Caveolin-1 Dependent Endocytosis Enhances the Chemosensitivity of HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer Cells to Trastuzumab Emtansine (T-DM1).
ABSTRACT: The humanized monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, Kadcyla) has been approved by the U.S. FDA to treat human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Despite its effectiveness in most patients, some are initially resistant or develop resistance. No biomarker of drug resistance to T-DM1 has been identified. Antibody-drug efficacy is associated with antibody internalization in the cell; therefore, cellular sensitivity of cells to the drug may be linked to cellular vesicle trafficking systems. Caveolin-1 is a 22 KD protein required for caveolae formation and endocytic membrane transport. In this study, the relationship between caveolin-1 expression and the chemosensitivity of HER-2-positive breast cancer cells to T-DM1 was investigated. Samples from 32 human breast cancer biopsy and normal tissue specimens were evaluated immunohistochemically for caveolin-1 expression. Caveolin-1 was shown to be expressed in 68% (22/32) of the breast cancer specimens. In addition, eight (72.7%, 8/11) HER-2 positive breast cancer specimens had a higher caveolin-1 expression than normal tissues. HER-2-positive BT-474 and SKBR-3 breast cancer cells that express low and moderate levels of caveolin-1, respectively, were treated with trastuzumab or its conjugate T-DM1. Cell viability and molecular localizations of caveolin-1, antibody and its conjugate were examined. Confocal microscopy showed that T-DM1 and caveolin-1 colocalized in SKBR-3 cells, which also were five times more sensitive to the conjugate in terms of cell survival than BT-474 cells, although T-DM1 also showed improved drug efficacy in BT-474 cells than trastuzumab treatment. Caveolin-1 expression in these lines was manipulated by transfection of GFP-tagged caveolin-1 or caveolin-1 siRNA. BT-474 cells overexpressing caveolin-1 were more sensitive to T-DM1 treatment than mock-transfected cells, whereas the siRNA-transfected SKBR-3 cells had decreased sensitivity to T-DM1 than mock-transfected SKBR-3 cells. The expression of caveolin-1 could mediate endocytosis and promote the internalization of T-DM1 into HER-2 positive cancer cells. Thus, caveolin-1 protein may be an effective predictor for determining the outcome of T-DM1 treatment in breast cancer patients.
Project description:Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) that was recently approved for the treatment of HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer. The drug sensitivity of ADCs depends mainly on the internalization efficiency of the drug. Caveolin-1 was shown to promote T-DM1 internalization and enhance drug sensitivity. Whether caveolin-1 can be overexpressed to improve T-DM1 efficacy is interesting and has the potential for clinical application. In this study, diabetes drug metformin was investigated in terms of induction of caveolin-1 expression for increased efficacy of subsequent T-DM1 application. BT-474 cells were pretreated with metformin, followed by combined therapy with metformin and T-DM1. The T-DM1 internalization and drug efficacy were determined, and the protein expressions for signal transduction were also monitored. Caveolin-1 shRNA was applied to suppress endogenous caveolin-1 expression, and the ability of metformin to promote T-DM1 efficacy was investigated. Result showed that in BT-474 cells pretreated with metformin, cellular caveolin-1 overexpression was induced, which then promoted drug efficacy by enhancing T-DM1 internalization. As cellular caveolin-1 was suppressed by shRNA, the effect of metformin-enhanced T-DM1 cytotoxicity was decreased. This study demonstrated that metformin can be applied prior to T-DM1 treatment to improve the clinical efficacy of T-DM1 by enhancing caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis.
Project description:Trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that has been approved for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. Despite the remarkable efficacy of T-DM1 in many patients, resistance to this therapeutic has emerged as a significant clinical problem. In the current study, we used BT-474/KR cells, a T-DM1-resistant cell line established from HER2-positive BT-474 breast cancer cells, as a model to investigate mechanisms of T-DM1 resistance and explore effective therapeutic regimens. We show here for the first time that activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediated by leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) overexpression confers resistance to T-DM1. Moreover, secreted factors induced by activated STAT3 in resistant cells limit the responsiveness of cells that were originally sensitive to T-DM1. Importantly, STAT3 inhibition sensitizes resistant cells to T-DM1, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the combination T-DM1 with STAT3-targeted therapy is a potential treatment for T-DM1-refractory patients.
