Delivery of Phenamil Enhances BMP-2-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Bone Formation in Calvarial Defects.
ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been widely used for bone repair in the craniofacial region. However, its high dose requirement in clinical applications revealed adverse effects and inefficient bone formation, along with high cost. Here, we report a novel osteoinductive strategy to effectively complement the osteogenic activity of BMP-2 using phenamil, a small molecule that can induce osteogenic differentiation via stimulation of BMP signaling. Treatment of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with BMP-2 in combination with phenamil significantly promoted the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. The efficacy of the combination strategy of phenamil+BMP-2 was further confirmed in a mouse calvarial defect model using scaffolds consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and apatite layer on their surfaces designed to slowly release phenamil and BMP-2. Six weeks after implantation, the scaffolds treated with phenamil+BMP-2 significantly promoted mouse calvarial regeneration as demonstrated by micro-computerized tomography and histology, compared with the groups treated with phenamil or BMP-2 alone. Moreover, the combination treatment reduced the BMP-2 dose without compromising calvarial healing efficacy. These results suggest promising complementary therapeutic strategies for bone repair in more efficient and cost-effective manners.
Project description:Although adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are an attractive cell source for bone tissue engineering, direct use of ASCs alone has had limited success in the treatment of large bone defects. Although bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are believed to be the most potent osteoinductive factors to promote osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, their clinical applications require supraphysiological dosage, leading to high medical burden and adverse side effects. In the present study, we demonstrated an alternative approach that can effectively complement the BMP activity to maximize the osteogenesis of ASCs without exogenous application of BMPs by regulating levels of antagonists and agonists to BMP signaling. Treatment of ASCs with the amiloride derivative phenamil, a positive regulator of BMP signaling, combined with gene manipulation to suppress the BMP antagonist noggin, significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of ASCs through increased BMP-Smad signaling in vitro. Furthermore, the combination approach of noggin suppression and phenamil stimulation enhanced the BMP signaling and bone repair in a mouse calvarial defect model by adding noggin knockdown ASCs to apatite-coated poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) scaffolds loaded with phenamil. These results suggest novel complementary osteoinductive strategies that could maximize activity of the BMP pathway in ASC bone repair while reducing potential adverse effects of current BMP-based therapeutics.Although stem cell-based tissue engineering strategy offers a promising alternative to repair damaged bone, direct use of stem cells alone is not adequate for challenging healing environments such as in large bone defects. This study demonstrates a novel strategy to maximize bone formation pathways in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and functional bone formation by combining gene manipulation with a small molecule activator toward osteogenesis. The findings indicate promising stem cell-based therapy for treating bone defects that can effectively complement or replace current osteoinductive therapeutics.
Project description:Stimulation of osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells is a potential strategy for bone repair. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that induce osteoblastic differentiation have been successfully used in humans to treat fractures. Here we outline a new approach to the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation using small molecules that stimulate BMP activity. We have identified the amiloride derivative phenamil as a stimulator of osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. Remarkably, phenamil acts cooperatively with BMPs to induce the expression of BMP target genes, osteogenic markers, and matrix mineralization in both mesenchymal stem cell lines and calvarial organ cultures. Transcriptional profiling of cells treated with phenamil led to the identification of tribbles homolog 3 (Trb3) as a mediator of its effects. Trb3 is induced by phenamil selectively in cells with osteoblastic potential. Both Trb3 and phenamil stabilize the expression of SMAD, the critical transcription factor in BMP signaling, by promoting the degradation of SMAD ubiquitin regulatory factor 1. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Trb3 blunts the effects of phenamil on BMP signaling and osteogenesis. Thus, phenamil induces osteogenic differentiation, at least in part, through Trb3-dependent promotion of BMP action. The synergistic use of small molecules such as phenamil along with BMPs may provide new strategies for the promotion of bone healing.
