Intradomain Confinement of Disulfides in the Folding of Two Consecutive Modules of the LDL Receptor.
ABSTRACT: The LDL receptor internalizes circulating LDL and VLDL particles for degradation. Its extracellular binding domain contains ten (seven LA and three EGF) cysteine-rich modules, each bearing three disulfide bonds. Despite the enormous number of disulfide combinations possible, LDLR oxidative folding leads to a single native species with 30 unique intradomain disulfides. Previous folding studies of the LDLR have shown that non native disulfides are initially formed that lead to compact species. Accordingly, the folding of the LDLR has been described as a "coordinated nonvectorial" reaction, and it has been proposed that early compaction funnels the reaction toward the native structure. Here we analyze the oxidative folding of LA4 and LA5, the modules critical for ApoE binding, isolated and in the LA45 tandem. Compared to LA5, LA4 folding is slow and inefficient, resembling that of LA5 disease-linked mutants. Without Ca++, it leads to a mixture of many two-disulfide scrambled species and, with Ca++, to the native form plus two three-disulfide intermediates. The folding of the LA45 tandem seems to recapitulate that of the individual repeats. Importantly, although the folding of the LA45 tandem takes place through formation of scrambled isomers, no interdomain disulfides are detected, i.e. the two adjacent modules fold independently without the assistance of interdomain covalent interactions. Reduction of incredibly large disulfide combinatorial spaces, such as that in the LDLR, by intradomain confinement of disulfide bond formation might be also essential for the efficient folding of other homologous disulfide-rich receptors.
Project description:The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the primary receptor for cholesterol uptake, binds ligands through its seven LDL-A modules (LAs). We present nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ligand binding measurements on the fourth and fifth modules of the LDLR (LA45), the modules critical for ApoE binding, at physiological pH. Unlike LA5 and all other modules in LDLR, LA4 has a very weak calcium affinity, which probably plays a critical role in endosomal ligand release. The NMR solution structure of each module in the LA45 pair only showed minor differences compared to the analogous domains in previously determined crystal structures. The 12-residue linker connecting the modules, though slightly structured through an interaction with LA4, is highly flexible. Although no intermodule nuclear Overhauser effects were detected, chemical shift perturbations and backbone dynamics suggest cross talk between the two modules. The ligand affinity of both modules is enhanced when the two are linked. LA4 is more flexible than LA5 and remains so even in the module pair, which likely is related to its weaker calcium binding affinity.
Project description:We synthesized and characterized several peptides containing the IKLLI sequence in the alpha1 chain of laminin-1. The IKLLI-containing peptides, such as LA4 (CSRNLSEIKLLISRARK), LA5 (EIKLLIS) and LA5L (SEIKLLIS), were found to mediate heparin binding and cell adhesion, while also promoting neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Furthermore, peptides LA4 and LA5 also mediated proliferation. However, a scrambled peptide, LA5S (ILEKSLI), did not show any of these activities. Anti-LA4 antibodies inhibited laminin- and LA5-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth, and anti-(integrin alpha3) and anti-(integrin beta1) antibodies inhibited LA5-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Heparin and heparan sulphate inhibited LA5-mediated heparin binding and PC12 cell adhesion in a dose- dependent manner. The IC50 for inhibition of heparin binding and cell adhesion was observed with 9 microM and 8 microM heparin/heparan sulphate respectively. Furthermore, heparan sulphate proteoglycan also inhibited LA5-mediated PC12 cell adhesion with an IC50 of 100 micrograms/ml. However, chondroitin sulphate (dermatan sulphate) did not inhibit cell adhesion. These data suggest that an IKLLI-containing peptide derived from the laminin alpha1 chain may be an active site of laminin and that its cell adhesion may thus interact with both integrin alpha3beta1 and cell- surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan.