Project description:In this study, HER2 RNA aptamers were conjugated to mertansine (DM1) and the anti-cancer effectiveness of the conjugate was evaluated in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer models. The conjugate of HER2 aptamer and anticancer drug DM1 (aptamer-drug conjugate, ApDC) was prepared and analyzed using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The cell-binding affinity and cytotoxicity of the conjugate were determined using confocal microscopy and WST-1 assay. The in vivo anti-tumoral efficacy of ApDC was also evaluated in mice carrying BT-474 breast tumors overexpressing HER2. The synthesized HER2-specific RNA aptamers were able to specifically and efficiently bind to HER-positive BT-474 breast cancer cells, but not to HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Also, the HER2-specific ApDC showed strong toxicity to the target cells, BT-474, but not to MDA-MB-231 cells. According to the in vivo analyses drawn from the mouse xenografts of BT-747 tumor, the ApDC was able to more effectively inhibit the tumor growth. Compared to the control group, the mice treated with the ApDC showed a significant reduction of tumor growth. Besides, any significant body weight losses or hepatic toxicities were monitored in the ApDC-treated mice. This research suggests the HER2 aptamer-DM1 conjugate as a target-specific anti-cancer modality and provides experimental evidence supporting its enhanced effectiveness for HER2-overexpressing target tumors. This type of aptamer-conjugated anticancer drug would be utilized as a platform structure for the development of versatile targeted high-performance anticancer drugs by adopting the easy deformability and high affinity of aptamers.
Project description:Background: The addition of the anti-HER2 antibody pertuzumab to trastuzumab/chemotherapy treatment in HER2+ breast cancer significantly improves clinical outcome. Concomitantly, the drug-antibody conjugate T-DM1 (trastuzumab-emantasine) has demonstrated efficacy, at least equal, to the combination of trastuzumab/chemotherapy. Scientific, economic and health challenges emerge from the clinical use of these novel anti-HER2 antibodies, aimed to identify new resistance mechanisms and to select the target breast cancer population. Objectives: (1) To identify primary resistance mechanisms to anti-HER2 antibodies trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and to the combined trastuzumab/pertuzumab or pertuzumab/T-DM1 therapy, (2) To identify acquired resistance mechanisms to anti-HER2 antibodies trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and to the combined trastuzumab/pertuzumab or pertuzumab/T-DM1 therapy, (3) To develop new combinations of anti-HER2 antibodies with other targeted therapies. Overall design: Samples: Breast cancer cell line BT-474. Treatments: trastuzumab-conditioned cultures. Control samples: same cell lines with no treatment. Triplicates.
Project description:We have investigated the role of t-DARPP in trastuzumab resistance in ERBB2-amplified and overexpressed breast cancer cell lines.We have used the HR-5 and HR-6 trastuzumab-resistant cells that were established from tumors that recurred in the presence of trastuzumab therapy following xenografts of BT-474 cells in nude mice. In addition, SKBR-3 cells, engineered for stable expression of t-DARPP, and HCC-1569 cells, which have constitutive expression of t-DARPP and are de novo resistant to trastuzumab, were used.We reported > or =15-fold up-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of t-DARPP in HR-5 and HR-6 cells compared with their progenitor BT-474 trastuzumab-sensitive cells. The t-DARPP expression was not regulated by changes in its promoter DNA methylation levels. The SKBR-3 cells stably expressing t-DARPP developed resistance to trastuzumab compared with their parental cells and empty vector controls (P < 0.01). The trastuzumab-resistant cell lines showed a significant increase in pAKT (Ser(473)) and BCL2 protein levels. The small interfering RNA knockdown of t-DARPP in all trastuzumab-resistant cells led to a significant reduction in ERBB2, pAKT (Ser(473)), and BCL2 protein levels with a significant decrease in cell viability (P < or = 0.001) and an increase in cleaved caspase-3 levels, indicating the progression of these cells toward apoptosis. The t-DARPP protein was associated with both heat shock protein 90 and ERBB2 forming a potential protein complex. This association may play a role in regulating ERBB2 protein in trastuzumab-resistant cells.We conclude that t-DARPP is a novel molecular target that can mediate the therapeutic resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Background: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases represent a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer due to the disappointing efficacy of HER2-targeted