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Destruction of a distal hypoxia response element abolishes trans-activation of the PAG1 gene mediated by HIF-independent chromatin looping.


ABSTRACT: A crucial step in the cellular adaptation to oxygen deficiency is the binding of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) to hypoxia response elements (HREs) of oxygen-regulated genes. Genome-wide HIF-1?/2?/? DNA-binding studies revealed that the majority of HREs reside distant to the promoter regions, but the function of these distal HREs has only been marginally studied in the genomic context. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), gene editing (TALEN) and chromosome conformation capture (3C) to localize and functionally characterize a 82 kb upstream HRE that solely drives oxygen-regulated expression of the newly identified HIF target gene PAG1. PAG1, a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in Src signalling, was hypoxically induced in various cell lines and mouse tissues. ChIP and reporter gene assays demonstrated that the -82 kb HRE regulates PAG1, but not an equally distant gene further upstream, by direct interaction with HIF. Ablation of the consensus HRE motif abolished the hypoxic induction of PAG1 but not general oxygen signalling. 3C assays revealed that the -82 kb HRE physically associates with the PAG1 promoter region, independent of HIF-DNA interaction. These results demonstrate a constitutive interaction between the -82 kb HRE and the PAG1 promoter, suggesting a physiologically important rapid response to hypoxia.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4499134 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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