Association between Vitamin D and Circulating Lipids in Early Childhood.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is associated with established cardiovascular risk factors such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) in adults. It is unknown whether these associations are present in early childhood. To determine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is associated with serum non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol during early childhood we conducted a cross-sectional study of children aged 1 to 5 years. Healthy children were recruited through the TARGet Kids! practice based research network from 2008-2011 (n=1,961). The associations between 25(OH)D and non-fasting non-HDL cholesterol (the primary endpoint), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, were evaluated using multiple linear regression adjusted for age, sex, skin pigmentation, milk intake, vitamin D supplementation, season, body mass index, outdoor play, and screen time. Each 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a decrease in non-HDL cholesterol concentration of -0.89 mg/dl (95% CI: -1.16,-0.50), total cholesterol of -1.08 mg/dl (95%CI: -1.49,-0.70), and triglycerides of -2.34 mg/dl (95%CI: -3.23,-1.45). The associations between 25(OH)D and LDL and HDL were not statistically significant. 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with circulating lipids in early childhood, suggesting that vitamin D exposure in early life may be an early modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Cross-sectional studies have found an association between deficiencies in serum vitamin D, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and an atherogenic lipid profile. These studies have focused on a limited panel of lipid values including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG).Our study examines the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and an extended lipid panel (Vertical Auto Profile) while controlling for age, gender, glycemic status, and kidney function.We used the Very Large Database of Lipids, which includes US adults clinically referred for analysis of their lipid profile from 2009 to 2011. Our study focused on 20,360 subjects who had data for lipids, 25(OH)D, age, gender, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Subjects were split into groups based on serum 25(OH)D: deficient (<20 ng/mL), intermediate (? 20-30 ng/mL), and optimal (? 30 ng/mL). The deficient group was compared to the optimal group using multivariable linear regression.In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, deficient serum 25(OH)D was associated with significantly lower serum HDL-C (-5.1%) and higher total cholesterol (+9.4%), non-HDL-C (+15.4%), directly measured LDL-C (+13.5%), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+23.7%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+19.0%), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (+18.4%), and TG (+26.4%) when compared with the optimal group.Deficient serum 25(OH)D is associated with significantly lower HDL-C and higher directly measured LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and TG. Future trials examining vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk should consider using changes in an extended lipid panel as an additional outcome measurement.
Project description:Background:The biological pathways through which vitamin D is involved in the regulation of systemic inflammation remain largely unknown. Objective:The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of vitamin D status on the relationship between lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in pregnant women. Design:Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), hs-CRP, and indicators of lipid profiles (total cholesterol, TC; triglyceride, TG; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C), were measured in 2479 pregnant women during the second trimester. Potential confounding including maternal sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal health status, diet, and lifestyle was prospectively collected. Multiple regression models and cubic models were used to evaluate the associations. Results:There was a significant non-linear relationship between lipid profile (TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C) and hs-CRP (P?<?0.05). Increased serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with decreasing TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, and hs-CRP levels. Compared with medium levels of lipids group, pregnant women with higher levels of TC or TG have higher levels of hs-CRP, and pregnant women with lower levels of TC, HDL-C or LDL-C also have higher levels of hs-CRP in the vitamin D deficient group, and there was a significant correlation between low levels of TG and decreased hs-CRP (adjusted ? for TG: -0.063, 95%CI: -?0.120,-0.007) in the non-vitamin D deficient group. Mediators that had appreciable shares of the associations between 25(OH)D and hs-CRP was TG (10.2% of the association; ??=?-?0.011; total indirect effect: 95% CI: -?0.019, -?0.002). The cubic model suggested that a steep increase in the adjusted regression coefficient of lipid with hs-CRP up to 50?nmol/L of 25(OH)D, and the highest adjusted regression coefficients were observed in pregnant women with 25(OH)D above 50?nmol/L. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that high levels of vitamin D during pregnancy may improve lipid profile levels and inhibit elevated hs-CRP induced by high lipid metabolism.
