Exercise protects against PCB-induced inflammation and associated cardiovascular risk factors.
ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote proinflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. PCBs are highly lipophilic and accumulate in adipose tissue, a site of insulin resistance in persons with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Objectives</h4>We investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of coplanar PCBs on adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and on glucose and insulin homeostasis in lean and obese mice.<h4>Methods</h4>We quantified glucose and insulin tolerance, as well as TNF-? levels, in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of male C57BL/6 mice administered vehicle, PCB-77, or PCB-126 and fed a low fat (LF) diet. Another group of mice administered vehicle or PCB-77 were fed a high fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks; the diet was then switched from HF to LF for 4 weeks to induce weight loss. We quantified glucose and insulin tolerance and adipose TNF-? expression in these mice. In addition, we used in vitro and in vivo studies to quantify aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent effects of PCB-77 on parameters of glucose homeostasis.<h4>Results</h4>Treatment with coplanar PCBs resulted in sustained impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed the LF diet. In PCB-77-treated mice, TNF-? expression was increased in adipose tissue but not in liver or muscle. PCB-77 levels were strikingly higher in adipose tissue than in liver or serum. Antagonism of AhR abolished both in vitro and in vivo effects of PCB-77. In obese mice, PCB-77 had no effect on glucose homeostasis, but glucose homeostasis was impaired after weight loss.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Coplanar PCBs impaired glucose homeostasis in lean mice and in obese mice following weight loss. Adipose-specific elevations in TNF-? expression by PCBs may contribute to impaired glucose homeostasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote adipocyte inflammation and impair glucose homeostasis in lean mice. The diabetes-promoting effects of lipophilic PCBs have been observed only during weight loss in obese mice. The molecular mechanisms linking PCB exposures to impaired glucose metabolism are unclear.<h4>Objectives</h4>In this study we tested the hypothesis that coplanar PCBs act at adipocyte aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) to promote adipose inflammation and impair glucose homeostasis in lean mice and in obese mice during weight loss.<h4>Methods and results</h4>PCB-77 administration impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in LF (low fat diet)-fed control (AhR(fl/fl)) mice but not in adipocyte AhR-deficient mice (AhR(AdQ)). Unexpectedly, AhR(AdQ) mice exhibited increased fat mass when fed a standard LF or high fat (HF) diet. In mice fed a HF diet, both genotypes became obese, but AhR(AdQ) mice administered vehicle (VEH) exhibited increased body weight, adipose mass, adipose inflammation, and impaired glucose tolerance compared with AhR(fl/fl) controls. Impairment of glucose homeostasis in response to PCB-77 was not observed in obese mice of either genotype. However, upon weight loss, AhR(fl/fl) mice administered PCB-77 exhibited increased abundance of adipose tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA and impaired glucose homeostasis compared with those administered VEH. In contrast, PCB-77 had no effect on TNF-? or glucose homeostasis in AhR(AdQ) mice exhibiting weight loss.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results demonstrate that adipocyte AhR mediates PCB-induced adipose inflammation and impairment of glucose homeostasis in mice. Moreover, deficiency of AhR in adipocytes augmented the development of obesity, indicating that endogenous ligand(s) for AhR regulate adipose homeostasis.
Project description:In this study we have examined the effect of exposure to different congeners of PCBs and their role in oxidative stress response. A metabolically competent human liver cell line (HepG2) was exposed with two prototype congeners of PCBs: coplanar PCB-77 and non-coplanar PCB-153. After the predetermined times of exposure (0-24h) at 70 ?M concentration, the HepG2 cells showed significant apoptotic changes by fluorescent microscopy after 12h of exposure. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identified oxidative stress as the predominant enrichment. Further, paraquat assay showed that PCB congeners lead to oxidative stress to different extents, PCB-77 being more toxic. This study, with emphasis on all recommended microarray quality control steps, showed that apoptosis was one of the most significant cellular processes as a result of oxidative stress, but each of these congeners had a unique signature gene expression, which was further validated by Taqman real time PCR and immunoblotting. The pathways involved leading to the common apoptotic effect were completely different. Further in-silico analysis showed that PCB-153 most likely acted through the TNF receptor, leading to oxidative stress involving metallothionein gene families, and causing apoptosis mainly by the Fas receptor signaling pathway. In contrast, PCB-77 acted through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. It induced oxidative stress through the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) leading to apoptosis through AHR/ARNT pathway.