Project description:Folding of proteins entering the secretory pathway in mammalian cells frequently requires the insertion of disulfide bonds. Disulfide insertion can result in covalent linkages found in the native structure as well as those that are not, so-called non-native disulfides. The pathways for disulfide formation are well characterized, but our understanding of how non-native disulfides are reduced so that the correct or native disulfides can form is poor. Here, we use a novel assay to demonstrate that the reduction in non-native disulfides requires NADPH as the ultimate electron donor, and a robust cytosolic thioredoxin system, driven by thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1 or TXNRD1). Inhibition of this reductive pathway prevents the correct folding and secretion of proteins that are known to form non-native disulfides during their folding. Hence, we have shown for the first time that mammalian cells have a pathway for transferring reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the ER, which is required to ensure correct disulfide formation in proteins entering the secretory pathway.
Project description:How and when disulfide bonds form in proteins relative to the stage of their folding is a fundamental question in cell biology. Two models describe this relationship: the folded precursor model, in which a nascent structure forms before disulfides do, and the quasi-stochastic model, where disulfides form prior to folding. Here we investigated oxidative folding of three structurally diverse substrates, ?2-microglobulin, prolactin, and the disintegrin domain of ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10 (ADAM10), to understand how these mechanisms apply in a cellular context. We used a eukaryotic cell-free translation system in which we could identify disulfide isomers in stalled translation intermediates to characterize the timing of disulfide formation relative to translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of non-native disulfides. Our results indicate that in a domain lacking secondary structure, disulfides form before conformational folding through a process prone to nonnative disulfide formation, whereas in proteins with defined secondary structure, native disulfide formation occurs after partial folding. These findings reveal that the nascent protein structure promotes correct disulfide formation during cotranslational folding.
Project description:PDI catalyzes the oxidative folding of disulfide-containing proteins. However, the sequence of reactions leading to a natively folded and oxidized protein remains unknown. Here we demonstrate a technique that enables independent measurements of disulfide formation and protein folding. We find that non-native disulfides are formed early in the folding pathway and can trigger misfolding. In contrast, a PDI domain favors native disulfides by catalyzing oxidation at a late stage of folding. We propose a model for cotranslational oxidative folding wherein PDI acts as a placeholder that is relieved by the pairing of cysteines caused by substrate folding. This general mechanism can explain how PDI catalyzes oxidative folding in a variety of structurally unrelated substrates.
Project description:The interactions of beta2 glycoprotein I (B2GPI) with the receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family are implicated in the clearance of negatively charged phospholipids and apoptotic cells and, in the presence of autoimmune anti-B2GPI antibodies, in cell activation, which might play a role in the pathology of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The ligand-binding domains of the lipoprotein receptors consist of multiple homologous LA modules connected by flexible linkers. In this study, we investigated at the atomic level the features of the LA modules required for binding to B2GPI. To compare the binding interface in B2GPI/LA complex to that observed in the high-resolution co-crystal structure of the receptor associated protein (RAP) with a pair of LA modules 3 and 4 from the LDLR, we used LA4 in our studies. Using solution NMR spectroscopy, we found that LA4 interacts with B2GPI and the binding site for B2GPI on the (15)N-labeled LA4 is formed by the calcium coordinating residues of the LA module. We built a model for the complex between domain V of B2GPI (B2GPI-DV) and LA4 without introducing any experimentally derived constraints into the docking procedure. Our model, which is in the agreement with the NMR data, suggests that the binding interface of B2GPI for the lipoprotein receptors is centered at three lysine residues of B2GPI-DV, Lys 308, Lys 282, and Lys317.
