancy. In the last 6 weeks of pregnancy, PTB risk associated with particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns was higher among women with asthma. CONCLUSIONS:Mothers with asthma may experience a higher risk for PTB after exposure to traffic-related pollutants such as CO and NOx, particularly for exposures 3-months preconception and in the early weeks of pregnancy.
Project description:Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent.Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates.Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (? 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI.In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that exposure to outdoor air pollutants may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. The results of these studies are inconsistent, but warrant further attention. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of relation between exposure to urban air pollution and the prevalence allergic rhinitis among school children. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 32,143 Taiwanese school children. We obtained routine air-pollution monitoring data for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10). A parent-administered questionnaire provided information on individual characteristics and indoor environments (response rate 92%). Municipal-level exposure was calculated using the mean of the 2000 monthly averages. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs) per 10 ppb change for SO2, NOx, and O3, 100 ppb change for CO, and 10 microg/m3 change for PM10. RESULTS: In two-stage hierarchical model adjusting for confounding, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with SO2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.64), CO (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07), and NOx (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15). Contrary to our hypothesis, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was weakly or not related to O3 (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12) and PM10 (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02). CONCLUSION: Persistent exposure to NOx, CO, and SO2 may increase the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children.
Project description:Cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) are the most common types of orofacial clefts in dogs. Orofacial clefts in dogs are clinically relevant because of the associated morbidity and high newborn mortality rate and are of interest as comparative models of disease. However, the incidence of CL, CP and CLP has not been investigated in purebred dogs, and the financial impact on breeders is unknown. The aims of this study were to document the incidence patterns of CL, CP and CLP in different breeds of dogs, determine whether defect phenotype is associated with skull type, genetic cluster and geographic location, and estimate the financial impact in breeding programs in the United States by means of an anonymous online survey. A total of 228 orofacial clefts were reported among 7,429 puppies whelped in the 12 preceding months. Breeds in the mastiff/terrier genetic cluster and brachycephalic breeds were predisposed to orofacial clefts. Certain breeds in the ancient genetic cluster were at increased odds of orofacial clefts. Male purebred dogs were at increased odds of CPs. Results confirm that brachycephalic breeds are overrepresented among cases of orofacial clefts. Furthermore, geographic region appeared to be a relevant risk factor and orofacial clefts represented a considerable financial loss to breeders. Improved understanding of the epidemiology of orofacial clefts (frequency, causes, predictors and risk factors) may help in identifying ways to minimize their occurrence. Information gained may potentially help veterinarians and researchers to diagnose, treat and prevent orofacial clefts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollutants cause endocrine disorders and hormone disruption. The relationship between air pollutants and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) must be carefully investigated using a nationwide cohort. METHODS:Data were extracted from two nationwide databases, namely Longitudinal Health Insurance Database and Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Database, and analyzed. The study considered a range of data that began on 1 January 2000 and ended on 31 December 2013. Women diagnosed with PCOS were excluded. From the residential data, the study assessed the daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and PM2.5 the women were exposed to. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to assess PCOS risk. RESULTS:In total, 91,803 women were enrolled in this study; of those women, 2072 developed PCOS after 12 years of follow-up. The mean daily concentrations of SO2, NOx, NO, NO2, and PM2.5 women were exposed to were 4.25 (±1.44) ppb, 20.41 (±6.65) ppb, 9.25 (±4.36) ppb, 20.99 (±3.33) ppb, and 30.85 (±6.16) ?g/m3, respectively. Compared with the first-quartile levels of exposure, the fourth-quartile levels of exposure to SO2, NOx, NO, NO2, and PM2.5 increased PCOS risk by 10.31 times (95% CI = 8.35-12.7), 3.37 times (95% CI = 2.86-3.96), 4.18 times (95% CI = 3.57-4.89), 7.46 times (95% CI = 6.38-8.71), and 3.56 times (95% CI = 3.05-4.15), respectively. CONCLUSION:Women exposed to a high concentrations of air pollutants, namely SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, and PM2.5, had a high PCOS risk.