therapies in the brain microenvironment. The antibody-drug conjugate ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) has shown efficacy in trastuzumab-resistant systemic breast cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that T-DM1 could overcome trastuzumab resistance in preclinical models of brain metastases. Methods: We treated mice bearing BT474 or MDA-MB-361 tumors in the CNS (N=9-11 per group), or cancer cells grown in organotypic brain slice cultures with trastuzumab or T-DM1 at equivalent or equipotent doses. Using intravital imaging, molecular techniques and histological analysis we determined tumor growth, mouse survival, cancer cell apoptosis and proliferation, tumor drug distribution, and HER2 signaling. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: T-DM1 significantly delayed the growth of HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases compared to trastuzumab. These findings were consistent between HER2-driven and PI3K-driven tumors. The activity of T-DM1 resulted in a striking survival benefit (median survival for BT474 tumors: 28d for trastuzumab vs 112d for T-DM1, HR=6.2, 95% CI=6.1 to 85.84; P<.001). No difference in drug distribution and HER2-signaling was revealed between the two groups. However, T-DM1 led to a significant increase in tumor cell apoptosis (One-way ANOVA for ApopTag, p<.001), which was associated with mitotic catastrophe. Conclusions: T-DM1 can overcome resistance to trastuzumab therapy in HER2-driven and PI3K-driven breast cancer brain lesions due to the cytotoxicity of the DM1 component. Clinical investigation of T-DM1 for patients with CNS metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer is warranted. Comparison of trastuzumab (n=4) and TDM-1 (n=4) treated BT-474 human breast carcinoma cells growing in murine brain
Project description:The oncogenic tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2 is a prognostic factor and target for breast cancer therapeutics. In contrast with the other ErbB receptors, ErbB2 is hardly internalized by ligand induced mechanisms, indicating a prevalent surface expression. Elevated levels of ErbB2 in tumor cells are associated with its defective endocytosis and down regulation. Here we show that caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer derived SKBR-3 cells (SKBR-3/Cav-1) facilitates ligand induced ErbB2 endocytosis using an artificial peptide ligand EC-eGFP. Similarly, stimulation with humanized anti ErbB2 antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin) was found to be internalized and co-localized with caveolin-1 in SKBR-3/Cav-1 cells. Internalized EC-eGFP and Trastuzumab in SKBR-3/Cav-1 cells were then delivered via caveolae to the caveolin-1 containing early endosomes. Consequently, attenuated Fc receptor mediated ADCC functions were observed when exposed to Trastuzumab and EC-Fc (EC-1 peptide conjugated to Fc part of human IgG). On the other hand, this caveolae dependent endocytic synergy was not observed in parental SKBR-3 cells. Therefore, caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer cells could be a predictive factor to estimate how cancer cells are likely to respond to Trastuzumab treatment.
Project description:Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that carries a cytotoxic drug (DM1) to HER2-positive cancer. The target of T-DM1 (HER2) is present also on cancer-derived exosomes. We hypothesized that exosome-bound T-DM1 may contribute to the activity of T-DM1.Exosomes were isolated from the cell culture medium of HER2-positive SKBR-3 and EFM-192A breast cancer cells, HER2-positive SNU-216 gastric cancer cells, and HER2-negative MCF-7 breast cancer cells by serial centrifugations including two ultracentrifugations, and treated with T-DM1. T-DM1 not bound to exosomes was removed using HER2-coated magnetic beads. Exosome samples were analyzed by electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blotting. Binding of T-DM1-containing exosomes to cancer cells and T-DM1 internalization were investigated with confocal microscopy. Effects of T-DM1-containg exosomes on cancer cells were investigated with the AlamarBlue cell proliferation assay and the Caspase-Glo 3/7 caspase activation assay.T-DM1 binds to exosomes derived from HER2-positive cancer cells, but not to exosomes derived from HER2-negative MCF-7 cells. HER2-positive SKBR-3 cells accumulated T-DM1 after being treated with T-DM1-containg exosomes, and treatment of SKBR-3 and EFM-192A cells with T-DM1-containing exosomes resulted in growth inhibition and activation of caspases 3 and/or 7.T-DM1 binds to exosomes derived from HER2-positive cancer cells, and T-DM1 may be carried to other cancer cells via exosomes leading to reduced viability of the recipient cells. The results suggest a new mechanism of action for T-DM1, mediated by exosomes derived from HER2-positive cancer.
