Modification of linear prepolymers to tailor heterogeneous network formation through photo-initiated Polymerization-Induced Phase Separation.
ABSTRACT: Polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) was studied in ambient photopolymerizations of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) modified by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The molecular weight of PMMA and the rate of network formation (through incident UV-irradiation) were varied to influence both the promotion of phase separation through increases in overall free energy, as well as the extent to which phase development occurs during polymerization through diffusion prior to network gelation. The overall free energy of the polymerizing system increases with PMMA molecular weight, such that PIPS is promoted thermodynamically at low loading levels (5 wt%) of a higher molecular weight PMMA (120 kDa), while a higher loading level (20 wt%) is needed to induce PIPS with lower PMMA molecular weight (11 kDa), and phase separation was not promoted at any loading level tested of the lowest molecular weight PMMA (1 kDa). Due to these differences in overall free energy, systems modified by PMMA (11 kDa) underwent phase separation via Nucleation and Growth, and systems modified by PMMA (120 kDa), followed the Spinodal Decomposition mechanism. Despite differences in phase structure, all materials form a continuous phase rich in TEGDMA homopolymer. At high irradiation intensity (Io=20mW/cm2), the rate of network formation prohibited significant phase separation, even when thermodynamically preferred. A staged curing approach, which utilizes low intensity irradiation (Io=300µW/cm2) for the first ~50% of reaction to allow phase separation via diffusion, followed by a high intensity flood-cure to achieve a high degree of conversion, was employed to form phase-separated networks with reduced polymerization stress yet equivalent final conversion and modulus.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim was to determine effects of diluent monomer and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) on polymerization kinetics and volumetric stability, apatite precipitation, strontium release and fatigue of novel dual-paste composites for vertebroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Polypropylene (PPGDMA) or triethylene (TEGDMA) glycol dimethacrylates (25 wt%) diluents were combined with urethane dimethacrylate (70 wt%) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (5 wt%). 70 wt% filler containing glass particles, glass fibers (20 wt%) and polylysine (5 wt%) was added. Benzoyl peroxide and MCPM (10 or 20 wt%) or N-tolyglycine glycidyl methacrylate and tristrontium phosphate (15 wt%) were included to give initiator or activator pastes. Commercial PMMA (Simplex) and bone composite (Cortoss) were used for comparison. ATR-FTIR was used to determine thermal activated polymerization kinetics of initiator pastes at 50-80°C. Paste stability, following storage at 4-37°C, was assessed visually or through mixed paste polymerization kinetics at 25°C. Polymerization shrinkage and heat generation were calculated from final monomer conversions. Subsequent expansion and surface apatite precipitation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were assessed gravimetrically and via SEM. Strontium release into water was assessed using ICP-MS. Biaxial flexural strength (BFS) and fatigue properties were determined at 37°C after 4 weeks in SBF. RESULTS:Polymerization profiles all exhibited an inhibition time before polymerization as predicted by free radical polymerization mechanisms. Initiator paste inhibition times and maximum reaction rates were described well by Arrhenius plots. Plot extrapolation, however, underestimated lower temperature paste stability. Replacement of TEGDMA by PPGDMA, enhanced paste stability, final monomer conversion, water-sorption induced expansion and strontium release but reduced polymerization shrinkage and heat generation. Increasing MCPM level enhanced volume expansion, surface apatite precipitation and strontium release. Although the experimental composite flexural strengths were lower compared to those of commercially available Simplex, the extrapolated low load fatigue lives of all materials were comparable. CONCLUSIONS:Increased inhibition times at high temperature give longer predicted shelf-life whilst stability of mixed paste inhibition times is important for consistent clinical application. Increased volumetric stability, strontium release and apatite formation should encourage bone integration. Replacing TEGDMA by PPGDMA and increasing MCPM could therefore increase suitability of the above novel bone composites for vertebroplasty. Long fatigue lives of the composites may also ensure long-term durability of the materials.
Project description:Mixtures of methacrylic polymers are the most common materials for making composites to be used as resins for dental and cosmetic applications. Some of these mixtures are composed by poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which constitute a solid component to be mixed with a liquid component made out of methacrylate monomers. The reaction between the thermal initiator benzoyl peroxyde (BPO) present in the solid component and the activator of the polymerization process, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) present in the liquid component, gives rise to thermoset materials. In the present study, different liquid formulations composed by a mixture of two methacrylic monomers, ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) for cosmetic applications, were prepared and characterized, using a commercial powder (POW) composed by PEMA and PMMA. With the aim of improving workability during final application of the material, it was necessary to slow down the polymerization rate of liquid formulations. Their thermal behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) in order to check the polymerization rate. Thermal stability of final materials was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), microindentation hardness and impact tests were performed on final materials, to assess their performance with respect to standard formulation. The combination of thermal and mechanical properties allows choosing which formulations could be suitable for use in cosmetics.
