Programmed Hydrolysis in Designing Paclitaxel Prodrug for Nanocarrier Assembly.
ABSTRACT: Nanocarriers delivering prodrugs are a way of improving in vivo effectiveness and efficiency. For therapeutic efficacy, the prodrug must hydrolyze to its parent drug after administration. Based on the fact that the hydrolysis is impeded by steric hindrance and improved by sufficient polarity, in this study, we proposed the PTX-S-S-VE, the conjugation of paclitaxel (PTX) to vitamin E (VE) through a disulfide bridge. This conjugate possessed the following advantages: first, it can be encapsulated in the VE/VE2-PEG2000/water nanoemulsions because of favorable hydrophobic interactions; second, the nanoemulsions had a long blood circulation time; finally, the concentrated glutathione in the tumor microenvironment could cleave the disulfide bond to weaken the steric hindrance and increase the polarity, promoting the hydrolysis to PTX and increasing the anticancer activity. It was demonstrated in vitro that the hydrolysis of PTX-S-S-VE was enhanced and the cytotoxicity was increased. In addition, PTX-S-S-VE had greater anticancer activity against the KB-3-1 cell line tumor xenograft and the tumor size was smaller after the 4(th) injection. The present result suggests a new way, use of reduction, to improve the in vivo anticancer activity of a prodrug for nanocarrier delivery by unshielding the ester bond and taking off the steric block.
Project description:In this study, we developed the core-matched nanoemulsions (NEs) functionalized by vitamin E (VE) and tocopherol poly(ethylene glycol)succinate (TPGS) to codeliver hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, paclitaxel (PTX) and 5-fluoroucacil (5-FU), in order to achieve synergistic effects and overcome PTX resistance in a multi-drug-resistant (MDR) human epidermal carcinoma cell line KB-8-5. Antitumor effect of the combination therapy based on core-matched technology (CMT) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in mice. The core-matched NEs showed entrapment efficiency of >90% and were of nanoscale particle size and negative zeta-potential. The combined core-matched NEs exhibited concentration and time-dependent cytotoxicity against PTX-sensitive KB-3-1 cells and PTX-resistant KB-8-5 cells as well as an obviously increased G2/M phase block. The improvements in therapeutic response over either PTX-VE or 5-FU-TPGS therapy alone were demonstrated by the ability to effectively induce the apoptosis of tumor cells via up-regulation of tumor suppressor p53 and ?-tubulin and by the significant inhibition of cell cycle progression. The combination therapy led to dramatic inhibition of tumor growth with little toxicity in vivo, especially in the PTX-resistant KB-8-5 tumors, whereas Taxol had little therapeutic effect. This was mainly ascribed to the synergism of PTX and 5-FU and the reverse of MDR by the inhibition of ATPase activity by VE and TPGS. Coencapsulation of two chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms allows simultaneous interruption of diverse anticancer pathways, resulting in increased therapeutic response and low toxicity. The CMT markedly facilitated the long circulation of PTX and 5-FU, which was closely associated with the high accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents within the tumors and the improvement of antitumor efficacy. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of incorporating PTX and 5-FU targeting to different pathways into a single core-matched NE for the reversal of MDR and synergism in cancer therapy.
Project description:We have investigated particle size, interior structure, drug release kinetics, and anticancer efficacy of PEG-b-PLGA-based nanoparticles loaded with a series of paclitaxel (PTX)-silicate prodrugs [PTX-Si(OR)3]. Silicate derivatization enabled us to adjust the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of the prodrugs by the choice of the alkyl group (R) in the silicate derivatives. The greater hydrophobicity of these prodrugs allows for the preparation of nanoparticles that are stable in aqueous dispersion even when loaded with up to ca. 75 wt % of the prodrug. The hydrolytic lability of silicates allows for facile conversion of prodrugs back to the parent drug, PTX. A suite of eight PTX-silicate prodrugs was investigated; nanoparticles were made by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) using a confined impingement jet mixer with a dilution step (CIJ-D). The resulting nanoparticles were 80-150 nm in size with a loading level of 47-74 wt % (wt %) of a PTX-silicate, which corresponds to 36-59 effective wt % of free PTX. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images show that particles are typically spherical with a core-shell structure. Prodrug/drug release profiles were measured. Release tended to be slower for prodrugs having greater hydrophobicity and slower hydrolysis rate. Nanoparticles loaded with PTX-silicate prodrugs that hydrolyze most rapidly showed in vitro cytotoxicity similar to that of the parent PTX. Nanoparticles loaded with more labile silicates also tended to show greater in vivo efficacy.