Project description:Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones alter cellular phenotypes without changing genetic codes. Alterations of epigenetic marks can be induced by exposure to environmental pollutants and may contribute to associated disease risks. Here we test the hypothesis that endothelial cell dysfunction induced by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is mediated in part though histone modifications. In this study, human vascular endothelial cells were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of several PCBs congeners (e.g., PCBs 77, 118, 126 and 153) followed by quantification of inflammatory gene expression and changes of histone methylation. Only exposure to coplanar PCBs 77 and 126 induced the expression of histone H3K9 trimethyl demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) subunit p65, activated NF-?B signaling as evidenced by nuclear translocation of p65, and up-regulated p65 target inflammatory genes, such as interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and IL-1?/?. The increased accumulation of JMJD2B in the p65 promoter led to a depletion of H3K9me3 repression mark, which accounts for the observed up-regulation of p65 and associated inflammatory genes. JMJD2B gene knockdown confirmed a critical role for this histone demethylase in mediating PCB-induced inflammation of the vascular endothelium. Finally, it was determined, via chemical inhibition, that PCB-induced up-regulation of JMJD2B was estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-?) dependent. These data suggest that coplanar PCBs may exert endothelial cell toxicity through changes in histone modifications.
Project description:The gut microbiome, a dynamic bacterial community that interacts with the host, is integral to human health because it regulates energy metabolism and immune functions. The gut microbiome may also play a role in risks from environmental toxicants.We investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and exercise on the composition and structure of the gut microbiome in mice.After mice exercised voluntarily for 5 weeks, they were treated by oral gavage with a mixture of environmentally relevant PCB congeners (PCB153, PCB138, and PCB180; total PCB dose, 150 µmol/kg) for 2 days. We then assessed the microbiome by determination of 16S rRNA using microarray analysis.Oral exposure to PCBs significantly altered the abundance of the gut microbiome in mice primarily by decreasing the levels of Proteobacteria. The activity level of the mice correlated with a substantial shift in abundance, biodiversity, and composition of the microbiome. Importantly, exercise attenuated PCB-induced changes in the gut microbiome.Our results show that oral exposure to PCBs can induce substantial changes in the gut microbiome, which may then influence their systemic toxicity. These changes can be attenuated by behavioral factors, such as voluntary exercise.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity-AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity-AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity-AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(-/-)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189-208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors.<h4>Results</h4>We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(-/-) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on at least one measure of learning or behavior.<h4>Conclusions</h4>High levels of maternal hepatic CYP1A2 offer the most important protection against deficits in learning and memory in offspring exposed to a mixture of coplanar and noncoplanar PCBs. High-affinity AHR is the next most important factor in protection of offspring.
Project description:Most exercise studies in mice have relied on forced training which can introduce psychological stress. Consequently, the utility of mouse models for understanding exercise-mediated effects in humans, particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) remodeling, have been challenged. We compared the effects of voluntary free-wheel running vs. non-voluntary swimming on heart function in mice with a focus on the regulation of heart rate (HR) by the ANS. Under conditions where the total excess O2 consumption associated with exercise was comparable, the two exercise models led to similar improvements in ventricular function as well as comparable reductions in HR and its control by parasympathetic nervous activity (PNA) and sympathetic nervous activity (SNA), compared to sedentary mice. Both exercise models also increased HR variability (HRV) by similar amounts, independent of HR reductions. In all mice, HRV depended primarily on PNA, with SNA weakly affecting HRV at low frequencies. The differences in both HR and HRV between exercised vs. sedentary mice were eliminated by autonomic blockade, consistent with the similar intrinsic beating rates observed in atria isolated from exercised vs. sedentary mice. In conclusion, both forced and voluntary exercise induce comparable ventricular physiological remodeling as well as HR reductions and HR-independent enhancements of HRV which were both primarily dependent on increased PNA. New and noteworthy:-No previous mouse studies have compared the effects of forced and voluntary exercise on the heart function and its modulation by the autonomic nervous system (ANS).-Both voluntary free-wheel running and forced swimming induced similar improvements in ventricular contractile function, reductions in heart rate (HR) and enhancements of HR variability (HRV).-HR regulation in exercised mice was linked to increased parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced sympathetic nerve activity.- HRV was independent of HR and depended primarily on PNA in both exercised and sedentary mice.- Complete cardiac autonomic blockade eliminated differences in both HR and HRV between exercised and sedentary mice.
