Regulation of microtubule dynamics by DIAPH3 influences amoeboid tumor cell mechanics and sensitivity to taxanes.
ABSTRACT: Taxanes are widely employed chemotherapies for patients with metastatic prostate and breast cancer. Here, we show that loss of Diaphanous-related formin-3 (DIAPH3), frequently associated with metastatic breast and prostate cancers, correlates with increased sensitivity to taxanes. DIAPH3 interacted with microtubules (MT), and its loss altered several parameters of MT dynamics as well as decreased polarized force generation, contractility, and response to substrate stiffness. Silencing of DIAPH3 increased the cytotoxic response to taxanes in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of drug activity for tubulin-targeted agents in the NCI-60 cell line panel revealed a uniform positive correlation between reduced DIAPH3 expression and drug sensitivity. Low DIAPH3 expression correlated with improved relapse-free survival in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutic regimens containing taxanes. Our results suggest that inhibition of MT stability arising from DIAPH3 downregulation enhances susceptibility to MT poisons, and that the DIAPH3 network potentially reports taxane sensitivity in human tumors.
Project description:Diaphanous-related formin-3 (DIAPH3), a cytoskeletal regulator of the formin family, is lost at high frequency in metastatic breast and prostate cancers and has characteristics of a non-canonical metastasis suppressor. We previously demonstrated that DIAPH3 silencing evokes transition to an “amoeboid” phenotype, characterized by rapid motility, RhoA/ROCK and MEK/ERK pathway activation, dynamic membrane blebbing, and increased shedding of microvesicles. Here we report that low DIAPH3 mRNA expression correlates with reduced survival in multiple cancer patient cohorts. In line with induction of amoeboid behavior, traction force microscopy (TFM) revealed that polarized force generation, contractility, and response to substrate stiffness are reduced by DIAPH3 loss. Proteomic analyses revealed that DIAPH3 precipitates with tubulins, and reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation analyses revealed greater binding of DIAPH3 to MT polymers than soluble tubulin. DIAPH3 also bound to acetylated-tubulin (Ac-tubulin), suggesting association with a stable MT population. DIAPH3 silencing reduced Ac-tubulin and increased the cellular content of dynamic MT, as indicated by TFM and live cell imaging. DIAPH3 silencing also increased responsiveness to MT-disrupting agents. Treatment with the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, and the non-taxane epothilone B, induced a greater change in Ac-tubulin when cells lacked DIAPH3. Intracellular accumulation of Oregon Green 488-paclitaxel was also increased by DIAPH3 loss, and accordingly, DIAPH3 silencing enhanced cytotoxicity by paclitaxel, docetaxel, or epothilone B. Gene expression profiles of breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutic regimens containing taxanes revealed an association of low DIAPH3 expression with improved relapse-free survival. Collectively, these results suggest that regulation of MT stability/dynamics by DIAPH3 enhances amoeboid tumor cell susceptibility to microtubule poisons. These findings have potential therapeutic implications.
Project description:Therapies for most malignancies are generally ineffective once metastasis occurs. While tumour cells migrate through tissues using diverse strategies, the signalling networks controlling such behaviours in human tumours are poorly understood. Here we define a role for the Diaphanous-related formin-3 (DIAPH3) as a non-canonical regulator of metastasis that restrains conversion to amoeboid cell behaviour in multiple cancer types. The DIAPH3 locus is close to RB1, within a narrow consensus region of deletion on chromosome 13q in prostate, breast and hepatocellular carcinomas. DIAPH3 silencing in human carcinoma cells destabilized microtubules and induced defective endocytic trafficking, endosomal accumulation of EGFR, and hyperactivation of EGFR/MEK/ERK signalling. Silencing also evoked amoeboid properties, increased invasion and promoted metastasis in mice. In human tumours, DIAPH3 down-regulation was associated with aggressive or metastatic disease. DIAPH3-silenced cells were sensitive to MEK inhibition, but showed reduced sensitivity to EGFR inhibition. These findings have implications for understanding mechanisms of metastasis, and suggest that identifying patients with chromosomal deletions at DIAPH3 may have prognostic value.
