Interferon-? regulates cellular metabolism and mRNA translation to potentiate macrophage activation.
ABSTRACT: Interferon-? (IFN-?) primes macrophages for enhanced microbial killing and inflammatory activation by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during this priming. We found that IFN-? regulated the metabolism and mRNA translation of human macrophages by targeting the kinases mTORC1 and MNK, both of which converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of mTORC1 by IFN-? was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages showed that IFN-? selectively modulated the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways and modulate protein synthesis. These results show that IFN-?-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation are key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation.
Project description:IFN-g primes macrophages for enhanced inflammatory activation by TLRs and microbial killing, but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during priming. We found that IFN-g regulates macrophage metabolism and translation in an integrated manner by targeting mTORC1 and MNK pathways that converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of the central metabolic regulator mTORC1 by IFN-g was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages revealed that IFN-g selectively modulates the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways, and modulate protein synthesis. These results add IFN-g-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation as key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation. microRNA-seq libraries were generated from mock or IFN-g-primed human macrophages. Cells were stimulated with or without Pam3Cys and harvested at 4 hours Libraries were generated using Illumina Truseq small RNA technology.
Project description:IFN-g primes macrophages for enhanced inflammatory activation by TLRs and microbial killing, but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during priming. We found that IFN-g regulates macrophage metabolism and translation in an integrated manner by targeting mTORC1 and MNK pathways that converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of the central metabolic regulator mTORC1 by IFN-g was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages revealed that IFN-g selectively modulates the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways, and modulate protein synthesis. These results add IFN-g-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation as key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation. RPF and RNAseq libraries were generated from mock or IFN-g-primed human macrophages. Cells were stimulated with Pam3Cys and harvested at 4 hours. Libraries were generated using protocol modified from Illumina Truseq technology.
Project description:Regulation of translation factor activity plays a major role in protein synthesis-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity. We examined translational control across the critical period of Arc synthesis underlying consolidation of long term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of intact, anesthetized rats. LTP induction by high frequency stimulation (HFS) evoked phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and dephosphorylation of eIF2alpha on a protracted time course matching the time-window of Arc translation. Local infusion of the ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited LTP maintenance and Arc protein expression, blocked changes in eIF4E and eIF2alpha phosphorylation state, and prevented initiation complex (eIF4F) formation. Surprisingly, inhibition of the mTOR protein complex 1 (mTORC1) with rapamycin did not impair LTP maintenance or Arc synthesis nor did it inhibit eIF4F formation or phosphorylation of eIF4E. Rapamycin nonetheless blocked mTOR signaling to p70 S6 kinase and ribosomal protein S6 and inhibited synthesis of components of the translational machinery. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we show that Arc protein expression depends on dual, ERK-dependent transcription and translation. Arc translation is selectively blocked by pharmacological inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase (MNK), the kinase coupling ERK to eIF4E phosphorylation. Furthermore, MNK signaling was required for eIF4F formation. These results support a dominant role for ERK-MNK signaling in control of translational initiation and Arc synthesis during LTP consolidation in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, mTORC1 signaling is activated but nonessential for Arc synthesis and LTP. The work, thus, identifies translational control mechanisms uniquely tuned to Arc-dependent LTP consolidation in live rats.
Project description:Translatome reprogramming is a primary determinant of protein levels during stimuli adaptation. This raises the question: what are the translatome remodelers that reprogram protein output to activate biochemical adaptations. Here, we identify a translational pathway that represses metabolism to safeguard genome integrity. A system-wide MATRIX survey identified the ancient eIF5A as a pH-regulated translation factor that responds to fermentation-induced acidosis. TMT-pulse-SILAC analysis identified several pH-dependent proteins, including the mTORC1 suppressor Tsc2 and the longevity regulator Sirt1. Sirt1 operates as a pH-sensor that deacetylates nuclear eIF5A during anaerobiosis, enabling the cytoplasmic export of eIF5A/Tsc2 mRNA complexes for translational engagement. Tsc2 induction inhibits mTORC1 to suppress cellular metabolism and prevent acidosis-induced DNA damage. Depletion of eIF5A or Tsc2 leads to metabolic re-initiation and proliferation, but at the expense of incurring substantial DNA damage. We suggest that eIF5A operates as a translatome remodeler that suppresses metabolism to shield the genome.
Project description:The phosphorylation of eIF4E1 at serine 209 by MNK1 or MNK2 has been shown to initiate oncogenic mRNA translation, a process that favours cancer development and maintenance. Here, we interrogate the MNK-eIF4E axis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and show a distinct distribution of MNK1 and MNK2 in germinal centre B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. Despite displaying a differential distribution in GCB and ABC, both MNKs functionally complement each other to sustain cell survival. MNK inhibition ablates eIF4E1 phosphorylation and concurrently enhances eIF4E3 expression. Loss of MNK protein itself downregulates total eIF4E1 protein level by reducing eIF4E1 mRNA polysomal loading without affecting total mRNA level or stability. Enhanced eIF4E3 expression marginally suppresses eIF4E1-driven translation but exhibits a unique translatome that unveils a novel role for eIF4E3 in translation initiation. We propose that MNKs can modulate oncogenic translation by regulating eIF4E1-eIF4E3 levels and activity in DLBCL.