Project description:The oral absorption of chemotherapeutical drugs is restricted by poor solubility and permeability, high first-pass metabolism, and gastrointestinal toxicity. Intestinal lymphatic transport of lipophilic prodrugs is a promising strategy to improve the oral delivery efficiency of anticancer drugs via entrapment into a lipid formulation and to avoid first-pass metabolism. However, several basic principles have still not been clarified, such as intestinal digestibility and stability and on-site tumor bioactivation. Herein, triglyceride-mimetic prodrugs of docetaxel (DTX) are designed by conjugating them to the sn-2 position of triglyceride (TG) through different linkage bonds. The role of intestinal digestion in oral absorption of TG-like prodrugs is then investigated by introducing significant steric-hindrance ?-substituents into the prodrugs. It is surprisingly found that poor intestinal digestion leads to an unsatisfactory bioavailability but efficient intestinal digestion of TG-like prodrugs with a less steric-hindrance linkage (DTX-S-S-TG) facilitating oral absorption. Moreover, it is found that the TG-like reduction-sensitive prodrug (DTX-S-S-TG) has good stability during intestinal transport and blood circulation, and on-demand release of docetaxel at the tumor site, leading to a significantly improved antitumor efficiency with negligible gastrointestinal toxicity. In summary, the chylomicron-mediated lymph-targeting triglyceride-mimetic oral prodrug approach provides a good foundation for the development of oral chemotherapeutical formulations.
Project description:Disulfide crosslinking of proteins is typically performed by treating proteins bearing cysteine residues with small-molecule disulfide reagents. The process results in the formation of a mixed disulfide intermediate, which then reacts with the cysteine residue of another protein molecule to form the crosslinked product. This second step requires the intimate association of two large reactants. The ensuing steric hindrance can result in poor crosslinking yields. Here, we introduce a bis(disulfide) reagent in which activated disulfides are separated by linkers that can alleviate steric hindrance and thereby potentially increase the efficiency of crosslinking.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the primary cause for the failure of chemotherapy in the treatment of colon cancer. Recent research has indicated that the combination of a chemotherapeutic agent and a mitochondrial inhibitor might represent a promising strategy to help overcome MDR. However, for this approach to be clinically effective, it is important that the two drugs can be actively and simultaneously delivered into tumor cells at an optimal ratio and completely released drug within cells. To address these challenges, we designed and prepared a folate receptor-targeted and redox-responsive drug delivery system (FA- ss -P/A) that was able to co-deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and adjudin (ADD) to reverse colon cancer MDR. The PTX prodrug was obtained by conjugating PTX to dextrin via a disulfide-linkage. Then, folic acid (FA) was modified on the PTX prodrug. Finally, ADD, a mitochondrial inhibitor, was encapsulated in the PTX prodrug-formed micelles. A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments subsequently demonstrated that FA- ss -P/A can effectively reverse MDR by increasing cell uptake, inhibiting PTX efflux, and improving drug release.
Project description:Chemotherapeutic efficacy can be greatly improved by developing nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) with high drug loading capacity and smart stimulus-triggered drug release in tumor cells. Herein, we report a novel redox dual-responsive prodrug-nanosystem self-assembled by hydrophobic small-molecule conjugates of paclitaxel (PTX) and oleic acid (OA). Thioether linked conjugates (PTX-S-OA) and dithioether inserted conjugates (PTX-2S-OA) are designed to respond to the redox-heterogeneity in tumor. Dithioether has been reported to show redox dual-responsiveness, but we find that PTX-S-OA exhibits superior redox sensitivity over PTX-2S-OA, achieving more rapid and selective release of free PTX from the prodrug nanoassemblies triggered by redox stimuli. PEGylated PTX-S-OA nanoassemblies, with impressively high drug loading (57.4%), exhibit potent antitumor activity in a human epidermoid carcinoma xenograft. This novel prodrug-nanosystem addresses concerns related to the low drug loading and inefficient drug release from hydrophobic prodrugs of PTX, and provides possibilities for the development of redox dual-sensitive conjugates or polymers for efficient anticancer drug delivery.
