Preferential Recruitment of Neutrophils into the Cerebellum and Brainstem Contributes to the Atypical Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Phenotype.
ABSTRACT: The JAK/STAT pathway is critical for development, regulation, and termination of immune responses, and dysregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, that is, hyperactivation, has pathological implications in autoimmune and neuroinflammatory diseases. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) regulates STAT3 activation in response to cytokines that play important roles in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases, including IL-6 and IL-23. We previously demonstrated that myeloid lineage-specific deletion of SOCS3 resulted in a severe, nonresolving atypical form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by lesions, inflammatory infiltrates, elevated STAT activation, and elevated cytokine and chemokine expression in the cerebellum. Clinically, these mice exhibit ataxia and tremors. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of this model, demonstrating that the atypical EAE observed in LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice is characterized by extensive neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum and brainstem, increased inducible NO synthase levels in the cerebellum and brainstem, and prominent axonal damage. Importantly, infiltrating SOCS3-deficient neutrophils produce high levels of CXCL2, CCL2, CXCL10, NO, TNF-?, and IL-1?. Kinetic studies demonstrate that neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum and brainstem of LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice closely correlates with atypical EAE clinical symptoms. Ab-mediated depletion of neutrophils converts the atypical phenotype to the classical EAE phenotype and, in some cases, a mixed atypical/classical phenotype. Blocking CXCR2 signaling ameliorates atypical EAE development by reducing neutrophil infiltration into the cerebellum/brainstem. Thus, neutrophils lacking SOCS3 display elevated STAT3 activation and expression of proinflammatory mediators and play a critical role in the development of atypical EAE.
Project description:Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS3 has a crucial role in inhibiting STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages/microglia. To determine the role of SOCS3 in myeloid cells in neuroinflammation, mice with conditional SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells (LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl)) were tested for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice are vulnerable to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, with a severe, nonresolving atypical form of disease. In vivo, enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination is prominent in the cerebellum of myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice, as is enhanced STAT3 signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an immune response dominated by Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient macrophages exhibit heightened STAT3 activation and are polarized toward the classical M1 phenotype. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages provide the microenvironment to polarize Th1 and Th17 cells and induce neuronal death. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages into myeloid SOCS3-deficient mice leads to delayed onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE by decreasing STAT3 activation, Th1/Th17 cells, and proinflammatory mediators in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that myeloid cell SOCS3 provides protection from EAE through deactivation of neuroinflammatory responses.
Project description:Dysregulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is associated with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Suppressors Of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) negatively regulate the JAK/STAT pathway. We previously reported a severe, brain-targeted, atypical form of EAE in mice lacking Socs3 in myeloid cells (Socs3?LysM), which is associated with cerebellar neutrophil infiltration. There is emerging evidence that neutrophils are detrimental in the pathology of MS/EAE, however, their exact function is unclear. Here we demonstrate that neutrophils from the cerebellum of Socs3?LysM mice show a hyper-activated phenotype with excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the peak of EAE. Neutralization of ROS in vivo delayed the onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE. Mechanistically, Socs3-deficient neutrophils exhibit enhanced STAT3 activation, a hyper-activated phenotype in response to G-CSF, and upon G-CSF priming, increased ROS production. Neutralization of G-CSF in vivo significantly reduced the incidence and severity of the atypical EAE phenotype. Overall, our work elucidates that hypersensitivity of G-CSF/STAT3 signaling in Socs3?LysM mice leads to atypical EAE by enhanced neutrophil activation and increased oxidative stress, which may explain the detrimental role of G-CSF in MS patients.