Project description:The development and progression of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is the major challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The androgen receptor signaling pathway remains active in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Docetaxel and cabazitaxel are the first- and second-line chemotherapy, respectively, for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. These two taxanes, in general, function by (i) inhibiting mitosis and inducing apoptosis and (ii) preventing microtubule-dependent cargo trafficking. In prostate cancer, taxanes have been reported to inhibit the nuclear translocation and activity of the androgen receptor. However, whether this is attainable or not clinically remains controversial. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive view of the effects of taxanes on androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer.
Project description:Taxanes are a critical component of chemotherapy for breast, prostate, lung and other cancers. Initial or acquired tumor resistance to taxanes is therefore one of the most important issues in oncology. Survivin is a prosurvival gene whose expression is a poor prognostic feature. Survivin is induced acutely upon exposure to taxanes and coordinates resistance to taxane-mediated cell death, although the exact mechanism of taxane-mediated survivin induction is not clear. Here, we describe the synthesis of a series of novel taxanes, with modifications on the 7- or 10-position of the taxane backbone, as well as the side chain. We found that the novel taxanes with modifications at the 10-position have robust tubulin binding and tubulin polymerization activity. Gene expression profiling and quantitative PCR of cells treated with the 10-position conjugates reveals that the effect of treatment with a subset of these novel taxanes lacks a gene expression signature, including survivin induction, which is characteristically induced with paclitaxel treatment. Furthermore, we show that this gene expression signature is not due to differences in G2/M arrest. Cell sensitivity studies suggest that the inability to induce survivin is associated with increased drug cytotoxicity and apoptosis. This work suggests that taxanes that effectively bind tubulin need not invariably induce survivin as a mechanism of drug resistance.
Project description:To improve the outcomes of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), there is an urgent need for more effective therapies and approaches that individualize specific treatments for patients with CRPC. These studies compared the novel taxane cabazitaxel with the previous generation docetaxel, and aimed to determine which tumors are most likely to respond.Cabazitaxel and docetaxel were compared via in vitro modeling to determine the molecular mechanism, biochemical and cell biologic impact, and cell proliferation, which was further assessed ex vivo in human tumor explants. Isogenic pairs of RB knockdown and control cells were interrogated in vitro and in xenograft tumors for cabazitaxel response.The data herein show that (i) cabazitaxel exerts stronger cytostatic and cytotoxic response compared with docetaxel, especially in CRPC; (ii) cabazitaxel induces aberrant mitosis, leading to pyknotic and multinucleated cells; (iii) taxanes do not act through the androgen receptor (AR); (iv) gene-expression profiling reveals distinct molecular actions for cabazitaxel; and (v) tumors that have progressed to castration resistance via loss of RB show enhanced sensitivity to cabazitaxel.Cabazitaxel not only induces improved cytostatic and cytotoxic effects, but also affects distinct molecular pathways, compared with docetaxel, which could underlie its efficacy after docetaxel treatment has failed in patients with CRPC. Finally, RB is identified as the first potential biomarker that could define the therapeutic response to taxanes in metastatic CRPC. This would suggest that loss of RB function induces sensitization to taxanes, which could benefit up to 50% of CRPC cases.
Project description:The diaphanous homologue Diaph3 (aka mDia2) is a major regulator of actin cytoskeleton. Loss of Diaph3 has been constantly associated with cytokinesis failure ascribed to impaired accumulation of actin in the cleavage furrow. Here we report that Diaph3 is required before cell fission, to ensure the accurate segregation of chromosomes. Inactivation of the Diaph3 gene causes a massive loss of cortical progenitor cells, with subsequent depletion of intermediate progenitors and neurons, and results in microcephaly. In embryonic brain extracts, Diaph3 co-immunoprecipitates with BubR1, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Diaph3-deficient cortical progenitors have decreased levels of BubR1 and fail to properly activate the SAC. Hence, they bypass mitotic arrest and embark on anaphase in spite of incorrect chromosome segregation, generating aneuploidy. Our data identify Diaph3 as a major guard of cortical progenitors, unravel novel functions of Diaphanous formins and add insights into the pathobiology of microcephaly.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of malignancy in women worldwide. Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) are widely applied as first-line chemotherapeutic agents, while the therapeutic effect is seriously limited by the development of drug resistance. In the present study, we screened out several miRNAs dysregulated in taxanes-resistant breast cancer samples and confirmed that two miRNAs (miR-335-5p and let-7c-5p) played a major role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and chemo-resistance. In addition, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) for potential target genes of miR-335-5p and let-7c-5p identified three hub genes (CXCL9, CCR7, and SOCS1) with a positive relationship to taxanes-sensitivity. Further, target relationships between miR-335-5p and CXCL9, let-7c-5p and CCR7/SOCS1 were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Importantly, the regulatory functions of CXCL9, CCR7, and SOCS1 on proliferation and chemoresistance were validated. In conclusion, our study shed light on clinical theragnostic relationships between miR-335-5p/CXCL9, let-7c-5p/CCR7/SOCS1 axes, and taxanes-resistance in breast cancer.