Project description:Paclitaxel (PTX) is a famous anti-cancer drug with poor aqueous solubility. In clinical practices, Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil), a toxic surfactant, is used for dissolution of PTX, which accounts for serious side effects. In the present study, a single glucose-conjugated PTX prodrug (SG-PTX) and a double glucose-conjugated PTX prodrug (DG-PTX) were synthesized with a glycosylated strategy via succinate linkers. Both of the two prodrugs presented significant solubility improvement and drug-like lipophilicities. Compared to DG-PTX, SG-PTX manifested more promising release of the parent drug in serum. A high percentage of PTX released from SG-PTX could be detected after enzymatic hydrolysis of ?-glucuronidase. Besides, both of the two prodrugs exhibited effective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells and ovarian cancer cells, but presented reduced cytotoxicity against normal breast cells. Moreover, SG-PTX manifested impressive solubility in a low toxic formulation (without ethanol) with a different percentage of Cremophor EL. These results indicated that glycosylation is a promising strategy for PTX modification and SG-PTX may be a feasible and potential type of PTX prodrug. In addition, ethanol-free formulation with a low percentage of Cremophor EL might have the potential to develop a safer formulation for further studies of glycosylated PTX prodrugs.
Project description:The differences in micro-environment between cancer cells and the normal ones offer the possibility to develop stimuli-responsive drug-delivery systems for overcoming the drawbacks in the clinical use of anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and etc. Hence, we developed a novel endosomal pH-sensitive paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug micelles based on functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) diblock polymer with an acid-cleavable acetal (Ace) linkage (mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX). The mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX₅ with a high drug content of 23.5 wt % was self-assembled in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM) into nanosized micelles with an average diameter of 68.5 nm. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX₅ micelles was highly pH-sensitive, in which 16.8%, 32.8%, and 48.2% of parent free PTX was released from mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX₅ micelles in 48 h at pH 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0, respectively. Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assays suggested that the pH-sensitive PTX prodrug micelles displayed higher therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7 cells compared with free PTX. Therefore, the PTX prodrug micelles with acetal bond may offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy.
Project description:UNLABELLED:In order to achieve enhanced and synergistic delivery of paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic anticancer agent, two novel prodrug copolymers, POEG15-b-PFTS6 and POEG15-b-PFTS16 composed of hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEG) and hydrophobic farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS, a nontoxic Ras antagonist) blocks, were synthesized. Both POEG-b-PFTS polymers were able to form micelles with intrinsic antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Employing these micelles as a carrier to load PTX, their drug loading capacity, stability, in vivo biodistribution and tumor inhibition effect were evaluated. PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS16 mixed micelles exhibited an excellent stability of 9days at 4°C with a PTX loading capacity of 8.2%, which was more effective than PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS6 mixed micelles. In vivo biodistribution data showed that DiR-loaded POEG-b-PFTS micelles were more effectively localized in the tumor than in other organs. Moreover, both PTX/POEG-b-PFTS micelles showed significantly higher antitumor activity than Taxol in a 4T1.2 murine breast tumor model, and the tumor inhibition and animal survival followed the order of PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS16>PTX/POEG15-b-PFTS6>POEG15-b-PFTS16>Taxol?POEG15-b-PFTS6. Our data suggest that POEG-b-PFTS micelles are a promising anticancer drug carrier that warrants more studies in the future. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Polymerization of drug-based monomer represents a facile and precise method to obtain well-defined polymeric prodrug amphiphiles. Currently, most reports largely focus on the synthesis methods and the biophysical properties. There is limited information about their anti-tumor activity and delivery function as prodrug carriers in vitro and in vivo. In this manuscript, we report the development of two novel prodrug copolymers, POEG15-b-PFTS6 and POEG15-b-PFTS16 composed of hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEG) and hydrophobic farnesylthiosalicylate (FTS, a nontoxic Ras antagonist) blocks. Both POEG-b-PFTS polymers were able to self-assemble into nano-sized micelles with intrinsic antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, POEG-b-PFTS polymers were effective in forming stable mixed micelles with various anticancer agents including PTX, DOX, docetaxel, gefitinib, and imatinib. Delivery of PTX via our new carrier led to significantly improved antitumor activity, suggesting effective PTX/FTS combination therapy. We believe that our study shall be of broad interest to the readers in the fields of biomaterials and drug delivery.
Project description:The conjugate of paclitaxel (PTX) and docosahexaenoic acid has entered into clinical trials. However, the most recent clinical outcomes fell short of expectations, due to the extremely slow drug release from the hydrophobic conjugates. Herein, a novel prodrug-based nanoplatform self-assembled by the disulfide bond linked conjugates of PTX and oleic acid for rapid and differential release of PTX in tumor cells is reported. This redox-responsive prodrug-nanosystem demonstrates multiple therapeutic advantages, including one-step facile fabrication, high drug-loading efficiency (56%, w/w), on-demand drug release responding to redox stimuli, as well as favorable cellular uptake and biodistribution. These advantages result in significantly enhanced antitumor efficacy in vivo, with the tumor almost completely disappearing in mice. Such a uniquely engineered prodrug-nanosystem has great potential to be used as potent chemotherapeutic nanomedicine in clinical cancer therapy.