Project description:A series of ABA triblock copolymers, consisting of double-bond-containing poly(phenoxyallene) (PPOA), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), or poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA) segments, were synthesized by sequential free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A new bifunctional initiator bearing azo and halogen-containing ATRP initiating groups was first prepared followed by initiating conventional free radical homopolymerization of phenoxyallene with cumulated double bond to give a PPOA-based macroinitiator with ATRP initiating groups at both ends. Next, PMMA-b-PPOA-b-PMMA and PBA-b-PPOA-b-PBA triblock copolymers were synthesized by ATRP of methyl methacrylate and n-butyl acrylate initiated by the PPOA-based macroinitiator through the site transformation strategy. These double-bond-containing triblock copolymers are stable under UV irradiation and free radical circumstances.
Project description:Dental professionals are seeing a growing population of patients with visible signs of dental erosion. The approach currently being used to address the problem typically leverages the enamel protection benefits of fluoride. In this report, an alternative new block copolymer with a hydrophilic polyacrylic acid (PAA) block and a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block was developed to similarly reduce the mineral loss from enamel under acidic conditions. This series of PMMA-b-PAA block copolymers was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Their structures were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The molar fractions of acrylic acid (AA) in the final block copolymer were finely controlled from 0.25 to 0.94, and the molecular weight (Mn) of PMMA-b-PAA was controlled from 10 kDa to 90 kDa. The binding capability of the block copolymer with hydroxyapatite (HAP) was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectra confirmed that the PMMA-b-PAA block copolymer could bind to HAP via bridging bidentate bonds. Both UV-Vis and FTIR spectra additionally indicated that a high polymer concentration and low solution pH favored the polymer binding to HAP. The erosion-preventing efficacy of the PMMA-b-PAA block copolymer in inhibiting HAP mineral loss was quantitatively evaluated by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Based on the results, polymer treatment reduced the amount of calcium released by 27% to 30% in comparison with the unprotected samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations indicated that PMMA-b-PAA polymer treatment protected enamel from acid erosion. This new amphiphilic block copolymer has significant potential to be integrated into dentifrices or mouthrinses as an alternative non-fluoride ingredient to reduce tooth erosion.
Project description:Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a relatively brittle polymer, and its low melt strength, ductility, and thermal stability limit its use in various industrial applications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and PMMA/silica hybrid particles on the mechanical properties, interfacial adhesion, and crystallization behavior of PLA/block acrylic elastomer. PLA/block acrylic elastomer blends exhibit improved flexibility; however, phase separation occurs between PLA and block acrylic elastomer domains. Valid time-temperature superposition (TTS) measurements of viscoelastic behavior were obtained and exhibited interfacial adhesion with the addition of PMMA or PMMA/silica in PLA/block acrylic elastomer blends. In particular, the phase separation temperature was increased by the incorporation of PMMA/silica hybrid particles, which suggests a potential role for these particles in improving the phase stability. In addition, PMMA inhibits crystallization, while PMMA/silica acts as a nucleating agent, thus increasing the crystallization rate and crystallinity degree.
Project description:Decreasing the surface energy of polyacrylate-based materials is important especially in embossed holography, but current solutions typically involve high-cost synthesis or encounter compatibility problems. Herein, we utilize the grafting of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowder with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The grafting reaction is implemented via in situ electron beam irradiation-induced polymerization in the presence of fluorinated surfactants, generating PMMA grafted PTFE micropowder (PMMA⁻g⁻PTFE). The optimal degree of grafting (DG) is 17.8%. With the incorporation of PMMA⁻g⁻PTFE, the interfacial interaction between polyacrylate and PTFE is greatly improved, giving rise to uniform polyacrylate/PMMA⁻g⁻PTFE composites with a low surface energy. For instance, the loading content of PMMA⁻g⁻PTFE in polyacrylate is up to 16 wt %, leading to an increase of more than 20 degrees in the water contact angle compared to the pristine sample. This research paves a way to generate new polyacrylate-based films for embossed holography.