Project description:Thiol-disulfide exchange was monitored in recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) and in model tryptic peptides derived from hGH to investigate the effects of higher-order structure on the reaction.Different free thiol-containing peptides, varying in length and amino acid sequence, were used to initiate the reaction at pH 7.0 and 37°C in hGH. Protein samples were digested with trypsin and analyzed for native disulfides, scrambled disulfides and free thiols using LC/MS. The loss of native disulfide and disulfide exchange was compared with model peptides derived from hGH.Loss of native disulfide in cyclic (cT20-T21) and linear peptides (T20-T21pep) derived from the C-terminal hGH disulfide during the first 60 min of reaction was greater than loss of the C-terminal disulfide in hGH itself. Of the thiols tested, glutathione (GSH) was the most reactive, forming the highest percentage of mixed disulfides in intact hGH and in the model peptides. At longer reaction times (>240 min), native disulfides in both hGH and cT20-T21 were regenerated. The fastest rates of regeneration were observed for Cys and the di- or tripeptide containing an Arg residue adjacent to Cys, suggesting that they may be useful in refolding.Thiol-disulfide exchange reactions in hGH and related model peptides were influenced by higher order structure, by the size of the thiol reactant and by an Arg residue adjacent to Cys in the thiol reactant. Reduction of disulfide bonds in hGH did not affect higher order structure as measured by CD and HDX-MS.
Project description:Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a secreted lipase that clears triglycerides from the blood. Proper LPL folding and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires Lipase Maturation Factor 1 (LMF1), an ER resident trans-membrane protein, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We used proteomics to identify LMF1 binding partners necessary for LPL secretion in HEK293 cells and found these to include oxidoreductases and lectin chaperones, suggesting that LMF1 facilitates the formation of LPL's five disulfide bonds. In accordance with this role we found that LPL aggregates in LMF1-deficient cells due to the formation of incorrect intermolecular disulfide bonds. Cells lacking LMF1 were hypersensitive to depletion of glutathione, but not DTT treatment, suggesting that LMF1 helps reduce the ER. Accordingly, we found that loss of LMF1 results in a more oxidized ER. Our data show that LMF1 has a broader role than simply folding lipases and we identified fibronectin and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as novel LMF1 clients that contain multiple, non-sequential disulfide bonds. We conclude that LMF1 is needed for secretion of some ER client proteins that require reduction of non-native disulfides during their folding.
Project description:Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a secreted lipase that clears triglycerides from the blood. Proper LPL folding and exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) require lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1), an ER-resident transmembrane protein, but the mechanism involved is unknown. We used proteomics to identify LMF1-binding partners necessary for LPL secretion in HEK293 cells and found these to include oxidoreductases and lectin chaperones, suggesting that LMF1 facilitates the formation of LPL's five disulfide bonds. In accordance with this role, we found that LPL aggregates in LMF1-deficient cells due to the formation of incorrect intermolecular disulfide bonds. Cells lacking LMF1 were hypersensitive to depletion of glutathione, but not DTT treatment, suggesting that LMF1 helps reduce the ER Accordingly, we found that loss of LMF1 results in a more oxidized ER Our data show that LMF1 has a broader role than simply folding lipases, and we identified fibronectin and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) as novel LMF1 clients that contain multiple, non-sequential disulfide bonds. We conclude that LMF1 is needed for secretion of some ER client proteins that require reduction of non-native disulfides during their folding.
Project description:Disulfide bonds stabilize proteins by cross-linking distant regions into a compact three-dimensional structure. They can also participate in hydrolytic and oxidative pathways to form nonnative disulfide bonds and other reactive species. Such covalent modifications can contribute to protein aggregation. Here, we present experimental data for the mechanism of thiol-disulfide exchange in tryptic peptides derived from human growth hormone in aqueous solution. Reaction kinetics was monitored to investigate the effect of pH (6.0-10.0), temperature (4-50°C), oxidation suppressants [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N2 sparging], and peptide secondary structure (amide cyclized vs. open form). The concentrations of free thiol containing peptides, scrambled disulfides, and native disulfide-linked peptides generated via thiol-disulfide exchange and oxidation reactions were determined using reverse-phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration versus time data were fitted to a mathematical model using nonlinear least squares regression analysis. At all pH values, the model was able to fit the data with R(2) ? 0.95. Excluding oxidation suppressants (EDTA and N2 sparging) resulted in an increase in the formation of scrambled disulfides via oxidative pathways but did not influence the intrinsic rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. In addition, peptide secondary structure was found to influence the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange.