Pleiotrophin regulates the ductular reaction by controlling the migration of cells in liver progenitor niches.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The ductular reaction (DR) involves mobilisation of reactive-appearing duct-like cells (RDC) along canals of Hering, and myofibroblastic (MF) differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in the space of Disse. Perivascular cells in stem cell niches produce pleiotrophin (PTN) to inactivate the PTN receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor zeta-1 (PTPRZ1), thereby augmenting phosphoprotein-dependent signalling. We hypothesised that the DR is regulated by PTN/PTPRZ1 signalling. DESIGN:PTN-GFP, PTN-knockout (KO), PTPRZ1-KO, and wild type (WT) mice were examined before and after bile duct ligation (BDL) for PTN, PTPRZ1 and the DR. RDC and HSC from WT, PTN-KO, and PTPRZ1-KO mice were also treated with PTN to determine effects on downstream signaling phosphoproteins, gene expression, growth, and migration. Liver biopsies from patients with DRs were also interrogated. RESULTS:Although quiescent HSC and RDC lines expressed PTN and PTPRZ1 mRNAs, neither PTN nor PTPRZ1 protein was demonstrated in healthy liver. BDL induced PTN in MF-HSC and increased PTPRZ1 in MF-HSC and RDC. In WT mice, BDL triggered a DR characterised by periportal accumulation of collagen, RDC and MF-HSC. All aspects of this DR were increased in PTN-KO mice and suppressed in PTPRZ1-KO mice. In vitro studies revealed PTN-dependent accumulation of phosphoproteins that control cell-cell adhesion and migration, with resultant inhibition of cell migration. PTPRZ1-positive cells were prominent in the DRs of patients with ductal plate defects and adult cholestatic diseases. CONCLUSIONS:PTN, and its receptor, PTPRZ1, regulate the DR to liver injury by controlling the migration of resident cells in adult liver progenitor niches.
Project description:Intense infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) facilitates malignant growth of glioblastoma (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Herein, we report that TAMs secrete abundant pleiotrophin (PTN) to stimulate glioma stem cells (GSCs) through its receptor PTPRZ1 thus promoting GBM malignant growth through PTN-PTPRZ1 paracrine signalling. PTN expression correlates with infiltration of CD11b+/CD163+ TAMs and poor prognosis of GBM patients. Co-implantation of M2-like macrophages (MLCs) promoted GSC-driven tumour growth, but silencing PTN expression in MLCs mitigated their pro-tumorigenic activity. The PTN receptor PTPRZ1 is preferentially expressed in GSCs and also predicts GBM poor prognosis. Disrupting PTPRZ1 abrogated GSC maintenance and tumorigenic potential. Moreover, blocking the PTN-PTPRZ1 signalling by shRNA or anti-PTPRZ1 antibody potently suppressed GBM tumour growth and prolonged animal survival. Our study uncovered a critical molecular crosstalk between TAMs and GSCs through the PTN-PTPRZ1 paracrine signalling to support GBM malignant growth, indicating that targeting this signalling axis may have therapeutic potential.
