Stercoral Perforation of the Colon during Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
ABSTRACT: Stercoral perforation of the colon, though rare, is associated with high mortality. Review of the literature identified only three prior cases reported during pregnancy. We report a case on a multiparous female presenting at 31 weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain. Computed tomography suggested a sigmoid colon perforation. An urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed where feculent peritonitis and a stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon was confirmed. A cesarean delivery and sigmoid colectomy with descending end colostomy was performed. While the newborn had an uncomplicated course, the mother developed an intra-abdominal abscess requiring operative management.
Project description:Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vascular type (vEDS) (MIM #130050) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutation in the type III collagen gene, COL3A1, leading to fragility of blood vessels, bowel and uterus that leads to spontaneous rupture. We report a previously undiagnosed vEDS patient with bowel complications. A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed notable dilatation of the sigmoid colon with intraperitoneal fluid. Laparotomy revealed dilatation of the sigmoid colon, breakdown of serosa and muscularis propria of the sigmoid colon with impending perforation, and intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by breakdown of the mesenterium. Resection of the sigmoid colon with Hartmann's pouch and an end colostomy were performed. Physical examination showed joint hypermobility, translucent skin with venous prominence and facial structure abnormalities. Genetic analysis using cDNA extracted from the patient's fibroblasts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing showed a missense mutation within the triple helix region of COL3A1 (c.2150 G>A; Gly717Asp).
Project description:Spontaneous perforation of uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01%-0.5%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 50-year postmenopausal lady with abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy about 1,500 ml of pus present in peritoneal cavity and whole of alimentary tract and gallbladder were normal.A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooopherectomy was performed. Histopathological study revealed chronic suppurative endometritis with myometritis of the uterus with no evidence of malignancy. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore be considered when elderly female presents with acute abdomen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colostomy via the intraperitoneal route is often performed during laparoscopic Hartmann's operation or abdominoperineal resection. Internal hernia of the small intestine often occurs after colostomy. This report shows a rare case of internal hernia of the stomach associated with sigmoid colostomy after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. CASE PRESENTATION:The patient was a 79-year-old woman with a sigmoid colostomy. Computed tomography scan showed a markedly distended stomach in the space between the lifted sigmoid colon and the lateral abdominal wall. Laparoscopy revealed that the body of the stomach had passed through a hernia orifice located between the lifted sigmoid colon and the left lateral abdominal wall. The dislocated stomach was restored to its normal position, and the lateral defect was closed with the lateral peritoneum and the lifted sigmoid colon laparoscopically. CONCLUSIONS:Internal hernia associated with colostomy can lead to not only obstruction of the small intestine, but also obstruction of the stomach. We reported a successful case of the suture repair for the internal hernia of the stomach associated with colostomy.
Project description:Background:Clinicians must maintain an index of suspicion to diagnose an anorectal foreign body (FB). The patient may not be forthcoming with information secondary to embarrassment or possibly psychiatric issues. Providers must express empathy and compassion while maintaining nonjudgmental composure. Despite accounts of anal FB insertion, this pathology is lacking level one evidence-based surgical algorithms. Case presentation:A 46-year-old male psychiatric patient presented in septic shock, complaining of lower abdominal/pelvic pain starting 1 week prior. His past medical history was significant for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and noncompliance with medications. CT of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a rectal perforation with free air and a FB which appeared to be a screwdriver. Fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. In the operating room, after unsuccessful transrectal removal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed. The metallic end of the screwdriver had perforated the rectosigmoid. Resection of the perforated rectum with removal of the screwdriver, incision and drainage of a large right buttock abscess and colostomy was performed. The patient recovered and was discharged to behavioral health. At 2 weeks follow-up the patient was doing well with a functioning colostomy and reversal was planned for later this year. Conclusion:This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion when encountering psychiatric patients with nonspecific lower abdominal or anorectal pain with inconsistent presentations. Controversy exists regarding the type of surgical treatment in case of anorectal perforation. More research is needed to provide surgeons with evidence-based standardized methods for dealing with these rare pathologies.
Project description:Atrophic visceral myopathy is a pathological diagnosis characterized by atrophy of the smooth muscle layers of the viscera with intact ganglia. Rarely, it can present acutely as an intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We describe a rare case report and explore how this diagnosis can be distinguished from other forms of intestinal obstruction.A 60-year-old male with a past medical history of hypothyroidism presented to the emergency department with a two-day history of worsening abdominal distention and pain associated with nausea and vomiting. Upon evaluation patient was found to have tachycardia, with abdominal distention and localized tenderness with peritonitis. Computed tomography demonstrated large bowel obstruction, likely caused by sigmoid volvulus. The patient underwent emergent laparotomy. Intra-operatively, the entire colon was found to be extremely dilated and redundant. With a working diagnosis of recurrent sigmoid volvulus causing intermittent large bowel obstruction, a sigmoid colectomy and primary anastomosis was performed. Pathology revealed atrophic visceral myopathy, with an extremely thin colonic wall and atrophic circumferential and longitudinal muscularis propria without inflammation or fibrosis. The ganglion cells and myenteric plexus were unaffected. Post-operatively, the patient developed prolonged ileus requiring nasogastric decompression and parenteral nutrition. The ileus resolved with pro-kinetic agents, and patient was discharged home on post-operative day fifteen.Atrophic visceral neuropathy is a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. While often presenting with chronic obstruction in younger populations, we present a rare late-onset acute presentation that may have been secondary to underlying hypothyroidism.