Project description:Multiresponsive polymers that can respond to several external stimuli are promising materials for a manifold of applications. Herein, a facile method for the synthesis of triple-responsive (pH, temperature, CO2 ) poly(N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylamide) by a post-polymerization amidation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is presented. Combined with trivalent counterions ([Fe(CN)6 ]3- ) both an upper and lower critical solution temperature (UCST/LCST)-type phase behavior can be realized at pH?8 and 9. PMMA and PMMA-based block copolymers are readily accessible by living anionic and controlled radical polymerization techniques, which opens access to various responsive polymer architectures based on the developed functionalization method. This method can also be applied on melt-processed bulk PMMA samples to introduce functional, responsive moieties at the PMMA surface.
Project description:We present a generic and versatile low temperature route to produce macro-porous bodies with porosity and pore size distribution that are adjustable in a wide range. Capillary suspensions, where the minor fluid is a monomer, are used as pre-cursors. The monomer is preferentially located between the particles, creating capillary bridges, resulting in a strong, percolating network. Thermally induced polymerization of these bridges at temperatures below 100 °C for less than 5 hours and subsequent removal of the bulk fluid yields macroscopic, self-supporting solid bodies with high porosity. This process is demonstrated using methylmethacrylate and hydroxyethylmethacrlyate with glass particles as a model system. The produced PMMA had a molecular weight of about 500.000 g/mol and dispersity about three. Application specific porous bodies, including PMMA particles connected by PMMA bridges, micron-sized capsules containing phase change material with high inner surface, and porous graphite membranes with high electrical conductivity, are also shown.
Project description:To detail the development of ester-free thiol-ene dental resins with enhanced mechanical performance, limited potential for water uptake/leachables/degradation and low polymerization shrinkage stress.Thiol-terminated oligomers were prepared via a thiol-Michael reaction and a bulky tetra-allyl monomer containing urethane linkages was synthesized. The experimental oligomers and/or monomers were photopolymerized using visible light activation. Several thiol-ene formulations were investigated and their performance ranked by comparisons of the thermo-mechanical properties, polymerization shrinkage stress, water sorption/solubility, and reactivity with respect to a control comprising a conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resin.The ester-free thiol-ene formulations had significantly lower viscosities, water sorption and solubility than the BisGMA/TEGDMA control. Depending on the resin, the limiting functional conversions were equivalent to or greater than that of BisGMA/TEGDMA. At comparable conversions, lower shrinkage stress values were achieved by the thiol-ene systems. The polymerization shrinkage stress was dramatically reduced when the tetra-allyl monomer was used as the ene in ester-free thiol-ene mixtures. Although exhibiting lower Young's modulus, flexural strength, and glass transition temperatures, the toughness values associated with thiol-ene resins were greater than that of the BisGMA/TEGDMA control. In addition, the thiol-ene polymerization resulted in highly uniform polymer networks as indicated by the narrow tan delta peak widths.Employing the developed thiol-ene resins in dental composites will reduce shrinkage stress and moisture absorption and form tougher materials. Furthermore, their low viscosities are expected to enable higher loadings of functionalized micro/nano-scale filler particles relevant for practical dental systems.
Project description:In the past few decades, Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PVDF/PMMA) binary blend has attracted substantial attention in the scientific community due to possible intriguing mechanical, optical and ferroelectric properties that are closely related to its multiple crystal structures/phases. However, the effect of PMMA phase on the polymorphism of PVDF, especially the relationship between miscibility and polymorphism, remains an open question and is not yet fully understood. In this work, three series of particle blends with varied levels of miscibility between PVDF and PMMA were prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization: PVDF?PMMA core?shell particle (PVDF@PMMA) with high miscibility; PVDF/PMMA latex blend with modest miscibility; and PVDF@c?PMMA (crosslinked PMMA) core?shell particle with negligible miscibility. The difference in miscibility, and the corresponding morphology and polymorphism were systematically studied to correlate the PMMA/PVDF miscibility with PVDF polymorphism. It is of interest to observe that the formation of polar ?/? phase during melt crystallization could be governed in two ways: dipole?dipole interaction and fast crystallization. For PVDF@PMMA and PVDF/PMMA systems, in which fast crystallization was unlikely triggered, higher content of ?/? phase, and intense suppression of crystallization temperature and capacity were observed in PVDF@PMMA, because high miscibility favored a higher intensity of overall dipole?dipole interaction and a longer interaction time. For PVDF@c?PMMA system, after a complete coverage of PVDF seeds by PMMA shells, nearly pure ?/? phase was obtained owing to the fast homogeneous nucleation. This is the first report that high miscibility between PVDF and PMMA could favor the formation of ?/? phase.