Project description:Background: Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <20 ng/mL, is correlated with a more atherogenic lipid profile. However, oral vitamin D supplementation does not lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations or raise HDL-cholesterol concentrations. This uncoupling between association and causation may result from a failure of oral vitamin D to mimic the effect of dermally synthesized vitamin D in response to ultraviolet type B (UVB) light.Objective: We tested the hypothesis that, in vitamin D-deficient adults, the replenishment of vitamin D with UVB exposure would lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effect of oral vitamin D3 supplementation.Design: We performed a randomized clinical trial in vitamin D-deficient adults and compared vitamin D replenishment between subjects who received oral vitamin D3 (n = 60) and those who received narrow-band UVB exposure (n = 58) ?6 mo.Results: There was no difference in the change from baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations between oral vitamin D3 and UVB groups (difference in median of oral vitamin D3 minus that of UVB: 1.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.0, 7.0 mg/dL). There were also no differences within groups or between groups for changes in total or HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. Transcriptional profiling of skin and blood, however, revealed significant upregulation of immune pathway signaling with oral vitamin D3 but significant downregulation with UVB.Conclusions: Correcting vitamin D deficiency with either oral vitamin D3 or UVB does not improve the lipid profile. Beyond cholesterol, these 2 modalities of raising 25(OH)D have disparate effects on gene transcription. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01688102.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults.<h4>Methods</h4>The study was carried out using 1475 participants from the Center for Physical Examination, 306 Hospital of PLA in Beijing, China. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. AIP was calculated based on the formula: log [TG/HDL-C]. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between serum 25(OH)D and lipids. The association between the occurrences of dyslipidemias and vitamin D levels was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Confounding factors, age and BMI, were used for the adjustment.<h4>Results</h4>The median of serum 25(OH)D concentration was 47 (27-92.25) nmol/L in all subjects. The overall percentage of 25(OH)D ? 50 nmol/L was 58.5% (males 54.4%, females 63.7%). The serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with TG (? coefficient = -0.24, p < 0.001) and LDL-C (? coefficient = -0.34, p < 0.001) and positively associated with TC (? coefficient = 0.35, p < 0.002) in men. The associations between serum 25(OH)D and LDL-C (? coefficient = -0.25, p = 0.01) and TC (? coefficient = 0.39, p = 0.001) also existed in women. The serum 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with AIP in men (r = -0.111, p < 0.01) but not in women. In addition, vitamin D deficient men had higher AIP values than vitamin D sufficient men. Furthermore, the occurrences of dyslipidemias (reduced HDL-C, elevated TG and elevated AIP) correlated with lower 25(OH)D levels in men, whereas the higher TC and LDL-C associated with higher 25(OH)D levels in women.<h4>Conclusion</h4>It seems that the serum 25(OH)D levels are closely associated with the serum lipids and AIP. Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the increased risk of dyslipidemias, especially in men. The association between vitamin D status and serum lipids may differ by genders.