Project description:Colonic perforation during colonoscopy is a rare but lethal complication. Recently, it is usually managed with laparoscopic approach. Here we present our experience of single incision laparoscopic repair for sigmoid colon perforation during colonoscopy. A 57-year-old male patient presented with an acute sigmoid colon perforation event during diagnostic colonoscopy. Emergency operation was performed with transumbilical single incision laparoscopic exploration. The perforated site of sigmoid colon was primarily repaired with the curved endoscopic linear stapler. The patient was discharged after 5 days uneventfully. Single port laparoscopic repair is a safe and feasible method for the management of acute colonoscopic perforation during diagnostic colonoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Foreign body ingestion is a scenario occasionally encountered in the emergency room. Pediatric and psychiatric patients are the two most common populations suffering from accidental or in some cases intentional ingestion of foreign bodies. Commonly, majority of cases require no specific treatment and the swallowed objects pass through the digestive tract spontaneously without causing any significant complications. Less than 1% of the cases complicates with gastrointestinal tract perforation, which are often caused by sharp objects, which warrants surgical intervention. The average time from foreign body ingestion to development of perforation was noted at 10.4?days in previous reports. These cases often present in rapidly progressing peritonitis and are subsequently managed by emergent laparotomy. In this case report, we describe an accidental chopstick ingestion of a patient who initially was misdiagnosed and remained asymptomatic for nine months, then presented with acute abdomen. CASE PRESENTATION:A 27-year-old man accidentally ingested a wooden chopstick and sought consult at a clinic. Negative abdominal plain film misled the physician to believe ingested chopstick was digested into fragments and passed out unnoticed. The patient presented acute abdomen caused by duodenal perforation nine months later and was subsequently treated with emergency laparotomy with primary duodenorrhaphy. CONCLUSIONS:Negative plain films are not sufficient to conclude a conservative treatment in foreign body ingestion. Computed tomography scan or endoscopic examinations should be done to rule out retained foreign body within gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:Objective:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer is associated with reduced morbidity in the elderly (Meyer et al., 2018). Spontaneous colonic perforation often leads to multisystem organ failure and death (Carter and Durfee, 2007; Rose and Piver, 1995). Methods:A 76-year old woman with stage IIIC disease initiated carboplatin AUC 5 and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 with unanticipated development of profound neutropenia. She clinically deteriorated by day nine and CT scan revealed a large volume of free air. Emergent surgery was performed. Results:Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the presence of intra-abdominal stool and extensive inflammatory exudate (Video). The likelihood of identifying the site of perforation appeared remote, but pelvic tumor encasement was highly suggestive of a sigmoid origin. The stool was evacuated, the exudate gently debrided and the terminal ileum partially mobilized. Copious irrigation was performed with drain placement and the pneumoperitoneum was decompressed. The right lower abdominal wall trocar incision was extended so that the ileal segment could be brought out and matured. She was discharged to rehab on postoperative day 2 to continue a two week course of broad spectrum antibiotics. Single-agent carboplatin was resumed within a month. Uncomplicated ileostomy takedown with parastomal hernia repair was performed between cycles five and six. The patient is currently in remission. Conclusion:Bowel perforation in the elderly, presenting with cachexia and treatment-induced pancytopenia for advanced ovarian cancer, is often a harbinger of early death. Selected patients may benefit from a minimally invasive approach by an experienced gynecologic oncologist instead of vertical laparotomy, abdominal washout, diversion and the potential sequelae of an open abdomen.
Project description:A 45-year-old man presented to the emergency ward with features of intestinal obstruction of 2?days duration. On admission, there was abdominal distension and multiple sessile polyps found on digital rectal examination. In addition, a soft tissue swelling near the elbow and a bony swelling over scalp were noted. Abdominal radiography revealed gaseous distension of the small and large bowel, and ultrasound revealed diffuse, gas-filled bowel with sluggish peristalsis. The obstruction failed to resolve with conservative measures and at emergency laparotomy an irregular hard recto-sigmoid junction mass was identified. A defunctioning transverse loop colostomy was undertaken and the abdomen closed. During recovery, a colonoscopy was performed and a malignant appearing lesion was identified 15?cm proximal to the anal verge. Further per-stomal colonoscopy revealed multiple sessile polyps from the ileo-caecal valve to the descending colon. The cutaneous and abdominal findings were consistent with a rare acute presentation of Gardner's syndrome.
Project description:Multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum constitutes an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The disease is often asymptomatic and must be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain and discomfort.We are thereby reporting a 50yr patient on chronic NSAID ingestion presenting to us with acute abdomen. On exploration, there were multiple (14) jejunal diverticuli on both mesenteric and antimesentric border from 10cm to 90cm distal to duedenojejunal junction with a perforation in one of the diverticulum, 80cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. We performed a resection of a 80-cm jejunal segment involving the multiple diverticula and an end to end jejunojejunostomy.Drug-induced jejunal perforation is known, but jejunal diverticular perforation related to steroid/treatment has been reported only once previously. Long-term NSAID therapy usually induces clinically silent enteropathy characterized by increased intestinal permeability and inflammation. Jejunal diverticulosis is a challenging disorder from a diagnostic perspective, with no truly reliable diagnostic tests. The current treatment of choice for perforated jejunal diverticula causing generalized peritonitis is prompt laparotomy with segmental intestinal resection and primary anastomosis.Jejunal diverticula are rare lesions, and their perforation never features in the list of diagnoses for acute abdomen, especially in this part of the world. Further this unique case report opens the doors for further research to prove an assosiation between NSAID use and diverticular perforation which itself is a very rare entity.