Project description:Background: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases represent a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer due to the disappointing efficacy of HER2-targeted therapies in the brain microenvironment. The antibody-drug conjugate ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) has shown efficacy in trastuzumab-resistant systemic breast cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that T-DM1 could overcome trastuzumab resistance in preclinical models of brain metastases. Methods: We treated mice bearing BT474 or MDA-MB-361 tumors in the CNS (N=9-11 per group), or cancer cells grown in organotypic brain slice cultures with trastuzumab or T-DM1 at equivalent or equipotent doses. Using intravital imaging, molecular techniques and histological analysis we determined tumor growth, mouse survival, cancer cell apoptosis and proliferation, tumor drug distribution, and HER2 signaling. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: T-DM1 significantly delayed the growth of HER2-positive breast cancer brain metastases compared to trastuzumab. These findings were consistent between HER2-driven and PI3K-driven tumors. The activity of T-DM1 resulted in a striking survival benefit (median survival for BT474 tumors: 28d for trastuzumab vs 112d for T-DM1, HR=6.2, 95% CI=6.1 to 85.84; P<.001). No difference in drug distribution and HER2-signaling was revealed between the two groups. However, T-DM1 led to a significant increase in tumor cell apoptosis (One-way ANOVA for ApopTag, p<.001), which was associated with mitotic catastrophe. Conclusions: T-DM1 can overcome resistance to trastuzumab therapy in HER2-driven and PI3K-driven breast cancer brain lesions due to the cytotoxicity of the DM1 component. Clinical investigation of T-DM1 for patients with CNS metastases from HER2-positive breast cancer is warranted. Overall design: Comparison of trastuzumab (n=4) and TDM-1 (n=4) treated BT-474 human breast carcinoma cells growing in murine brain
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the standard treatment in the current second-line therapy of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. However, a useful therapy after T-DM1 resistance has not been established. In this study, we established two different HER2-positive T-DM1-resistant cancer cells and evaluated the antitumor effect of trastuzumab in combination with pertuzumab (TRAS?+?PER).<h4>Methods</h4>Single-cell-cloned OE19 and BT-474 cells were cultured with increasing concentrations of T-DM1 to generate T-DM1-resistant OE19bTDR and BT-474bTDR cells, respectively. HER2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multidrug resistance proteins (MDR1 and MRP1) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Intracellular trafficking of T-DM1 was examined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Efficacy of TRAS?+?PER was evaluated by cell proliferation assay, HER3 and AKT phosphorylation, caspase 3/7 activity, and antitumor activity.<h4>Results</h4>HER2 expression of both resistant cells was equivalent to that of the parent cells. Overexpression of MDR1 and MRP1 was observed and affected the T-DM1 sensitivity in the OE19bTDR cells. Abnormal localization of T-DM1 into the lysosomes was observed in the BT-474bTDR cells. In BT-474bTDR cells, TRAS?+?PER inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT involved in HER2-HER3 signaling, and apoptosis induction and cell proliferation inhibition were significantly higher with TRAS?+?PER than with the individual drugs. TRAS?+?PER significantly suppressed tumor growth in the OE19bTDR xenograft model compared with each single agent.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results suggest that the TRAS?+?PER combination may be effective in T-DM1-resistant cancer cells where HER2 overexpression is maintained.