Mapping Nucleosome Resolution Chromosome Folding in Yeast by Micro-C.
ABSTRACT: We describe a Hi-C-based method, Micro-C, in which micrococcal nuclease is used instead of restriction enzymes to fragment chromatin, enabling nucleosome resolution chromosome folding maps. Analysis of Micro-C maps for budding yeast reveals abundant self-associating domains similar to those reported in other species, but not previously observed in yeast. These structures, far shorter than topologically associating domains in mammals, typically encompass one to five genes in yeast. Strong boundaries between self-associating domains occur at promoters of highly transcribed genes and regions of rapid histone turnover that are typically bound by the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex. Investigation of chromosome folding in mutants confirms roles for RSC, "gene looping" factor Ssu72, Mediator, H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109, and the N-terminal tail of H4 in folding of the yeast genome. This approach provides detailed structural maps of a eukaryotic genome, and our findings provide insights into the machinery underlying chromosome compaction.
Project description:We describe a Hi-C based method, Micro-C, in which micrococcal nuclease is used instead of restriction enzymes to fragment chromatin, enabling nucleosome resolution chromosome folding maps. Analysis of Micro-C maps for budding yeast reveals abundant self-associating domains similar to those reported in other species, but not previously observed in yeast. These structures, far shorted than topologically-associating domains in mammals, typically encompass one to five genes in yeast. Strong boundaries between self-associating domains occur at promoters of highly transcribed genes, and regions of rapid histone turnover that are typically bound by the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex. Investigation of chromosome folding in mutants confirms roles for RSC, “gene looping” factor Ssu72, Mediator, H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109, and N-terminal tail of H4 in folding of the yeast genome. This approach provides detailed structural maps of a eukaryotic genome and our findings provide insights into the machinery underlying chromosome compaction. Chromatin is fragmented by Mnase, subsequenct nucleosomal end repair, and a modified two-step method for purfiying ligation products. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing maps Micro-C library and generates nucleosome resolution contact maps. The readme.txt file contains additional description of how each processed data file was generated.
Project description:Structural analysis of chromosome folding in vivo has been revolutionized by Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) and related methods, which use proximity ligation to identify chromosomal loci in physical contact. We recently described a variant 3C technique, Micro-C, in which chromatin is fragmented to mononucleosomes using micrococcal nuclease, enabling nucleosome-resolution folding maps of the genome. Here, we describe an improved Micro-C protocol using long crosslinkers, termed Micro-C XL, which exhibits greatly increased signal to noise, and provides further insight into the folding of the yeast genome. We also find that signal to noise is much improved in Micro-C XL libraries generated from relatively insoluble chromatin as opposed to soluble material, providing a simple method to physically enrich for bona-fide long-range interactions. Micro-C XL maps of the budding and fission yeast genomes reveal both short-range chromosome fiber features such as chromosomally-interacting domains (CIDs), as well as higher-order features such as clustering of centromeres and telomeres, thereby addressing the primary discrepancy between prior Micro-C data and reported 3C and Hi-C analyses. Interestingly, comparison of chromosome folding maps of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe revealed widespread qualitative similarities, yet quantitative differences, between these distantly-related species. Micro-C XL thus provides a single assay suitable for interrogation of chromosome folding at length scales from the nucleosome to the full genome. Overall design: Chromatin is fragmented by Mnase, subsequenct nucleosomal end repair, and a modified two-step method for purfiying ligation products. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing maps Micro-C library and generates nucleosome resolution contact maps.
Project description:Insulators bind transcription factors and use chromatin remodellers and modifiers to mediate insulation. In this report, we identified proteins required for the efficient formation and maintenance of a specialized chromatin structure at the yeast tRNA insulator. The histone acetylases, SAS-I and NuA4, functioned in insulation, independently of tRNA and did not participate in the formation of the hypersensitive site at the tRNA. In contrast, DNA polymerase epsilon, functioned with the chromatin remodeller, Rsc, and the histone acetylase, Rtt109, to generate a histone-depleted region at the tRNA insulator. Rsc and Rtt109 were required for efficient binding of TFIIIB to the tRNA insulator, and the bound transcription factor and Rtt109 in turn were required for the binding of Rsc to tRNA. Robust insulation during growth and cell division involves the formation of a hypersensitive site at the insulator during chromatin maturation together with competition between acetylases and deacetylases.