Project description:Strong sorption of planar nonionic organic chemicals by clay minerals has been observed for important classes of organic contaminants including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins, and such affinity was hypothesized to relate to the interlayer hydrophobicity of smectite clays. In batch sorption experiments of two trichlorobiphenyls on homoionic Na-, K-, Cs-montmorillonites, considerably greater sorption coefficient (Kw) was observed for coplanar 3,3',5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 36); log Kw for Na-, K-, and Cs-montmorillonite were 3.69, 3.72, and 4.53 for coplanar PCB 36 vs 1.21, 1.46, and 0.87 for the nonplanar 2,2',6-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 19). MD simulations were conducted utilizing X-ray diffraction determined clay interlayer distances (d-spacing). The trajectory, density distribution, and radial distribution function of interlayer cation, water, and PCBs collectively indicated that the hydrophobic nature of the interlayer regions was determined by the hydration status of exchangeable cations and the associated d-spacing. The sorption free energies calculated for both coplanar and nonplanar PCB molecules by adaptive biasing force (ABF) method with an extended interlayer-micropore two-phase model consisting of cleaved clay hydrates and "bulk water" are consistent with the Gibbs free energies derived from the measured log Kw, manifesting enhanced sorption of coplanar PCBs was attributed to shape selectivity and hydrophobic interactions.
Project description:Gene expression and phenotypic consequences of laboratory housing in rats. Disease related-phenotypes and associated gene expressions of sedentary animals (living solely in a standard cage) were compared with animals that had access to twice-weekly one-hour physical activity in a large box (PA) and with those that had access to voluntary running wheel exercise (EX). Keywords: exercise dose reponse, sedentary, twice weekly physical activity, daily exercise Overall design: The left ventricle of 16 month female Sprague-Dawley rats was used for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. Twelve animals from each treatment group (SED, PA, and EX) were used for microarray analysis (4 animals pooled per GeneChip).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway that produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential co-substrate regulating a myriad of signaling pathways. We produced a mouse that overexpressed NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg) and hypothesized that NamptTg mice would have increased oxidative capacity, endurance performance, and mitochondrial gene expression, and would be rescued from metabolic abnormalities that developed with high fat diet (HFD) feeding. METHODS:Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was assessed in NamptTg and WT mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD, 60% by kcal) or chow diet (CD). The aerobic capacity (VO2max) and endurance performance of NamptTg and WT mice before and after 7 weeks of voluntary exercise training (running wheel in home cage) or sedentary conditions (no running wheel) were measured. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial gene expression was also measured in exercised and sedentary mice and in mice fed HFD (45% by kcal) or low fat diet (LFD, 10% by kcal). RESULTS:NAMPT enzyme activity in skeletal muscle was 7-fold higher in NamptTg mice versus WT mice. There was a concomitant 1.6-fold elevation of skeletal muscle NAD+. NamptTg mice fed VHFD were partially protected against body weight gain, but not against insulin resistance. Notably, voluntary exercise training elicited a 3-fold higher exercise endurance in NamptTg versus WT mice. Mitochondrial gene expression was higher in NamptTg mice compared to WT mice, especially when fed HFD. Mitochondrial gene expression was higher in exercised NamptTg mice than in sedentary WT mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies have unveiled a fascinating interaction between elevated NAMPT activity in skeletal muscle and voluntary exercise that was manifest as a striking improvement in exercise endurance.