Bacillary replication and macrophage necrosis are determinants of neutrophil recruitment in tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: We previously determined that burst size necrosis is the chief mode of mononuclear cell death in the lungs of mice with tuberculosis. The present study explored the link between infection-induced necrosis of mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of mice challenged with one of four Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of increasing virulence (Rv?phoPR mutant, H37Ra, H37Rv and Erdman). At all time points studied, Erdman produced the highest bacterial load and the highest proportion and number of M. tuberculosis-infected neutrophils. These parameters, and the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells, tracked with virulence across all strains tested. Differences in neutrophil infection were not reflected by levels of chemoattractant cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, while interferon-? (reported to suppress neutrophil trafficking to the lung in tuberculosis) was highest in Erdman-infected mice. Treating Erdman-infected mice with ethambutol decreased the proportion of mononuclear phagocytes with high bacterial burden and the ratio of infected neutrophils to infected mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. We propose that faster replicating M. tuberculosis strains cause more necrosis which in turn promotes neutrophil recruitment. Neutrophils infected with M. tuberculosis constitute a biomarker for poorly controlled bacterial replication, infection-induced mononuclear cell death, and increased severity of immune pathology in tuberculosis.
Project description:We previously reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers macrophage necrosis in vitro at a threshold intracellular load of ~25 bacilli. This suggests a model for tuberculosis where bacilli invading lung macrophages at low multiplicity of infection proliferate to burst size and spread to naïve phagocytes for repeated cycles of replication and cytolysis. The current study evaluated that model in vivo, an environment significantly more complex than in vitro culture. In the lungs of mice infected with M. tuberculosis by aerosol we observed three distinct mononuclear leukocyte populations (CD11b(-) CD11c(+/hi), CD11b(+/lo) CD11c(lo/-), CD11b(+/hi) CD11c(+/hi)) and neutrophils hosting bacilli. Four weeks after aerosol challenge, CD11b(+/hi) CD11c(+/hi) mononuclear cells and neutrophils were the predominant hosts for M. tuberculosis while CD11b(+/lo) CD11c(lo/-) cells assumed that role by ten weeks. Alveolar macrophages (CD11b(-) CD11c(+/hi)) were a minority infected cell type at both time points. The burst size model predicts that individual lung phagocytes would harbor a range of bacillary loads with most containing few bacilli, a smaller proportion containing many bacilli, and few or none exceeding a burst size load. Bacterial load per cell was enumerated in lung monocytic cells and neutrophils at time points after aerosol challenge of wild type and interferon-? null mice. The resulting data fulfilled those predictions, suggesting a median in vivo burst size in the range of 20 to 40 bacilli for monocytic cells. Most heavily burdened monocytic cells were nonviable, with morphological features similar to those observed after high multiplicity challenge in vitro: nuclear condensation without fragmentation and disintegration of cell membranes without apoptotic vesicle formation. Neutrophils had a narrow range and lower peak bacillary burden than monocytic cells and some exhibited cell death with release of extracellular neutrophil traps. Our studies suggest that burst size cytolysis is a major cause of infection-induced mononuclear cell death in tuberculosis.
Project description:To identify the major infiltrating phagocytes during leptospirosis and examine the killing mechanism used by the host to eliminate Leptospira interrogans.Major infiltrating phagocytes in Leptospira-infected C3H/HeJ mice were detected by immunohistochemistry. Chemokines and vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules (VECAMs) of Leptospira-infected mice and leptospirosis patients were detected by microarray and immunohistochemistry. Leptospira-phagocytosing and -killing abilities of human or mouse macrophages and neutrophils, and the roles of intracellular ROS, NO and [Ca2+]i in Leptospira-killing process were evaluated by confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry.Peripheral blood mononuclear-macrophages rather than neutrophils were the main infiltrating phagocytes in the lungs, liver and kidneys of infected mice. Levels of macrophage- but not neutrophil-specific chemokines and VECAMs were significantly increased in the samples from infected mice and patients. All macrophages tested had a higher ability than neutrophils to phagocytose and kill leptospires. Higher ROS and NO levels and [Ca2+]i in the macrophages were involved in killing leptospires. Human macrophages displayed more phagolysosome formation and a stronger leptospire-killing ability to than mouse macrophages.Mononuclear-macrophages but not neutrophils represent the main infiltrating and anti-leptospiral phagocytes during leptospirosis. A lower level of phagosome-lysosome fusion may be responsible for the lower Leptospira-killing ability of human macrophages.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection generates pulmonary granulomas that consist of a caseous, necrotic core surrounded by an ordered arrangement of macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. This inflammatory pathology is essential for disease transmission and M. tuberculosis has evolved to stimulate inflammatory granuloma development while simultaneously avoiding destruction by the attracted phagocytes. The most abundant phagocyte in active necrotic granulomas is the neutrophil. Here we show that the ESAT-6 protein secreted by the ESX-1 type VII secretion system causes necrosis of the neutrophils. ESAT-6 induced an intracellular Ca(2+) overload followed by necrosis of phosphatidylserine externalised neutrophils. This necrosis was dependent upon the Ca(2+) activated protease calpain, as pharmacologic inhibition prevented this secondary necrosis. We also observed that the ESAT-6 induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+), stimulated the production of neutrophil extracellular traps characterised by extruded DNA and myeloperoxidase. Thus we conclude that ESAT-6 has a leukocidin function, which may facilitate bacterial avoidance of the antimicrobial action of the neutrophil while contributing to the maintenance of inflammation and necrotic pathology necessary for granuloma formation and TB transmission.
Project description:Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis-lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96?h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells (p?<?0.001). Augmentation of blood with viable granulocytes significantly improved control of mycobacteria by 96?h (p?=?0.001), but augmentation with necrotic granulocytes had the opposite effect (p?=?0.01). Both augmentations decreased supernatant concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-12 p40/p70, but necrotic granulocyte augmentation also increased concentrations of IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2. Necrotic neutrophil augmentation reduced phagocytosis of FITC-labeled M. bovis BCG by all phagocytes, whereas viable neutrophil augmentation specifically reduced early uptake by CD14+ cells. The immunosuppressive effect of dead neutrophils required necrotic debris rather than supernatant. We conclude that viable neutrophils enhance control of M. tuberculosis in blood, but necrotic neutrophils have the opposite effect-the latter associated with induction of IL-10, growth factors, and chemoattractants. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which necrotic neutrophils may exert detrimental effects on the host response in active tuberculosis.
Project description:EP67 is a second-generation, human C5a-derived decapeptide agonist of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1/CD88) that selectively activates mononuclear phagocytes over neutrophils to potentiate protective innate and adaptive immune responses while potentially minimizing neutrophil-mediated toxicity. Pro7 and N-methyl-Leu8 (Me-Leu8) amino acid residues within EP67 likely induce backbone structural changes that increase potency and selective activation of mononuclear phagocytes over neutrophils versus first-generation EP54. The low coupling efficiency between Pro7 and Me-Leu8 and challenging purification by HPLC, however, greatly increase scale-up costs of EP67 for clinical use. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether replacing Pro7 and/or Me-Leu8 with large-scale amenable amino acid residues predicted to induce similar structural changes (cyclohexylalanine7 and/or leucine8) sufficiently preserves EP67 activity in primary human mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils. We found that EP67 analogues had similar potency, efficacy, and selective activation of mononuclear phagocytes over neutrophils. Thus, replacing Pro7 and/or Me-Leu8 with large-scale amenable amino acid residues predicted to induce similar structural changes is a suitable strategy to overcome scale-up challenges with EP67.
Project description:Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in susceptible humans. Here, we infected Diversity Outbred (DO) mice with ?100 bacilli by aerosol to model responses in a highly heterogeneous population. Following infection, 'supersusceptible', 'susceptible' and 'resistant' phenotypes emerged. TB disease (reduced survival, weight loss, high bacterial load) correlated strongly with neutrophils, neutrophil chemokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and cell death. By contrast, immune cytokines were weak correlates of disease. We next applied statistical and machine learning approaches to our dataset of cytokines and chemokines from lungs and blood. Six molecules from the lung: TNF, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin 12 (IL-12); and two molecules from blood - IL-2 and TNF - were identified as being important by applying both statistical and machine learning methods. Using molecular features to generate tree classifiers, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5 distinguished four classes (supersusceptible, susceptible, resistant and non-infected) from each other with approximately 77% accuracy using completely independent experimental data. By contrast, models based on other molecules were less accurate. Low to no IFN-?, IL-12, IL-2 and IL-10 successfully discriminated non-infected mice from infected mice but failed to discriminate disease status amongst supersusceptible, susceptible and resistant M.-tuberculosis-infected DO mice. Additional analyses identified CXCL1 as a promising peripheral biomarker of disease and of CXCL1 production in the lungs. From these results, we conclude that: (1) DO mice respond variably to M. tuberculosis infection and will be useful to identify pathways involving necrosis and neutrophils; (2) data from DO mice is suited for machine learning methods to build, validate and test models with independent data based solely on molecular biomarkers; (3) low levels of immunological cytokines best indicate a lack of exposure to M. tuberculosis but cannot distinguish infection from disease.
Project description:Lung infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is characterized by chronic infection of lung-resident macrophages, long considered to be the primary hosts and determinants of the outcome of the early immune response. Although alveolar macrophages are well-known to host intracellular mycobacteria at later stages of disease, little is known about the earliest events of the innate immune response. The phagocytes that take up mycobacteria immediately following infection, and how the early lung phagocyte response is altered by vaccination with M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) were unknown. Using BCG expressing the bright red fluorescent protein tdTomato and flow cytometry, we modeled early infection in C57BL/6 mice and tracked phagocyte population kinetics and uptake of mycobacteria, to better understand the involvement of specific phagocyte subsets. By 1 day post-infection, dose-dependent accumulation of neutrophils was observed and surprisingly, granulocytes comprised a greater proportion of infected phagocytes than alveolar macrophages. By 7 days post-infection alveolar macrophages had become the dominant BCG-associated phagocytes. Prior mucosal BCG exposure provided immunized mice with greater frequencies and numbers of lung macrophage subsets, and a significantly greater proportion of alveolar macrophages expressed CD11b prior to and following challenge infection. These data provide the first evidence of granulocytes as the dominant infected phagocyte subset early after mycobacterial infection, and highlight enhanced recruitment of lung macrophages as a factor associated with protection in BCG-immunized mice.
Project description:We developed an experimental set up that enables longitudinal studies of immune cell behavior in situ in the challenged as well as unchallenged kidney of anesthetized mice over several hours. Using highly controlled vacuum to stabilize the kidney, the superficial renal cortex could continuously be visualized with minimal disruption of the local microenvironment. No visible changes in blood flow or neutrophils and macrophages numbers were observed after several hours of visualizing the unchallenged kidney, indicating a stable tissue preparation without apparent tissue damage. Applying this set up to monocyte/macrophage (CX3CR1GFP/+) reporter mice, we observed the extensive network of stellate-shaped CX3CR1 positive cells (previously identified as renal mononuclear phagocytes). The extended dendrites of the CX3CR1 positive cells were found to bridge multiple capillaries and tubules and were constantly moving. Light induced sterile tissue injury resulted in rapid neutrophil accumulation to the site of injury. Similarly, microinfusion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli into a single nephron induced a rapid and massive recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection, in addition to active bacterial clearance by neutrophils. In contrast, the kidney resident mononuclear phagocytes were observed to not increase in numbers or migrate toward the site of injury or infection. In conclusion, this model allows for longitudinal imaging of responses to localized kidney challenges in the mouse.
Project description:The importance of neutrophils in the pathology of tuberculosis (TB) has been recently established. We demonstrated that TB lesions in man are hypoxic, but how neutrophils in hypoxia influence lung tissue damage is unknown. We investigated the effect of hypoxia on neutrophil-derived enzymes and tissue destruction in TB. Human neutrophils were stimulated with M. tuberculosis (M.tb) or conditioned media from M.tb-infected monocytes (CoMTB). Neutrophil matrix metalloproteinase-8/-9 and elastase secretion were analysed by luminex array and gelatin zymography, gene expression by qPCR and cell viability by flow cytometry. Matrix destruction was investigated by confocal microscopy and functional assays and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) by fluorescence assay. In hypoxia, neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and gene expression were up-regulated by CoMTB. MMP-9 activity and neutrophil elastase (NE) secretion were also increased in hypoxia. Hypoxia inhibited NET formation and both neutrophil apoptosis and necrosis after direct stimulation by M.tb. Hypoxia increased TB-dependent neutrophil-mediated matrix destruction of Type I collagen, gelatin and elastin, the main structural proteins of the human lung. Dimethyloxalylglycin (DMOG), which stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, increased neutrophil MMP-8 and -9 secretion. Hypoxia in our cellular model of TB up-regulated pathways that increase neutrophil secretion of MMPs that are implicated in matrix destruction.
Project description:Neutrophils are the first cells to infiltrate to the site of Leishmania promastigote infection, and these cells help to reduce parasite burden shortly after infection is initiated. Several clinical reports indicate that neutrophil recruitment is sustained over the course of leishmaniasis, and amastigote-laden neutrophils have been isolated from chronically infected patients and experimentally infected animals. The goal of this study was to compare how thioglycolate-elicited murine neutrophils respond to L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes derived from axenic cultures or from the lesions of infected mice. Neutrophils efficiently internalized both amastigote and promastigote forms of the parasite, and phagocytosis was enhanced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated neutrophils or when parasites were opsonized in serum from infected mice. Parasite uptake resulted in neutrophil activation, oxidative burst, and accelerated neutrophil death. While promastigotes triggered the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), uptake of amastigotes preferentially resulted in the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) from neutrophils. Finally, the majority of promastigotes were killed by neutrophils, while axenic culture- and lesion-derived amastigotes were highly resistant to neutrophil microbicidal mechanisms. This study indicates that neutrophils exhibit distinct responses to promastigote and amastigote infection. Our findings have important implications for determining the impact of sustained neutrophil recruitment and amastigote-neutrophil interactions during the late phase of cutaneous leishmaniasis.