An Ankyrin-G N-terminal Gate and Protein Kinase CK2 Dually Regulate Binding of Voltage-gated Sodium and KCNQ2/3 Potassium Channels.
ABSTRACT: In many mammalian neurons, fidelity and robustness of action potential generation and conduction depends on the co-localization of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and KCNQ2/3 potassium channel conductance at the distal axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier in a ratio of ?40 to 1. Analogous "anchor" peptides within intracellular domains of vertebrate KCNQ2, KCNQ3, and Nav channel ?-subunits bind Ankyrin-G (AnkG), thereby mediating concentration of those channels at AISs and nodes of Ranvier. Here, we show that the channel anchors bind at overlapping but distinct sites near the AnkG N terminus. In pulldown assays, the rank order of AnkG binding strength is Nav1.2 ? KCNQ3 > KCNQ2. Phosphorylation of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 anchor domains by protein kinase CK2 (CK2) augments binding, as previously shown for Nav1.2. An AnkG fragment comprising ankyrin repeats 1 through 7 (R1-7) binds phosphorylated Nav or KCNQ anchors robustly. However, mutational analysis of R1-7 reveals differences in binding mechanisms. A smaller fragment, R1-6, exhibits much-diminished KCNQ3 binding but binds Nav1.2 well. Two lysine residues at the tip of repeat 2-3 ?-hairpin (residues 105-106) are critical for Nav1.2 but not KCNQ3 channel binding. Another dibasic motif (residues Arg-47, Arg-50) in the repeat 1 front ?-helix is crucial for KCNQ2/3 but not Nav1.2 binding. AnkG's alternatively spliced N terminus selectively gates access to those sites, blocking KCNQ but not Nav channel binding. These findings suggest that the 40:1 Nav:KCNQ channel conductance ratio at the distal AIS and nodes arises from the relative strength of binding to AnkG.
Project description:KCNQ (KV7) potassium channels underlie subthreshold M-currents that stabilize the neuronal resting potential and prevent repetitive firing of action potentials. Here, antibodies against four different KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 polypeptide epitopes show these subunits concentrated at the axonal initial segment (AIS) and node of Ranvier. AIS concentration of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, like that of voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels, is abolished in ankyrin-G knock-out mice. A short motif, common to KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, mediates both in vivo ankyrin-G interaction and retention of the subunits at the AIS. This KCNQ2/KCNQ3 motif is nearly identical to the sequence on NaV alpha subunits that serves these functions. All identified NaV and KCNQ genes of worms, insects, and molluscs lack the ankyrin-G binding motif. In contrast, vertebrate orthologs of NaV alpha subunits, KCNQ2, and KCNQ3 (including from bony fish, birds, and mammals) all possess the motif. Thus, concerted ankyrin-G interaction with KCNQ and NaV channels appears to have arisen through convergent molecular evolution, after the division between invertebrate and vertebrate lineages, but before the appearance of the last common jawed vertebrate ancestor. This includes the historical period when myelin also evolved.
Project description:Action potentials (APs) propagating along axons require the activation of voltage-gated Na(+) (Nav) channels. How Nav channels are transported into axons is unknown. We show that KIF5/kinesin-1 directly binds to ankyrin-G (AnkG) to transport Nav channels into axons. KIF5 and Nav1.2 channels bind to multiple sites in the AnkG N-terminal domain that contains 24 ankyrin repeats. Disrupting AnkG-KIF5 binding with small interfering RNA or dominant-negative constructs markedly reduced Nav channel levels at the axon initial segment (AIS) and along entire axons, thereby decreasing AP firing. Live-cell imaging showed that fluorescently tagged AnkG or Nav1.2 cotransported with KIF5 along axons. Deleting AnkG in vivo or virus-mediated expression of a dominant-negative KIF5 construct specifically decreased the axonal level of Nav, but not Kv1.2, channels in mouse cerebellum. These results indicate that AnkG functions as an adaptor to link Nav channels to KIF5 during axonal transport before anchoring them to the AIS and nodes of Ranvier.