Project description:We describe the cloning and characterization of a human homolog of the yeast transcription/RNA-processing factor Ssu72, following a yeast two-hybrid screen for pRb-binding factors in the prostate gland. Interaction between hSsu72 and pRb was observed in transfected mammalian cells and involved multiple domains in pRb; however, so far, mutual effects of these two factors could not be demonstrated. Like the yeast counterpart, mammalian Ssu72 associates with TFIIB and the yeast cleavage/polyadenylation factor Pta1, and exhibits intrinsic phosphatase activity. Mammals contain a single ssu72 gene and a few pseudogenes. During mouse embryogenesis, ssu72 was highly expressed in the nervous system and intestine; high expression in the nervous system persisted in adult mice and was also readily observed in multiple human tumor cell lines. Both endogenous and ectopically expressed mammalian Ssu72 proteins resided primarily in the cytoplasm and only partly in the nucleus. Interestingly, fusion to a strong nuclear localization signal conferred nuclear localization only in a fraction of transfected cells, suggesting active tethering in the cytoplasm. Suppression of ssu72 expression in mammalian cells by siRNA did not reduce proliferation/survival, and its over-expression did not affect transcription of candidate genes in transient reporter assays. Despite high conservation, hssu72 was unable to rescue an ssu72 lethal mutation in yeast. Together, our results highlight conserved and mammalian specific characteristics of mammalian ssu72.
Project description:Mammalian genomes are folded in a hierarchy of compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), subTADs, and looping interactions. Currently, there is a great need to evaluate the link between chromatin topology and genome function across many biological conditions and genetic perturbations. Hi-C can generate genome-wide maps of looping interactions but is intractable for high-throughput comparison of loops across multiple conditions due to the enormous number of reads (>6?Billion) required per library. Here, we describe 5C-ID, a new version of Chromosome-Conformation-Capture-Carbon-Copy (5C) with restriction digest and ligation performed in the nucleus (in situ Chromosome-Conformation-Capture (3C)) and ligation-mediated amplification performed with a double alternating primer design. We demonstrate that 5C-ID produces higher-resolution 3D genome folding maps with reduced spatial noise using markedly lower cell numbers than canonical 5C. 5C-ID enables the creation of high-resolution, high-coverage maps of chromatin loops in up to a 30?Megabase subset of the genome at a fraction of the cost of Hi-C.
Project description:Functional links connecting gene transcription and condensin-mediated chromosome condensation have been established in species ranging from prokaryotes to vertebrates. However, the exact nature of these links remains misunderstood. Here we show in fission yeast that the 3' end RNA processing factor Swd2.2, a component of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factor (CPF), is a negative regulator of condensin-mediated chromosome condensation. Lack of Swd2.2 does not affect the assembly of the CPF but reduces its association with chromatin. This causes only limited, context-dependent effects on gene expression and transcription termination. However, CPF-associated Swd2.2 is required for the association of Protein Phosphatase 1 PP1(Dis2) with chromatin, through an interaction with Ppn1, a protein that we identify as the fission yeast homologue of vertebrate PNUTS. We demonstrate that Swd2.2, Ppn1 and PP1Dis2 form an independent module within the CPF, which provides an essential function in the absence of the CPF-associated Ssu72 phosphatase. We show that Ppn1 and Ssu72, like Swd2.2, are also negative regulators of condensin-mediated chromosome condensation. We conclude that Swd2.2 opposes condensin-mediated chromosome condensation by facilitating the function of the two CPF-associated phosphatases PP1 and Ssu72.