Project description:While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts.Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states - Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5-10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age.Each 10µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11-1.86). There was no significant association between PM2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts.Our study suggests that PM2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaysia has the highest rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Southeast Asian region, and has ongoing air pollution and periodic haze exposure. METHODS:Diabetes data were derived from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys conducted in 2006, 2011 and 2015. The air pollution data (NOx, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10) were obtained from the Department of Environment Malaysia. Using multiple logistic and linear regression models, the association between long-term exposure to these pollutants and prevalence of diabetes among Malaysian adults was evaluated. RESULTS:The PM10 concentration decreased from 2006 to 2014, followed by an increase in 2015. Levels of NOx decreased while O3 increased annually. The air pollutant levels based on individual modelled air pollution exposure as measured by the nearest monitoring station were higher than the annual averages of the five pollutants present in the ambient air. The prevalence of overall diabetes increased from 11.4% in 2006 to 21.2% in 2015. The prevalence of known diabetes, underdiagnosed diabetes, overweight and obesity also increased over these years. There were significant positive effect estimates of known diabetes at 1.125 (95% CI, 1.042, 1.213) for PM10, 1.553 (95% CI, 1.328, 1.816) for O3, 1.271 (95% CI, 1.088, 1.486) for SO2, 1.124 (95% CI, 1.048, 1.207) for NO2, and 1.087 (95% CI, 1.024, 1.153) for NOx for NHMS 2006. The adjusted annual average levels of PM10 [1.187 (95% CI, 1.088, 1.294)], O3 [1.701 (95% CI, 1.387, 2.086)], NO2 [1.120 (95% CI, 1.026, 1.222)] and NOx [1.110 (95% CI, 1.028, 1.199)] increased significantly from NHMS 2006 to NHMS 2011 for overall diabetes. This was followed by a significant decreasing trend from NHMS 2011 to 2015 [0.911 for NO2, and 0.910 for NOx]. CONCLUSION:The findings of this study suggest that long-term exposure to O3 is an important associated factor of underdiagnosed DM risk in Malaysia. PM10, NO2 and NOx may have mixed effect estimates towards the risk of DM, and their roles should be further investigated with other interaction models. Policy and intervention measures should be taken to reduce air pollution in Malaysia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early life exposure to anesthesia and surgery is suspected to associate with cognitive impairment later in life. We compared academic achievement among adolescents with cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), and cleft lip and cleft palate (CLP) with a noncleft control group to investigate whether outcome depends on timing and number of operations during childhood and/or type of oral cleft. DESIGN:Nationwide register-based follow-up study. SETTING:Danish birth cohort 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS:Five hundred fifty-eight children with isolated CL (n = 171), CLP (n = 222), or CP (n = 195), of which 509 children had been exposed to anesthesia and one or more cleft operation(s), and a 5% sample of the birth cohort (n = 14,677). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Test score in the Danish standardized ninth-grade exam and proportion of nonattainment, defined as "results for ninth-grade exam unavailable." Data adjusted for sex, birth weight, parental age, and parental level of education. RESULTS:Compared to controls, children with CL achieved higher scores (mean difference 0.12, 95% CI -0.05; 0.29) and children with CLP presented with lower scores (mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.21; 0.09), albeit both statistically insignificant. Children with CP achieved significantly lower scores, mean difference -0.20 (95% CI -0.38; -0.03). Odds ratios for nonattainment at final exam were: CL 0.79 (95% CI 0.46; 1.35), CLP 1.07 (95% CI 0.71; 1.61), CP 2.59 (95% CI 1.78; 3.76). CONCLUSIONS:Oral cleft type rather than number and timing of anesthesia and operations associate to poorer academic performance. Although a potential neurotoxic effect due to anesthetic agents is not reflected in the data, it cannot be completely excluded.