Project description:Cell division is essential for the maintenance of life and involves chromosome segregation and subsequent cytokinesis. The processes are tightly regulated at both the spatial and temporal level by various genes, and failures in this regulation are associated with oncogenesis. Here, we investigated the gene responsible for defects in cell division by using murine temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant strains, tsFT101 and tsFT50 cells. The ts mutants normally grow in a low temperature environment (32 °C) but fail to divide in a high temperature environment (39 °C). Exome sequencing and over-expression analyses identified <i>Diaph3</i>, a member of the formin family, as the cause of the temperature sensitivity observed in tsFT101 and tsFT50 cells. Interestingly, <i>Diaph3</i> knockout cells showed abnormality in cytokinesis at 39 °C, and the phenotype was rescued by re-expression of <i>Diaph3</i> WT, but not <i>Diaph1</i> and <i>Diaph2</i>, other members of the formin family. Furthermore, <i>Diaph3</i> knockout cells cultured at 39 °C showed a significant increase in the level of acetylated ?-tubulin, an index of stabilized microtubules, and the level was reduced by <i>Diaph3</i> expression. These results suggest that <i>Diaph3</i> is required for cytokinesis only under high temperature conditions. Therefore, our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms by which regulatory factors of cell division function in a temperature-dependent manner.
Project description:Taxanes are a mainstay of treatment for breast cancer, but resistance often develops followed by metastatic disease and mortality. Aiming to reveal the mechanisms underlying taxane resistance, we used breast cancer patient-derived orthoxenografts (PDX). Mimicking clinical behavior, triple-negative breast tumors (TNBCs) from PDX models were more sensitive to docetaxel than luminal tumors, but they progressively acquired resistance upon continuous drug administration. Mechanistically, we found that a CD49f+ chemoresistant population with tumor-initiating ability is present in sensitive tumors and expands during the acquisition of drug resistance. In the absence of the drug, the resistant CD49f+ population shrinks and taxane sensitivity is restored. We describe a transcriptional signature of resistance, predictive of recurrent disease after chemotherapy in TNBC. Together, these findings identify a CD49f+ population enriched in tumor-initiating ability and chemoresistance properties and evidence a drug holiday effect on the acquired resistance to docetaxel in triple-negative breast cancer.
Project description:Taxanes are an established option in the standard treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Neuropathy is a common, dose-limiting side effect of taxane therapy that is often managed by dose reductions and delays. The severity, time to onset, and improvement in neuropathy are important considerations for patient management and vary among currently approved taxanes. The rate of grade ?3 neuropathy with taxanes has been shown to be dose and schedule dependent; however, time to improvement to grade ?1 is typically shorter for nab-paclitaxel than for other taxanes in patients with MBC. Many tools for assessing patient-reported neuropathy exist. Because MBC is incurable and patient quality of life must be critically considered when making treatment decisions, there is a need for more prospective trials to assess patient-reported neuropathy. Validated predictors of taxane-related neuropathy may play an important role in treatment decisions in the future. This review will focus on the toxicity profile (i.e., neuropathy) of each of the taxanes used in the treatment of MBC, will provide updates on tools used for the assessment of neuropathy, and will highlight newly discovered predictors of taxane-related neuropathy.