Project description:Although uncontrolled inflammatory response plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI), the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the development of this disorder remain poorly understood. SOCS3 is an important negative regulator of IL-6-type cytokine signaling. SOCS3 is induced in lung during LPS-induced lung injury, suggesting that generation of SOCS3 may represent a regulatory product during ALI. In the current study, we created mice lacking SOCS3 expression in macrophages and neutrophils (LysM-cre SOCS3(fl/fl)). We evaluated the lung inflammatory response to LPS in both LysM-cre SOCS3(fl/fl) mice and the wild-type (WT) mice (SOCS3(fl/fl)). LysM-cre SOCS3(fl/fl) mice displayed significant increase of the lung permeability index (lung vascular leak of albumin), neutrophils, lung neutrophil accumulation (myeloperoxidase activity), and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids compared to WT mice. These phenotypes were consistent with morphological evaluation of lung, which showed enhanced inflammatory cell influx and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. We further identify the transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? as a critical downstream target of SOCS3 in LPS-induced ALI. These results indicate that SOCS3 has a protective role in LPS-induced ALI by suppressing C/EBP? activity in the lung. Elucidating the function of SOCS3 would represent prospective targets for a new generation of drugs needed to treat ALI.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Neutrophils are among the most prevalent immune cells in the microenvironment of colon tumors; they are believed to promote growth of colon tumors, and their numbers correlate with outcomes of patients with colon cancer. Trials of inhibitors of neutrophil trafficking are underway in patients with cancer, but it is not clear how neutrophils contribute to colon tumorigenesis. METHODS:Colitis-associated colon cancer was induced in mice with conditional deletion of neutrophils (LysMCre;Mcl1fl/fl) and wild-type littermates (LysMCre;Mcl1wt/wt, control mice) by administration of azoxythmethane and/or dextran sulfate sodium. Sporadic colon tumorigenesis was assessed in neutrophil-deficient and neutrophil-replete mice with conditional deletion of colon epithelial Apc (Cdx2-CreERT2;Apcfl/fl). Primary colon tumor tissues from these mice were assessed by histology, RNA sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Fecal and tumor-associated microbiota were assessed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing. RESULTS:In mice with inflammation-induced and sporadic colon tumors, depletion of neutrophils increased the growth, proliferation, and invasiveness of the tumors. RNA sequencing analysis identified genes that regulate antimicrobial and inflammatory processes that were dysregulated in neutrophil-deficient colon tumors compared with colon tumors from control mice. Neutrophil depletion correlated with increased numbers of bacteria in tumors and proliferation of tumor cells, tumor-cell DNA damage, and an inflammatory response mediated by interleukin 17 (IL17). The 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing identified significant differences in the composition of the microbiota between colon tumors from neutrophil-deficient vs control mice. Administration of antibiotics or a neutralizing antibody against IL17 to neutrophil-deficient mice resulted in development of less-invasive tumors compared with mice given vehicle. We found bacteria in tumors to induce production of IL17, which promotes influx of intratumor B cells that promote tumor growth and progression. CONCLUSIONS:In comparisons of mice with vs without neutrophils, we found neutrophils to slow colon tumor growth and progression by restricting numbers of bacteria and tumor-associated inflammatory responses.
Project description:The adoptive transfer of myelin-reactive T cells into wild-type hosts results in spinal cord inflammation and ascending paralysis, referred to as conventional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), as opposed to brainstem inflammation and ataxia, which characterize disease in IFN-?RKO hosts (atypical EAE). In this article, we show that atypical EAE correlates with preferential upregulation of CXCL2 in the brainstem, and is driven by CXCR2-dependent recruitment of neutrophils. In contrast, conventional EAE is associated with upregulation of CCL2 in the spinal cord, and is driven by recruitment of monocytes via a partially CCR2-dependent pathway. This study illustrates how regional differences in chemokine expression within a target organ shape the spatial pattern and