Project description:In clinical trials, vitamin D supplementation has been reported to reduce serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) but not high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In this cohort study we evaluated the association between changes in vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and changes in lipid levels in a real-world setting. Changes in lipid levels over a 1-year period were evaluated among individuals whose vitamin D levels increased (group 1) or decreased (group 2) by ≥ 10 ng/mL in year 2018 versus 2017 (cohort 1; n = 5580), in 2019 versus 2018 (cohort 2, n = 6057), or in 2020 versus 2019 (cohort 3, n = 7249). In each cohort, levels of TC, LDL-C, and TG decreased in group 1 and increased in group 2. Between-group differences in average changes in the 3 cohorts ranged from 10.71 to 12.02 mg/dL for TC, from 7.42 to 8.95 mg/dL for LDL-C, and from 21.59 to 28.09 mg/dL for TG. These differences were significant after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking status, geographical location, and baseline levels of vitamin D and lipids (P < 0.001). Changes in vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with changes in HDL-C levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM:To determine the relationship between resolution of NASH and dyslipidemia. METHODS:Individuals in the Pioglitazone vs. Vitamin E vs. Placebo for the Treatment of Nondiabetic Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial with paired liver biopsies and fasting lipid levels were included (N = 222). In the PIVENS trial individuals were randomised to pioglitazone 30 mg, vitamin E 800 IU or placebo for 96 weeks. Change in lipid levels at 96 weeks was compared between those with and without NASH resolution. RESULTS:Dyslipidemia at baseline was frequent, with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (<40 mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women) in 63%, hypertriglyceridaemia (?150 mg/dL) in 46%, hypercholesterolaemia (?200 mg/dL) in 47% and triglycerides (TG)/HDL >5.0 in 25%. Low-density lipoprotein (LD) ?160 mg/dL was found in 16% and elevated non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (?130 mg/dL) in 73%. HDL increased with NASH resolution but decreased in those without resolution (2.9 mg/dL vs. -2.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001). NASH resolution was associated with significant decreases in TG and TG/HDL ratio compared to those without resolution (TG: -21.1 vs. -2.3 mg/dL, P = 0.03 and TG/HDL: -0.7 vs. 0.1, P = 0.003). Non-HDL-C, LDL and cholesterol decreased over 96 weeks in both groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. Treatment group did not impact lipids. CONCLUSIONS:NASH resolution is associated with improvements in TG and HDL but not in other cardiovascular disease risk factors including LDL and non-HDL-C levels. Individuals with resolution of NASH may still be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00063622.
Project description:Blood lipids have served as key biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet emerging evidence indicates metabolite profiling might reveal a larger repertoire of small molecules that reflect altered metabolism, and which may be associated with early disease risk. Inadequate micronutrient status may also drive or exacerbate CVD risk factors that emerge during childhood. This study aimed to understand relationships between serum lipid levels, the plasma metabolome, and micronutrient status in 38 children (10 ± 0.8 years) at risk for CVD. Serum lipid levels were measured via autoanalyzer and average daily micronutrient intakes were calculated from 3-day food logs. Plasma metabolites were extracted using 80% methanol and analyzed via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Spearman's rank-order coefficients (rs) were computed for correlations between the following serum lipids [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG)], 805 plasma metabolites, and 17 essential micronutrients. Serum lipid levels in the children ranged from 128-255 mg/dL for total cholesterol, 67-198 mg/dL for LDL, 31-58 mg/dL for HDL, and 46-197 mg/dL for TG. The majority of children (71 to 100%) had levels lower than the Recommended Daily Allowance for vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, folate, vitamin D, and potassium. For sodium, 76% of children had levels above the Upper Limit of intake. Approximately 30% of the plasma metabolome (235 metabolites) were significantly correlated with serum lipids. As expected, plasma cholesterol was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol (rs = 0.6654; p<0.0001). Additionally, 27 plasma metabolites were strongly correlated with serum TG (rs ?0.60; p?0.0001), including alanine and diacylglycerols, which have previously been associated with cardiometabolic and atherosclerotic risk in adults and experimental animals. Plasma metabolite profiling alongside known modifiable risk factors for children merit continued investigation in epidemiological studies to assist with early CVD detection, mitigation, and prevention via lifestyle-based interventions.
Project description:The total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, estimated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-HDL-C are routinely available from the standard lipid profile. We aimed to assess the extent of patient-level discordance of TC/HDL-C with LDL-C and non-HDL-C, because discordance suggests the possibility of additional information.We compared population percentiles of TC/HDL-C, Friedewald-estimated LDL-C, and non-HDL-C in 1?310?432 US adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids. Lipid testing was performed by ultracentrifugation (Vertical Auto Profile, Atherotech, AL). One in 3 patients had ?25 percentile units discordance between TC/HDL-C and LDL-C, whereas 1 in 4 had ?25 percentile units discordance between TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C. The proportion of patients with TC/HDL-C > LDL-C by ?25 percentile units increased from 3% at triglycerides <100 mg/dL to 51% at triglycerides 200 to 399 mg/dL. On a smaller scale, TC/HDL-C > non-HDL-C discordance by ?25 percentile units increased from 6% to 21%. In those with <15th percentile levels of LDL-C (<70 mg/dL) or non-HDL-C (<93 mg/dL), a respective 58% and 46% were above the percentile-equivalent TC/HDL-C of 2.6. Age, sex, and directly measured components of the standard lipid profile explained >86% of the variance in percentile discordance between TC/HDL-C versus LDL-C and non-HDL-C.In this contemporary, cross-sectional, big data analysis of US adults who underwent advanced lipid testing, the extent of patient-level discordance suggests that TC/HDL-C may offer potential additional information to LDL-C and non-HDL-C. Future studies are required to determine the clinical implications of this observation.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01698489.