Project description:All subtypes of KCNQ channel subunits (KCNQ1-5) require calmodulin as a co-factor for functional channels. It has been demonstrated that calmodulin plays a critical role in KCNQ channel trafficking as well as calcium-mediated current modulation. However, how calcium-bound calmodulin suppresses the M-current is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of KCNQ2 current suppression mediated by calcium-bound calmodulin. We show that calcium induced slow calmodulin dissociation from the KCNQ2 channel subunit. In contrast, in homomeric KCNQ3 channels, calcium facilitated calmodulin binding. We demonstrate that this difference in calmodulin binding was due to the unique cysteine residue in the KCNQ2 subunit at aa 527 in Helix B, which corresponds to an arginine residue in other KCNQ subunits including KCNQ3. In addition, a KCNQ2 channel associated protein AKAP79/150 (79 for human, 150 for rodent orthologs) also preferentially bound calcium-bound calmodulin. Therefore, the KCNQ2 channel complex was able to retain calcium-bound calmodulin either through the AKPA79/150 or KCNQ3 subunit. Functionally, increasing intracellular calcium by ionomycin suppressed currents generated by KCNQ2, KCNQ2(C527R) or heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels to an equivalent extent. This suggests that a change in the binding configuration, rather than dissociation of calmodulin, is responsible for KCNQ current suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that KCNQ current suppression was accompanied by reduced KCNQ affinity toward phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) when assessed by a voltage-sensitive phosphatase, Ci-VSP. These results suggest that a rise in intracellular calcium induces a change in the configuration of CaM-KCNQ binding, which leads to the reduction of KCNQ affinity for PIP2 and subsequent current suppression.
Project description:Neuronal potassium channel subunits of the KCNQ (Kv7) family underlie M-current (I(M)), and may also underlie the slow potassium current at the node of Ranvier, I(Ks). I(M) and I(Ks) are outwardly rectifying currents that regulate excitability of neurons and myelinated axons, respectively. Studies of native I(M) and heterologously expressed Kv7 subunits suggest that, in vivo, KCNQ channels exist within heterogeneous, multicomponent protein complexes. KCNQ channel properties are regulated by protein phosphorylation, protein-protein interactions, and protein-lipid interactions within such complexes. To better understand the regulation of neuronal KCNQ channels, we searched directly for posttranslational modifications on KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels in vivo by using mass spectrometry. Here we describe two sites of phosphorylation. One site, specific for KCNQ3, appears functionally silent in electrophysiological assays but is located in a domain previously shown to be important for subunit tetramerization. Mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies of the second site, located in the S4-S5 intracellular loop of all KCNQ subunits, reveal a mechanism of channel inhibition.
Project description:Mutations in the gene encoding the K+ channel KCNQ2 cause neonatal epilepsy and myokymia, indicating that KCNQ2 regulates the excitability of CNS neurons and motor axons, respectively. We show here that KCNQ2 channels are functional components of axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier, colocalizing with ankyrin-G and voltage-dependent Na+ channels throughout the CNS and PNS. Retigabine, which opens KCNQ channels, diminishes axonal excitability. Linopirdine, which blocks KCNQ channels, prolongs the repolarization of the action potential in neonatal nerves. The clustering of KCNQ2 at nodes and initial segments lags that of ankyrin-G during development, and both ankyrin-G and KCNQ2 can be coimmunoprecipitated in the brain. KCNQ3 is also a component of some initial segments and nodes in the brain. The diminished activity of mutant KCNQ2 channels accounts for neonatal epilepsy and myokymia; the cellular locus of these effects may be axonal initial segments and nodes.
Project description:?IV spectrin links ankyrinG (AnkG) and clustered ion channels at axon initial segments (AISs) and nodes of Ranvier to the axonal cytoskeleton. Here, we report bi-allelic pathogenic SPTBN4 variants (three homozygous and two compound heterozygous) that cause a severe neurological syndrome that includes congenital hypotonia, intellectual disability, and motor axonal and auditory neuropathy. We introduced these variants into ?IV spectrin, expressed these in neurons, and found that 5/7 were loss-of-function variants disrupting AIS localization or abolishing phosphoinositide binding. Nerve biopsies from an individual with a loss-of-function variant had reduced nodal Na+ channels and no nodal KCNQ2 K+ channels. Modeling the disease in mice revealed that although ankyrinR (AnkR) and ?I spectrin can cluster Na+ channels and partially compensate for the loss of AnkG and ?IV spectrin at nodes of Ranvier, AnkR and ?I spectrin cannot cluster KCNQ2- and KCNQ3-subunit-containing K+ channels. Our findings define a class of spectrinopathies and reveal the molecular pathologies causing nervous-system dysfunction.
Project description:The M channels, important regulators of neuronal excitability, are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of KCNQ2-5 subunits. Mutations in KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 cause benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC), dominantly inherited epilepsy and myokymia. Crucial for their functions in controlling neuronal excitability, the M channels must be placed at specific regions of the neuronal membrane. However, the precise distribution of surface KCNQ channels is not known. Here, we show that KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels are preferentially localized to the surface of axons both at the axonal initial segment and more distally. Whereas axonal initial segment targeting of surface KCNQ channels is mediated by ankyrin-G binding motifs of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3, sequences mediating targeting to more distal portion of the axon reside in the membrane proximal and A domains of the KCNQ2 C-terminal tail. We further show that several BFNC mutations of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 disrupt surface expression or polarized surface distribution of KCNQ channels, thereby revealing impaired targeting of KCNQ channels to axonal surfaces as a BFNC etiology.