Project description:Molecular vulnerabilities represent promising candidates for the development of targeted therapies that hold the promise to overcome the challenges encountered with non-targeted chemotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Through a synthetic lethality screen, we previously identified pleiotrophin (PTN) as a molecular vulnerability in ovarian cancer and showed that siRNA-mediated PTN knockdown induced apoptotic cell death in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. Although, it is well known that PTN elicits its pro-tumorigenic effects through its receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Z1 (PTPRZ1), little is known about the potential importance of this pathway in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. In this study, we show that PTN is expressed, produced, and secreted in a panel of EOC cell lines. PTN levels in serous ovarian tumor tissues are on average 3.5-fold higher relative to normal tissue and PTN is detectable in serum samples of patients with EOC. PTPRZ1 is also expressed and produced by EOC cells and is found to be up-regulated in serous ovarian tumor tissue relative to normal ovarian surface epithelial tissue (P < 0.05). Gene silencing of PTPRZ1 in EOC cell lines using siRNA-mediated knockdown shows that PTPRZ1 is essential for viability and results in significant apoptosis with no effect on the cell cycle phase distribution. In order to determine how PTN mediates survival, we silenced the gene using siRNA mediated knockdown and performed expression profiling of 36 survival-related genes. Through computational mapping of the differentially expressed genes, members of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family were found to be likely effectors of PTN signaling in EOC cells. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that PTN and its signaling components may be of significance in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer and provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of MAPK inhibitors in PTN and/or PTPRZ1 expressing ovarian tumors.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that microRNA-29 (miR-29) is significantly decreased in liver fibrosis and that its downregulation influences the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In addition, inhibition of the activity of histone deacetylases 4 (HDAC4) has been shown to strongly reduce HSC activation in the context of liver fibrosis.In this study, we examined whether miR-29a was involved in the regulation of HDAC4 and modulation of the profibrogenic phenotype in HSCs.We employed miR-29a transgenic mice (miR-29aTg mice) and wild-type littermates to clarify the role of miR-29a in cholestatic liver fibrosis, using the bile duct-ligation (BDL) mouse model. Primary HSCs from both mice were treated with a miR-29a mimic and antisense inhibitor in order to analyze changes in profibrogenic gene expression and HSC activation using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, and cell proliferation and migration assays.After BDL, overexpression of miR-29a decreased collagen-1?1, HDAC4 and activated HSC markers of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in miR-29aTg mice compared to wild-type littermates. Overexpression of miR-29a and HDAC4 RNA-interference decreased the expression of fibrotic genes, HDAC4 signaling, and HSC migration and proliferation. In contrast, knockdown of miR-29a with an antisense inhibitor increased HDAC4 function, restored HSC migration, and accelerated HSC proliferation.Our results indicate that miR-29a ameliorates cholestatic liver fibrosis after BDL, at least partially, by modulating the profibrogenic phenotype of HSCs through inhibition of HDAC4 function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interleukin-1 (IL-1)β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) have been proposed as important mediators during chronic liver diseases. We aimed to determine whether the modulation of IL-1β signaling with IL-1Ra impacts on liver fibrosis. METHODS:We assessed the effects of IL-1β on human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and in mouse models of liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) or carbon tetrachloride treatment (CCl-4). RESULTS:Human HSCs treated with IL-1β had increased IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and MMP-9 expressions in vitro. HSCs treated with IL-1β had reduced α-smooth muscle actin expression. These effects were all prevented by IL-1Ra treatment. In the BDL model, liver fibrosis and Kuppfer cell numbers were increased in IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild type mice and wild type mice treated with IL-1Ra. In contrast, after CCl-4 treatment, fibrosis, HSC and Kupffer cell numbers were decreased in IL-1Ra KO mice compared to the other groups. IL-1Ra treatment provided a modest protective effect in the BDL model and was pro-fibrotic in the CCl-4 model. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated bivalent effects of IL-1Ra during liver fibrosis in mice. IL-1Ra was detrimental in the CCl-4 model, whereas it was protective in the BDL model. Altogether these data suggest that blocking IL-1-mediated inflammation may be beneficial only in selective liver fibrotic disease.