Project description:Cohesin is a multiprotein complex that establishes sister chromatid cohesion from S phase until mitosis or meiosis. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion is dissolved in a stepwise manner: most cohesins are removed from the chromosome arms via a process that requires polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), aurora B and Wapl, whereas a minor amount of cohesin, found preferentially at the centromere, is cleaved by separase following its activation by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Here, we report that our budding yeast two-hybrid assay identified hsSsu72 phosphatase as a Rad21-binding protein. Additional experiments revealed that Ssu72 directly interacts with Rad21 and SA2 in vitro and in vivo, and associates with sister chromatids in human cells. Interestingly, depletion or mutational inactivation of Ssu72 phosphatase activity caused the premature resolution of sister chromatid arm cohesion, whereas the overexpression of Ssu72 yielded high resistance to this resolution. Interestingly, it appears that Ssu72 regulates the cohesion of chromosome arms but not centromeres, and acts by counteracting the phosphorylation of SA2. Thus, our study provides important new evidence, suggesting that Ssu72 is a novel cohesin-binding protein capable of regulating cohesion between sister chromatid arms.
Project description:Understanding how regulatory sequences interact in the context of chromosomal architecture is a central challenge in biology. Chromosome conformation capture revealed that mammalian chromosomes possess a rich hierarchy of structural layers, from multi-megabase compartments to sub-megabase topologically associating domains (TADs) and sub-TAD contact domains. TADs appear to act as regulatory microenvironments by constraining and segregating regulatory interactions across discrete chromosomal regions. However, it is unclear whether other (or all) folding layers share similar properties, or rather TADs constitute a privileged folding scale with maximal impact on the organization of regulatory interactions. Here, we present a novel algorithm named CaTCH that identifies hierarchical trees of chromosomal domains in Hi-C maps, stratified through their reciprocal physical insulation, which is a single and biologically relevant parameter. By applying CaTCH to published Hi-C data sets, we show that previously reported folding layers appear at different insulation levels. We demonstrate that although no structurally privileged folding level exists, TADs emerge as a functionally privileged scale defined by maximal boundary enrichment in CTCF and maximal cell-type conservation. By measuring transcriptional output in embryonic stem cells and neural precursor cells, we show that the likelihood that genes in a domain are coregulated during differentiation is also maximized at the scale of TADs. Finally, we observe that regulatory sequences occur at genomic locations corresponding to optimized mutual interactions at the same scale. Our analysis suggests that the architectural functionality of TADs arises from the interplay between their ability to partition interactions and the specific genomic position of regulatory sequences.
Project description:ChIP-chip analyses of Psc3 in wild-type and mutant fission yeast cells. Eukaryotic genomes are folded into three-dimensional structures that govern diverse hromosomal procsses. Studeis in Drosophila and mammals have revealed large self-associating tomological domains whose borders are enriched in cohesin/CTCF factors that are required for long-range intrations. However, mechanisms governing higher-order folding of chromatin fivbers and the exact function of cohesin in this process remain poor understood. Here we perform Hi-C to explore the organization of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome at high-resolution, which despite its small size comprises fundamental features found in higher eukaryotes. Our analyses reveal that in addition to determinants of Rabl-like chromosome architecture, smaller locally interacting regions of chromatin, referred to as globules, are a distinctive features of S. pombe chromosome organization. This feature of chromatin architecture requires a function of cohesin distinct from its role in sister chromatid cohesion. Cohesin is enriched at globule boundaries and its loss causes disruption of local globule structure and global chromosome territories. Heterochromatin, which selectively loads cohesin at specific loci including pericentromric and subtelomeric domains, is dispensable for globule formation but uniquely impacts genome organization through chromatin compaction by enforcing Rabl configuration. Genome-wide distribution of Psc3 were determined by ChIP-chip analysis in wild-type and mutant fission yeast cells.
Project description:Chromatin of mammalian nucleus folds into discrete contact enriched regions such as Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). Folding hierarchy and internal organization of TADs is highly dynamic throughout cellular differentiation, and are correlated with gene activation and silencing. To account for multiple interacting TADs, we developed a parsimonious randomly cross-linked (RCL) polymer model that maps high frequency Hi-C encounters within and between TADs into direct loci interactions using cross-links at a given base-pair resolution. We reconstruct three TADs of the mammalian X chromosome for three stages of differentiation. We compute the radius of gyration of TADs and the encounter probability between genomic segments. We found 1) a synchronous compaction and decompaction of TADs throughout differentiation and 2) high order organization into meta-TADs resulting from weak inter-TAD interactions. Finally, the present framework allows to infer transient properties of the chromatin from steady-state statistics embedded in the Hi-C/5C data.