Project description:The ability of KCNQ (Kv7) channels to form hetero-oligomers is of high physiological importance, because heteromers of KCNQ3 with KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 underlie the neuronal M-current, which modulates neuronal excitability. In KCNQ channels, we recently identified a C-terminal subunit interaction (si) domain that determines their subunit-specific assembly. Within this si domain, there are two motifs that comprise approximately 30 amino acid residues each and that exhibit a high probability for coiled-coil formation. Transfer of the first or the second coiled-coil (TCC) domain from KCNQ3 into the KCNQ1 scaffold resulted in chimeras KCNQ1(TCC1)Q3 and KCNQ1(TCC2)Q3, both of which coimmunoprecipitated with KCNQ2. However, only KCNQ1(TCC2)Q3 enhanced KCNQ2 currents and surface expression or exerted a strong dominant-negative effect on KCNQ2. Deletion of TCC2 within KCNQ2 yielded functional homomeric channels but prevented the current augmentation measured after coexpression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3. In contrast, deleting TCC1 within KCNQ2 did not give functional homomeric KCNQ2 or heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels. Mutations that disrupted the predicted coiled-coil structure of TCC1 in KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 abolished channel activity after expressing these constructs singly or in combination, whereas helix-breaking mutations in TCC2 of KCNQ2 gave functional homomeric channels but prevented the heteromerization with KCNQ3. In contrast, KCNQ3 carrying a coiled-coil disrupting mutation in TCC2 hetero-oligomerized with KCNQ2. Our data suggest that the TCC1 domains of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 are required to form functional homomeric as well as heteromeric channels, whereas both TCC2 domains facilitate an efficient transport of heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Epilepsy is caused by an electrical hyperexcitability in the CNS. Because K+ channels are critical for establishing and stabilizing the resting potential of neurons, a loss of K+ channels could support neuronal hyperexcitability. Indeed, benign familial neonatal convulsions, an autosomal dominant epilepsy of infancy, is caused by mutations in KCNQ2 or KCNQ3 K+ channel genes. Because these channels contribute to the native muscarinic-sensitive K+ current (M current) that regulates excitability of numerous types of neurons, KCNQ (Kv7) channel activators would be effective in epilepsy treatment. A compound exhibiting anticonvulsant activity in animal seizure models is retigabine. It specifically acts on the neuronally expressed KCNQ2-KCNQ5 (Kv7.2-Kv7.5) channels, whereas KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) is not affected. Using the differential sensitivity of KCNQ3 and KCNQ1 to retigabine, we constructed chimeras to identify minimal segments required for sensitivity to the drug. We identified a single tryptophan residue within the S5 segment of KCNQ3 and also KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5 as crucial for the effect of retigabine. Furthermore, heteromeric KCNQ channels comprising KCNQ2 and KCNQ1 transmembrane domains (attributable to transfer of assembly properties from KCNQ3 to KCNQ1) are retigabine insensitive. Transfer of the tryptophan into the KCNQ1 scaffold resulted in retigabine-sensitive heteromers, suggesting that the tryptophan is necessary in all KCNQ subunits forming a functional tetramer to confer drug sensitivity.
Project description:KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 voltage-gated potassium channel subunits play key roles in hearing. Other members of the KCNQ family also encode slow, low voltage-activated K(+) M currents. We have previously reported the presence of M-like K(+) currents in sensory hair cells, and expression of Kcnq family genes in the cochlea. Here, we describe Kcnq2/3 gene expression and distribution of M channel subunits KCNQ2 and 3 in the cochlea. By using RT-PCR, we found expression of Kcnq2 in the modiolus and organ of Corti, while Kcnq3 expression was also detected in the cochlear lateral wall. Five alternative splice variants of the Kcnq2 gene, one of which has not been reported previously, were identified in the rat cochlea. KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 immunoreactivities were observed in spiral ganglion auditory neurons. In addition, the unmyelinated parts of the nerve fibers innervating hair cells and synaptic regions under hair cells showed KCNQ2 immunoreactivity. KCNQ3 immunoreactivity was also prominent in spiral ganglion satellite cells. These findings suggest that cochlear M channels play important roles in regulation of cellular excitability and maintenance of cochlear K(+) homeostasis in the auditory system.