composition of autoimmune infiltrates, leading to disparate clinical outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Leukostasis is a key patho-physiological event responsible for capillary occlusion in diabetic retinopathy. Circulating monocytes are the main cell type entrapped in retinal vessels in diabetes. In this study, we investigated the role of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in diabetes-induced immune cell activation and its contribution to retinal microvascular degeneration. METHODS:Forty-one patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) [mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (mNPDR) (n = 13), active proliferative DR (aPDR) (n = 14), inactive PDR (iPDR) (n = 14)] and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited to the study. C57BL/6 J WT mice, SOCS3fl/fl and LysMCre/+SOCS3fl/fl mice were rendered diabetic by Streptozotocin injection. The expression of the phosphorylated human and mouse STAT3 (pSTAT3), mouse LFA-1, CD62L, CD11b and MHC-II in circulating immune cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Mouse plasma levels of cytokines were measured by Cytometric Beads Array assay. Retinal leukostasis was examined following FITC-Concanavalin A perfusion and acellular capillary was examined following Isolectin B4 and Collagen IV staining. RESULTS:Compared to healthy controls, the expression of pSTAT3 in circulating leukocytes was statistically significantly higher in mNPDR but not aPDR and was negatively correlated with diabetes duration. The expression of pSTAT3 and its inhibitor SOCS3 was also significantly increased in leukocytes from diabetic mice. Diabetic mice had higher plasma levels of IL6 and CCL2 compared with control mice. LysMCre/+SOCS3fl/fl mice and SOCS3fl/fl mice developed comparative levels of diabetes, but leukocyte activation, retinal leukostasis and number of acellular capillaries were statistically significantly increased in LysMCre/+SOCS3fl/fl diabetic mice. CONCLUSION:STAT3 activation in circulating immune cells appears to contribute to retinal microvascular degeneration and may be involved in DR initiation in T1D.
Project description:Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-reactive T-helper (Th)1 cells induce conventional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE), characterized by ascending paralysis and monocyte-predominant spinal cord infiltrates, in C57BL/6 wildtype (WT) hosts. The same T cells induce an atypical form of EAE (aEAE), characterized by ataxia and neutrophil-predominant brainstem infiltrates, in syngeneic IFN? receptor (IFN?R)-deficient hosts. Production of ELR+ CXC chemokines within the CNS is required for the development of aEAE, but not cEAE. The cellular source(s) and localization of ELR+ CXC chemokines in the CNS and the IFN?-dependent pathways that regulate their production remain to be elucidated.The spatial distribution of inflammatory lesions and CNS expression of the ELR+ CXC chemokines, CXCL1 and CXCL2, were determined via immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization. Levels of CXCL1 and CXCL2, and their cognate receptor CXCR2, were measured in/on leukocyte subsets by flow cytometric and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Bone marrow neutrophils and macrophages were cultured with inflammatory stimuli in vitro prior to measurement of CXCL2 and CXCR2 by qPCR or flow cytometry.CNS-infiltrating neutrophils and monocytes, and resident microglia, are a prominent source of CXCL2 in the brainstem of IFN?RKO adoptive transfer recipients during aEAE. In WT transfer recipients, IFN? directly suppresses CXCL2 transcription in microglia and myeloid cells, and CXCR2 transcription in CNS-infiltrating neutrophils. Consequently, infiltration of the brainstem parenchyma from the adjacent meninges is blocked during cEAE. CXCL2 directly stimulates its own expression in cultured neutrophils, which is enhanced by IL-1 and suppressed by IFN?.We provide evidence for an IFN?-regulated CXCR2/CXCL2 autocrine/paracrine feedback loop in innate immune cells that determines the location of CNS infiltrates during Th1-mediated EAE. When IFN? signaling is impaired, myeloid cell production of CXCL2 increases, which promotes brainstem inflammation and results in clinical ataxia. IFN?, produced within the CNS of WT recipients, suppresses myeloid cell CXCR2 and CXCL2 production, thereby skewing the location of neuroinflammatory infiltrates to the spinal cord and the clinical phenotype to an ascending paralysis. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which IFN? and CXCL2 interact to direct regional recruitment of leukocytes in the CNS, resulting in distinct clinical presentations.
Project description:We showed previously that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) suppresses the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway during the early infection stage in the human amnion cell line FL. HSV-1 inhibits the IFN-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinases (JAK) in infected FL cells. In the present study, we showed that the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), a host negative regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway, is rapidly induced in FL cells after HSV-1 infection. Maximal levels of SOCS3 protein were detected at around 1 to 2 h after infection. This is consistent with the occurrence of HSV-1-mediated inhibition of IFN-induced JAK phosphorylation. The HSV-1 wild-type strain VR3 induced SOCS3 more efficiently than did mutants that are defective in UL41 or UL13 and that are hyperresponsive to IFN. Induction of the IRF-7 protein and transcriptional activation of IFN-alpha4, which occur in a JAK/STAT pathway-dependent manner, were poorly induced by VR3 but efficiently induced by the mutant viruses. In contrast, phosphorylation of IRF-3 and transcriptional activation of IFN-beta, which are JAK/STAT pathway-independent process, were equally well induced by the wild-type strain and the mutants. In conclusion, the SOCS3 protein appears to be mainly responsible for the suppression of IFN signaling and IFN production that occurs during HSV-1 infection.
Project description:Murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis, presents typically as ascending paralysis. However, in mice in which interferon-gamma (IFN?) signaling is disrupted by genetic deletion, limb paralysis is accompanied by atypical deficits, including head tilt, postural imbalance, and circling, consistent with cerebellar/vestibular dysfunction. This was previously attributed to intense cerebellar and brainstem infiltration by peripheral immune cells and formation of neutrophil-rich foci within the CNS. However, the exact mechanism by which IFN? signaling prohibits the development of vestibular deficits, and whether the distribution and composition of inflammatory foci within the CNS affects the course of atypical EAE remains elusive.We induced EAE in IFN?-/- mice and bone marrow chimeric mice in which IFN?R is not expressed in the CNS but is intact in the periphery (IFN?RCNSKO) and vice versa (IFN?RperiKO). Blood-brain barrier permeability was determined by Evans blue intravenous administration at disease onset. Populations of immune cell subsets in the periphery and the CNS were quantified by flow cytometry. CNS tissues isolated at various time points after EAE induction, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for composition of inflammatory foci and patterns of axonal degeneration.Incidence and severity of atypical EAE were more pronounced in IFN?RCNSKO as compared to IFN?RperiKO mice. Contrary to what we anticipated, cerebella/brainstems of IFN?RCNSKO mice were only minimally infiltrated, while the same areas of IFN?RperiKO mice were extensively populated by peripheral immune cells. Furthermore, the CNS of IFN?RperiKO mice was characterized by persistent neutrophil-rich foci as compared to IFN?RCNSKO. Immunohistochemical analysis of the CNS of IFN?-/- and IFN?R chimeric mice revealed that IFN? protective actions are exerted through microglial STAT1.Alterations in distribution and composition of CNS inflammatory foci are not sufficient for the onset of atypical EAE. IFN? dictates the course of neuroinflammatory disorders mainly through actions exerted within the CNS. This study provides strong evidence that link microglial STAT1 inactivation to vestibular dysfunction.
Project description:The pathology of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), in contrast to multiple sclerosis, comprises granulocyte infiltrates along extensive lengths of spinal cord, as well as optic nerve. Furthermore, IFN-? treatment worsens NMO. We recently found that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with Th17 cells is exacerbated by IFN-?, in contrast to disease induced with Th1 where treatment attenuated symptoms.This study demonstrates the similarities between NMO and Th17 EAE and how neutrophils mediate pathology in Th17 disease.Levels of blood biomarkers in NMO were assessed by Luminex and ELISA. Effects of IFN-? on neutrophils were assessed by culture assays and immunofluorescence. EAE was induced by transfer of myelin-specific Th1 or Th17 cells and treated with Sivelestat sodium hydrate, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor.We show Th17 cytokines, granulocyte chemokines, type 1 interferon and neutrophil elastase are elevated in patients with definitive NMO. In culture, we find that IFN-? stimulates neutrophils to release neutrophil elastase. In Th17 EAE, we demonstrate neutrophilic infiltration in the optic nerve and spinal cord which was not present in Th1 EAE. Blockade of neutrophil elastase with Sivelestat had efficacy in Th17 EAE but not Th1 EAE.The similarities between Th17 EAE and NMO indicate that this model represents several aspects of NMO. Neutrophils are critical in the pathologies of both Th17-EAE and NMO, and therefore blockade of neutrophil elastase is a promising target in treating NMO.