Project description:<b>Objective: </b>The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status at 24-28 weeks is associated with blood lipids and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).<br><br><b>Design: </b>We performed an observational cohort study.<br><br><b>Setting: </b>The study was conducted in China.<br><br><b>Participants: </b>A total of 261 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM at 24-28 weeks of gestation in our hospital were included between June 2015 and December 2017. According to the levels of 25(OH)D, the women were divided into the G1 (<20?ng/mL) and G2 (?20?ng/mL) groups. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), TG/HDL-c and TC/HDL-c ratios were obtained from medical records. Pregnancy outcomes included gestational weeks of birth and delivery mode. Newborn information included birth weight and body length. Differences between groups were tested with adjusted multiple linear regression.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The serum levels of 25(OH)D (14.1±3.4 ng/mL vs 28.5±6.5 ng/mL, p<0.001), TC (5.3±0.9 vs 5.6±0.8, p=0.006), HDL-c (1.8±0.4 vs 1.9±0.4, p=0.046) and LDL-c (2.5±0.6 vs 2.7±0.7, p=0.015) in the G2 group were significantly higher than those in G1 group, while TG/HDL-c ratios (1.43±0.7 vs 1.26±0.7, p=0.035) were significantly higher in the G1 group. Moreover, we failed to find a significant difference in pregnancy outcomes of mothers and newborns among the two groups (p>0.05). In models adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, blood pressure, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, pre-pregnancy body mass index, season and gestational age, maternal 25(OH)D was associated with TG/HDL-c ratios (B=-0.016; 95%?CI= -0.025 to -0.006).<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>We found that there was no relationship between vitamin D and pregnancy/neonatal outcomes in our study. Maternal 25(OH)D at 24-28 weeks was inversely associated with TG/HDL-c ratios.
Project description:Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and vitamin D deficiency was reported among postmenopausal women (PMW) in India. However, no report is available regarding the association of MS and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] among PMW in India. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of MS and 25(OH)D status as well as their association among rural PMW of West Bengal, India.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 222 randomly selected rural PMW in Singur Block, West Bengal, India. Serum 25(OH)D, Blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured using standard procedures. MS was defined as per International Diabetes Federation, 2005 (for Asian-Indians) criteria. Statistical tests were done using SPSS software.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 46%. 51% and 19% PMW were vitamin D insufficient and deficient, respectively. 22% and 53% women having MS were vitamin D insufficient and deficient, respectively. Among the PMW, 21% and 47% with WC?80cm; 22% and 62% with FBG?110mg/dl; 21% and 54% with TG?150mg/dl; 23% and 51% with HDL-C<50mg/dl, 15% and 55% with BP?130/85mm of Hg were vitamin D insufficient and deficient, respectively. Significant statistical association between FBG and 25(OH)D status existed (p = 0.01). Significant positive correlation between WC and 25(OH)D level (p = 0.004) and significant negative correlation between FBG and 25(OH)D level observed (p = 0.02). WC was the only statistically significant predictor of the dependent variable. Odds of non-sufficient 25(OH)D level increased with decrease in WC.High prevalence of MS as well as vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency existed among PMW of Singur block, West Bengal, India. 25(OH)D had significant inverse and direct relationship with FBG and WC. Low 25(OH)D may be one of the potential risk factors for developing MS in PMW or vice-versa.