Project description:Growth factor-based therapeutics using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) presents a promising strategy to reconstruct craniofacial bone defects such as mandible. However, clinical applications require supraphysiological BMP doses that often increase inappropriate adipogenesis, resulting in well-documented, cyst-like bone formation. Here we reported a novel complementary strategy to enhance osteogenesis and mandibular bone repair by using small-molecule phenamil that has been shown to be a strong activator of BMP signaling. Phenamil synergistically induced osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with BMP-2 while suppressing their adipogenic differentiation induced by BMP-2 in vitro. The observed pro-osteogenic and antiadipogenic activity of phenamil was mediated by expression of tribbles homolog 3 (Trb3) that enhanced BMP-smad signaling and inhibited expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), a master regulator of adipogenesis. The synergistic effect of BMP-2+phenamil on bone regeneration was further confirmed in a critical-sized rat mandibular bone defect by implanting polymer scaffolds designed to slowly release the therapeutic molecules. These findings indicate a new complementary osteoinductive strategy to improve clinical efficacy and safety of current BMP-based therapeutics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have demonstrated that human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are able to repair acute calvarial injuries. The more clinically relevant repair of an established skeletal defect, however, has not been addressed. The authors sought to determine whether human ASCs could heal chronic (established) calvarial defects. METHODS:Critical-sized (4 mm) mouse parietal defects were created. Human ASCs were engrafted either immediately postoperatively (acute defect) or 8 weeks following defect creation (established defect). Methods of analysis included microcomputer tomography scans, histology, and in situ hybridization. Finally, human ASCs were treated in vitro with platelet-rich plasma to simulate an acute wound environment; proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were assessed (alkaline phosphatase, alizarin red, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). RESULTS:Nearly complete osseous healing was observed when calvarial defects were immediately engrafted with human ASCs. In contrast, when human ASCs were engrafted into established defects, little bone formation occurred. Histological analysis affirmed findings by microcomputer tomography, showing more robust staining for alkaline phosphatase and picrosirius red in an acute than in an established human ASC-engrafted defect. In situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed an increase in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression (BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7) acutely following calvarial defect creation. Finally, in vitro treatment of human ASCs with platelet-rich plasma enhanced osteogenic differentiation and increased BMP-2 expression. CONCLUSIONS:Although human ASCs can be utilized to heal an acute mouse calvarial defect, they do not enhance healing of an established (or chronic) defect. Endogenous BMP signaling activated after injury may explain these differences in healing. Platelet-rich plasma enhances osteogenic differentiation of human ASCs in vitro and may prove a promising therapy for future skeletal tissue engineering efforts.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) have a proven capacity to aid in osseous repair of calvarial defects. However, the bone defect microenvironment necessary for osseous healing is not fully understood. In this study, we postulated that the cell-cell interaction between engrafted ASCs and host dura mater (DM) cells is critical for the healing of calvarial defects. hASCs were engrafted into critical sized calvarial mouse defects. The DM-hASC interaction was manipulated surgically by DM removal or by insertion of a semipermeable or nonpermeable membrane between DM and hASCs. Radiographic, histologic, and gene expression analyses were performed. Next, the hASC-DM interaction is assessed by conditioned media (CM) and coculture assays. Finally, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling from DM was investigated in vivo using novel BMP-2 and anti-BMP-2/4 slow releasing scaffolds. With intact DM, osseous healing occurs both from host DM and engrafted hASCs. Interference with the DM-hASC interaction dramatically reduced calvarial healing with abrogated BMP-2-Smad-1/5 signaling. Using CM and coculture assays, mouse DM cells stimulated hASC osteogenesis via BMP signaling. Through in vivo manipulation of the BMP-2 pathway, we found that BMP-2 plays an important role in DM stimulation of hASC osteogenesis in the context of calvarial bone healing. BMP-2 supplementation to a defect with disrupted DM allowed for bone formation in a nonhealing defect. DM is an osteogenic cell type that both participates in and stimulates osseous healing in a hASC-engrafted calvarial defect. Furthermore, DM-derived BMP-2 paracrine stimulation appears to play a key role for hASC mediated repair.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) represent a multipotent cell stromal cell type with proven capacity to differentiate along an osteogenic lineage. This suggests that they may be used to heal defects of the craniofacial or appendicular skeleton. We sought to substantiate the use of undifferentiated hASCs in the regeneration of a non-healing mouse skeletal defect.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Human ASCs were harvested from female lipoaspirate. Critical-sized (4 mm) calvarial defects were created in the parietal bone of adult male nude mice. Defects were either left empty, treated with an apatite coated PLGA scaffold alone, or a scaffold with human ASCs. MicroCT scans were obtained at stratified time points post-injury. Histology, in situ hybridization, and histomorphometry were performed. Near complete healing was observed among hASC engrafted calvarial defects. This was in comparison to control groups that showed little healing (*P<0.01). Human ASCs once engrafted differentiate down an osteogenic lineage, determined by qRT-PCR and histological co-expression assays using GFP labeled cells. ASCs were shown to persist within a defect site for two weeks (shown by sex chromosome analysis and quantified using Luciferase+ ASCs). Finally, rBMP-2 was observed to increase hASC osteogenesis in vitro and osseous healing in vivo.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Human ASCs ossify critical sized mouse calvarial defects without the need for pre-differentiation. Recombinant differentiation factors such as BMP-2 may be used to supplement hASC mediated repair. Interestingly, ASC presence gradually dissipates from the calvarial defect site. This study supports the potential translation for ASC use in the treatment of human skeletal defects.