Project description:The mechanisms through which the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fate remain incompletely understood. We examined the role of the heparin-binding growth factor pleiotrophin (PTN) in regulating HSC function in the niche. PTN(-/-) mice displayed significantly decreased BM HSC content and impaired hematopoietic regeneration following myelosuppression. Conversely, mice lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor zeta, which is inactivated by PTN, displayed significantly increased BM HSC content. Transplant studies revealed that PTN action was not HSC autonomous, but rather was mediated by the BM microenvironment. Interestingly, PTN was differentially expressed and secreted by BM sinusoidal endothelial cells within the vascular niche. Furthermore, systemic administration of anti-PTN antibody in mice substantially impaired both the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells to the niche and the retention of BM HSCs in the niche. PTN is a secreted component of the BM vascular niche that regulates HSC self-renewal and retention in vivo.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM) perivascular stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance, but the roles of distinct niche compartments during HSC regeneration are less understood. Here we show that Leptin receptor-expressing (LepR+) BM stromal cells and ECs dichotomously regulate HSC maintenance and regeneration via secretion of pleiotrophin (PTN). BM stromal cells are the key source of PTN during steady-state hematopoiesis because its deletion from stromal cells, but not hematopoietic cells, osteoblasts, or ECs, depletes the HSC pool. Following myelosuppressive irradiation, PTN expression is increased in bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs), and PTN+ ECs are more frequent in the niche. Moreover, deleting Ptn from ECs impairs HSC regeneration whereas Ptn deletion from BM stromal cells does not. These findings reveal dichotomous and complementary regulation of HSC maintenance and regeneration by BM stromal cells and ECs.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor-2 (TRAF2) knockout (KO) cells were generated to investigate the role of TRAF2 in signaling by TNFR1 and the CD95-type death receptors (DRs) TRAILR1/2 and CD95. To prevent negative selection effects arising from the increased cell death sensitivity of TRAF2-deficient cells, cell lines were used for the generation of the TRAF2 KO variants that were protected from DR-induced apoptosis downstream of caspase-8 activation. As already described in the literature, TRAF2 KO cells displayed enhanced constitutive alternative NF?B signaling and reduced TNFR1-induced activation of the classical NF?B pathway. There was furthermore a significant but only partial reduction in CD95-type DR-induced upregulation of the proinflammatory NF?B-regulated cytokine interleukin-8 (IL8), which could be reversed by reexpression of TRAF2. In contrast, expression of the TRAF2-related TRAF1 protein failed to functionally restore TRAF2 deficiency. TRAF2 deficiency resulted furthermore in enhanced procaspase-8 processing by DRs, but this surprisingly came along with a reduction in net caspase-8 activity. In sum, our data argue for (i) a non-obligate promoting function of TRAF2 in proinflammatory DR signaling and (ii) a yet unrecognized stabilizing effect of TRAF2 on caspase-8 activity.
Project description:Nogo-B (reticulon 4B) accentuates hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of Nogo-B in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis in cirrhotic livers. Cirrhosis was generated by carbon tetrachloride inhalation in wild-type (WT) and Nogo-A/B knockout (Nogo-B KO) mice. HSCs were isolated from WT and Nogo-B KO mice and cultured for activation and transformation to myofibroblasts (MF-HSCs). Human hepatic stellate cells (LX2 cells) were used to assess apoptotic responses of activated HSCs after silencing or overexpressing Nogo-B. Livers from cirrhotic Nogo-B KO mice showed significantly reduced fibrosis (P < 0.05) compared with WT mice. Apoptotic cells were more prominent in fibrotic areas of cirrhotic Nogo-B KO livers. Nogo-B KO MF-HSCs showed significantly increased levels of apoptotic markers, cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspase-3 and -8 (P < 0.05) compared with WT MF-HSCs in response to staurosporine. Treatment with tunicamycin, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer, increased cleaved caspase-3 and -8 levels in Nogo-B KO MF-HSCs compared with WT MF-HSCs (P < 0.01). In LX2 cells, Nogo-B knockdown enhanced apoptosis in response to staurosporine, whereas Nogo-B overexpression inhibited apoptosis. The absence of Nogo-B enhances apoptosis of HSCs in experimental cirrhosis. Selective blockade of Nogo-B in HSCs may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to mitigate liver fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Liver fibrosis is associated with angiogenesis and leads to portal hypertension. Certain antibiotics reduce complications of liver failure in humans, however, the effects of antibiotics on the pathologic alterations of the disease are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to test whether the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin could attenuate fibrosis progression and portal hypertension in vivo, and explore potential mechanisms in vitro. METHODS:The effect of rifaximin on portal pressure, fibrosis, and angiogenesis was examined in wild type and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). In vitro studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of the bacterial product and TLR agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on paracrine interactions between hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and liver endothelial cells (LEC) that lead to fibrosis and portal hypertension. RESULTS:Portal pressure, fibrosis, and angiogenesis were significantly lower in BDL mice receiving rifaximin compared to BDL mice receiving vehicle. Studies in TLR4 mutant mice confirmed that the effect of rifaximin was dependent on LPS/TLR4 pathway. Fibronectin (FN) was increased in the BDL liver and was reduced by rifaximin administration and thus, was explored further in vitro as a potential mediator of paracrine interactions of HSC and LEC. In vitro, LPS promoted FN production from HSC. Furthermore, HSC-derived FN promoted LEC migration and angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:These studies expand our understanding of the relationship of intestinal microbiota with fibrosis development by identifying FN as a TLR4 dependent mediator of the matrix and vascular changes that characterize cirrhosis.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation-mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner.