Surmounting intrinsic quantum-measurement uncertainties in Gaussian-state tomography with quadrature squeezing.
ABSTRACT: We reveal that quadrature squeezing can result in significantly better quantum-estimation performance with quantum heterodyne detection (of H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro) as compared to quantum homodyne detection for Gaussian states, which touches an important aspect in the foundational understanding of these two schemes. Taking single-mode Gaussian states as examples, we show analytically that the competition between the errors incurred during tomogram processing in homodyne detection and the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainties arising from simultaneous incompatible quadrature measurements in heterodyne detection can often lead to the latter giving more accurate estimates. This observation is also partly a manifestation of a fundamental relationship between the respective data uncertainties for the two schemes. In this sense, quadrature squeezing can be used to overcome intrinsic quantum-measurement uncertainties in heterodyne detection.
Project description:Homodyne measurement is a corner-stone method of quantum optics that measures the quadratures of light-the quantum optical analog of the canonical position and momentum. Standard homodyne, however, suffers from a severe bandwidth limitation: while the bandwidth of optical states can span many THz, standard homodyne is inherently limited to the electronically accessible MHz-to-GHz range, leaving a dramatic gap between relevant optical phenomena and the measurement capability. We demonstrate a fully parallel optical homodyne measurement across an arbitrary optical bandwidth, effectively lifting this bandwidth limitation completely. Using optical parametric amplification, which amplifies one quadrature while attenuating the other, we measure quadrature squeezing of 1.7?dB simultaneously across 55?THz, using the pump as the only local oscillator. As opposed to standard homodyne, our measurement is robust to detection inefficiency, and was obtained with >50% detection loss. Broadband parametric homodyne opens a wide window for parallel processing of quantum information.
Project description:We report demonstrations of both quadrature-squeezed vacuum and photon number difference squeezing generated in an integrated nanophotonic device. Squeezed light is generated via strongly driven spontaneous four-wave mixing below threshold in silicon nitride microring resonators. The generated light is characterized with both homodyne detection and direct measurements of photon statistics using photon number-resolving transition-edge sensors. We measure 1.0(1) decibels of broadband quadrature squeezing (~4 decibels inferred on-chip) and 1.5(3) decibels of photon number difference squeezing (~7 decibels inferred on-chip). Nearly single temporal mode operation is achieved, with measured raw unheralded second-order correlations g (2) as high as 1.95(1). Multiphoton events of over 10 photons are directly detected with rates exceeding any previous quantum optical demonstration using integrated nanophotonics. These results will have an enabling impact on scaling continuous variable quantum technology.
Project description:Laser linewidth narrowing down to kHz or even Hz is an important topic in areas like clock synchronization technology, laser radars, quantum optics, and high-precision detection. Conventional decoherence measurement methods like delayed self-heterodyne/homodyne interferometry cannot measure such narrow linewidths accurately. This is because a broadening of the Gaussian spectrum, which hides the laser's intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth, cannot be avoided. Here, we introduce a new method using the strong coherent envelope to characterize the laser's intrinsic linewidth through self-coherent detection. This method can eliminate the effect of the broadened Gaussian spectrum induced by the 1/f frequency noise. We analyze, in detail, the relationship between intrinsic laser linewidth, contrast difference with the second peak and the second trough (CDSPST) of the strong coherent envelope, and the length of the delaying fiber. The correct length for the delaying fiber can be chosen by combining the estimated laser linewidth (?f<sub>est</sub>) with a specific CDSPST (?S) to obtain the accurate laser linewidth (?f). Our results indicate that this method can be used as an accurate detection tool for measurements of narrow or super-narrow linewidths.
Project description:The use of a Kerr nonlinearity to generate squeezed light is a well-known way to surpass the quantum noise limit along a given field quadrature. Nevertheless, in the most common regime of weak nonlinearity, a single Kerr resonator is unable to provide the proper interrelation between the field amplitude and squeezing required to induce a sizable deviation from Poissonian statistics. We demonstrate experimentally that weakly coupled bosonic modes allow exploration of the interplay between squeezing and displacement, which can give rise to strong deviations from the Poissonian statistics. In particular, we report on the periodic bunching in a Josephson junction formed by two coupled exciton-polariton modes. Quantum modeling traces the bunching back to the presence of quadrature squeezing. Our results, linking the light statistics to squeezing, are a precursor to the study of nonclassical features in semiconductor microcavities and other weakly nonlinear bosonic systems.
Project description:Squeezing currently represents the leading strategy for quantum enhanced precision measurements of a single parameter in a variety of continuous- and discrete-variable settings and technological applications. However, many important physical problems including imaging and field sensing require the simultaneous measurement of multiple unknown parameters. The development of multiparameter quantum metrology is yet hindered by the intrinsic difficulty in finding saturable sensitivity bounds and feasible estimation strategies. Here, we derive the general operational concept of multiparameter squeezing, identifying metrologically useful states and optimal estimation strategies. When applied to spin- or continuous-variable systems, our results generalize widely-used spin- or quadrature-squeezing parameters. Multiparameter squeezing provides a practical and versatile concept that paves the way to the development of quantum-enhanced estimation of multiple phases, gradients, and fields, and for the efficient characterization of multimode quantum states in atomic and optical sensor networks.
Project description:Quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator is important for studying the macroscopic quantum effects and the precision metrology of weak forces. Here we give a theoretical study of a hybrid atom-optomechanical system in which the steady-state squeezing of the mechanical resonator can be generated via the mechanical nonlinearity and cavity cooling process. The validity of the scheme is assessed by simulating the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature numerically. The scheme is robust against dissipation of the optical cavity, and the steady-state squeezing can be effectively generated in a highly dissipative cavity.
Project description:We present an innovative implementation of the solid-state-biased coherent detection (SSBCD) technique, which we have recently introduced for the reconstruction of both amplitude and phase of ultra-broadband terahertz pulses. In our previous works, the SSBCD method has been operated via a heterodyne scheme, which involves demanding square-wave voltage amplifiers, phase-locked to the THz pulse train, as well as an electronic circuit for the demodulation of the readout signal. Here, we demonstrate that the SSBCD technique can be operated via a very simple homodyne scheme, exploiting plain static bias voltages. We show that the homodyne SSBCD signal turns into a bipolar transient when the static field overcomes the THz field strength, without the requirement of an additional demodulating circuit. Moreover, we introduce a differential configuration, which extends the applicability of the homodyne scheme to higher THz field strengths, also leading a two-fold improvement of the dynamic range compared to the heterodyne counterpart. Finally, we demonstrate that, by reversing the sign of the static voltage, it is possible to directly retrieve the absolute THz pulse polarity. The homodyne configuration makes the SSBCD technique of much easier access, leading to a vast range of field-resolved applications.
Project description:Quantum technologies promise a variety of exciting applications. Even though impressive progress has been achieved recently, a major bottleneck currently is the lack of practical certification techniques. The challenge consists of ensuring that classically intractable quantum devices perform as expected. Here we present an experimentally friendly and reliable certification tool for photonic quantum technologies: an efficient certification test for experimental preparations of multimode pure Gaussian states, pure non-Gaussian states generated by linear-optical circuits with Fock-basis states of constant boson number as inputs, and pure states generated from the latter class by post-selecting with Fock-basis measurements on ancillary modes. Only classical computing capabilities and homodyne or hetorodyne detection are required. Minimal assumptions are made on the noise or experimental capabilities of the preparation. The method constitutes a step forward in many-body quantum certification, which is ultimately about testing quantum mechanics at large scales.
Project description:In comparison to conventional discrete-variable (DV) quantum key distribution (QKD), continuous-variable (CV) QKD with homodyne/heterodyne measurements has distinct advantages of lower-cost implementation and affinity to wavelength division multiplexing. On the other hand, its continuous nature makes it harder to accommodate to practical signal processing, which is always discretized, leading to lack of complete security proofs so far. Here we propose a tight and robust method of estimating fidelity of an optical pulse to a coherent state via heterodyne measurements. We then construct a binary phase modulated CV-QKD protocol and prove its security in the finite-key-size regime against general coherent attacks, based on proof techniques of DV QKD. Such a complete security proof is indispensable for exploiting the benefits of CV QKD.
Project description:Vibrational environments are commonly considered to be detrimental to the optical emission properties of solid-state and molecular systems, limiting their performance within quantum information protocols. Given that such environments arise naturally it is important to ask whether they can instead be turned to our advantage. Here we show that vibrational interactions can be harnessed within resonance fluorescence to generate optical states with a higher degree of quadrature squeezing than in isolated atomic systems. Considering the example of a driven quantum dot coupled to phonons, we demonstrate that it is feasible to surpass the maximum level of squeezing theoretically obtainable in an isolated atomic system and indeed come close to saturating the fundamental upper bound on squeezing from a two-level emitter. We analyse the performance of these vibrationally-enhanced squeezed states in a phase estimation protocol, finding that for the same photon flux, they can outperform the single mode squeezed vacuum state.