Project description:The use of small molecular drugs with gene manipulation offers synergistic therapeutic efficacy by targeting multiple signaling pathways for combined treatment. Stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with osteoinductive small molecule phenamil combined with suppression of noggin is a promising therapeutic strategy that increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and bone repair. Our cationic Sterosome formulated with stearylamine (SA) and cholesterol (Chol) is an attractive co-delivery system that not only forms stable complexes with small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules but also solubilizes hydrophobic small molecules in a single vehicle, for directing stem cell differentiation. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of SA/Chol Sterosomes to simultaneously deliver hydrophobic small molecule phenamil and noggin-directed siRNA to enhance osteogenic differentiation of MSCs both in in vitro two- and three-dimensional settings as well as in a mouse calvarial defect model. These results suggest a novel liposomal platform to simultaneously deliver therapeutic genes and small molecules for combined therapy.Application of phenamil, a small molecular bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulator, combined with suppression of natural BMP antagonists such as noggin is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance bone regeneration. Here, we present a novel strategy to co-deliver hydrophobic small molecule phenamil and noggin-targeted siRNA via cationic Sterosomes formed with stearylamine (SA) and high content of cholesterol (Chol) to enhance osteogenesis and bone repair. SA/Chol Sterosomes demonstrated high phenamil encapsulation efficiency, supported sustained release of encapsulated drugs, and significantly reduced drug dose requirements to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Simultaneous deliver of phenamil and noggin siRNA in a single vehicle synergistically enhanced MSC osteogenesis and calvarial bone repair. This study suggests a new non-phospholipid liposomal formulation to simultaneously deliver small molecules and therapeutic genes for combined treatment.
Project description:Specific microRNAs (miRs) and the Wnt signaling pathway play critical roles in regulating bone development and homeostasis. Our previous studies revealed the ability of miR-335-5p to promote osteogenic differentiation by downregulating Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). The purpose of this study was to use nano-materials to efficiently deliver miR-335-5p into osteogenic cells for tissue engineering applications. We synthesized and screened a library of 12 candidate nano-lipidoids?of which L8 was identified as the preferred biodegradable lipidoid for miRNA molecule delivery into cells. We then investigated whether a lipidoid-miRNA formulation of miR-335-5-p (LMF-335) could successfully deliver miR-335-5-p into cells to promote osteogenesis in vitro and calvarial bone healing in vivo. Transfection of C3H10T1/2?cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with LMF-335 led to decreased expression of DKK1 and increased expression of the key osteogenic genes. LMF-335 and LMF-335-transfected BMSCs were then used in combination with silk scaffolds to evaluate healing of critical-size calvarial bone defects in mice. The results revealed significant new bone formation in the defects in LMF-335 groups as compared with control groups. In conclusion, this first report supports the notion that lipidoid delivery of miRNA can be used to induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and bone regeneration.
Project description:Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are considered as the promising seed cells for bone regeneration. However, the lower osteogenic differentiation capacity limits its therapeutic efficacy. Identification of the key molecules governing the differences between ASCs and BMSCs would shed light on manipulation of ASCs towards osteogenic phenotype. In this study, we screened semaphorin family members in ASCs and BMSCs and identified Sema3A as an osteogenic semaphorin that was significantly and predominantly expressed in BMSCs. The analyses in vitro showed that the overexpression of Sema3A in ASCs significantly enhanced the expression of bone-related genes and extracellular matrix calcium deposition, while decreasing the expression of adipose-related genes and thus lipid droplet formation, resembling a BMSCs phenotype. Furthermore, Sema3A modified ASCs were then engrafted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds to repair the critical-sized calvarial defects in rat model. As expected, Sema3A modified ASCs encapsulation significantly promoted new bone formation with higher bone volume fraction and bone mineral density. Additionally, Sema3A was found to simultaneously increase multiple Wnt related genes and thus activating Wnt pathway. Taken together, our study here identifies Sema3A as a critical gene for osteogenic phenotype and reveals that Sema3A-modified ASCs would serve as a promising candidate for bettering bone defect repair.
Project description:Calvarial bones are connected by fibrous sutures. These sutures provide a niche environment that includes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), osteoblasts, and osteoclasts, which help maintain calvarial bone homeostasis and repair. Abnormal function of osteogenic cells or diminished MSCs within the cranial suture can lead to skull defects, such as craniosynostosis. Despite the important function of each of these cell types within the cranial suture, we have limited knowledge about the role that crosstalk between them may play in regulating calvarial bone homeostasis and injury repair. Here we show that suture MSCs give rise to osteoprogenitors that show active bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling and depend on BMP-mediated Indian hedgehog (IHH) signalling to balance osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis activity. IHH signalling and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-? ligand (RANKL) may function synergistically to promote the differentiation and resorption activity of osteoclasts. Loss of <i>Bmpr1a</i> in MSCs leads to downregulation of hedgehog (Hh) signalling and diminished cranial sutures. Significantly, activation of Hh signalling partially restores suture morphology in <i>Bmpr1a</i> mutant mice, suggesting the functional importance of BMP-mediated Hh signalling in regulating suture tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, there is an increased number of CD200+ cells in <i>Bmpr1a</i> mutant mice, which may also contribute to the inhibited osteoclast activity in the sutures of mutant mice. Finally, suture MSCs require BMP-mediated Hh signalling during the repair of calvarial bone defects after injury. Collectively, our studies reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing cell-cell interactions within the cranial suture that regulate calvarial bone homeostasis and repair.