Project description:Background:Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with frequent occurrence of epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and tumors in multiple organs. The aberrant activation of mTORC1 in TSC has led to treatment with mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin as a lifelong therapy for tumors, but TSC-associated neurocognitive manifestations remain unaffected by rapamycin. Methods:Here, we generated patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a TSC patient with a heterozygous, germline, nonsense mutation in exon 15 of TSC1 and established an isogenic set of heterozygous (Het), null and corrected wildtype (Corr-WT) iPSCs using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. We differentiated these iPSCs into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and examined neurodevelopmental phenotypes, signaling and changes in gene expression by RNA-seq. Results:Differentiated NPCs revealed enlarged cell size in TSC1-Het and Null NPCs, consistent with mTORC1 activation. TSC1-Het and Null NPCs also revealed enhanced proliferation and altered neurite outgrowth in a genotype-dependent manner, which was not reversed by rapamycin. Transcriptome analyses of TSC1-NPCs revealed differentially expressed genes that display a genotype-dependent linear response, i.e., genes upregulated/downregulated in Het were further increased/decreased in Null. In particular, genes linked to ASD, epilepsy, and ID were significantly upregulated or downregulated warranting further investigation. In TSC1-Het and Null NPCs, we also observed basal activation of ERK1/2, which was further activated upon rapamycin treatment. Rapamycin also increased MNK1/2-eIF4E signaling in TSC1-deficient NPCs. Conclusion:MEK-ERK and MNK-eIF4E pathways regulate protein translation, and our results suggest that aberrant translation distinct in TSC1/2-deficient NPCs could play a role in neurodevelopmental defects. Our data showing upregulation of these signaling pathways by rapamycin support a strategy to combine a MEK or a MNK inhibitor with rapamycin that may be superior for TSC-associated CNS defects. Importantly, our generation of isogenic sets of NPCs from TSC patients provides a valuable platform for translatome and large-scale drug screening studies. Overall, our studies further support the notion that early developmental events such as NPC proliferation and initial process formation, such as neurite number and length that occur prior to neuronal differentiation, represent primary events in neurogenesis critical to disease pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD.
Project description:Nociceptors, sensory neurons in the DRG that detect damaging or potentially damaging stimuli, are key drivers of neuropathic pain. Injury to these neurons causes activation of translation regulation signaling, including the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase interacting kinase (MNK) eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E pathways. This is a mechanism driving changes in excitability of nociceptors that is critical for the generation of chronic pain states; however, the mRNAs that are translated to lead to this plasticity have not been elucidated. To address this gap in knowledge, we used translating ribosome affinity purification in male and female mice to comprehensively characterize mRNA translation in Scn10a-positive nociceptors in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) caused by paclitaxel treatment. This unbiased method creates a new resource for the field, confirms many findings in the CIPN literature and also find extensive evidence for new target mechanisms that may cause CIPN. We provide evidence that an underlying mechanism of CIPN is sustained mTORC1 activation driven by MNK1-eIF4E signaling. RagA, a GTPase controlling mTORC1 activity, is identified as a novel target of MNK1-eIF4E signaling. This demonstrates a novel translation regulation signaling circuit wherein MNK1-eIF4E activity drives mTORC1 via control of RagA translation. CIPN and RagA translation are strongly attenuated by genetic ablation of eIF4E phosphorylation, MNK1 elimination or treatment with the MNK inhibitor eFT508. We identify a novel translational circuit for the genesis of neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapy with important implications for therapeutics.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuropathic pain affects up to 10% of the population, but its underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, leading to poor treatment outcomes. We used translating ribosome affinity purification technology to create a comprehensive translational profile of DRG nociceptors in naive mice and at the peak of neuropathic pain induced by paclitaxel treatment. We reveal new insight into how mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 is activated in neuropathic pain pointing to a key role of MNK1-eIF4E-mediated translation of a complex of mRNAs that control mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling at the surface of the lysosome. We validate this finding using genetic and pharmacological techniques. Our work strongly suggests that MNK1-eIF4E signaling drives CIPN and that a drug in human clinical trials, eFT508, may be a new therapeutic for neuropathic pain.
Project description:We provide evidence for the existence of an IFN-regulated cellular pathway involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-integrating kinase (Mnk) 1. Our data demonstrate that type I (alpha, beta) IFNs induce phosphorylation/activation of Mnk1, which, in turn, regulates phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) on Ser-209. Such Mnk activation depends on upstream engagement of Jak1, and requires downstream activation of the Mek/Erk MAPK pathway. In studies using double Mnk1-/-Mnk2-/- knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we found that engagement of Mnk kinases is essential for mRNA translation of the Isg15 and Isg54 genes, suggesting an important role for this pathway in mRNA translation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Importantly, our data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of Mnk kinases or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Mnk1 and Mnk2 results in partial reversal of the suppressive effects of IFNalpha on normal and leukemic hematopoietic progenitors, establishing a key role for this pathway in the generation of the growth inhibitory effects of type I IFNs. Together, our findings establish that the Mnk/eIF4E kinase pathway is activated in an IFN-inducible manner and plays important roles in mRNA translation for ISGs and generation of IFN-inducible anti-proliferative responses.
Project description:Initiation is the rate-limiting phase of protein synthesis, controlled by signaling pathways regulating the phosphorylation of translation factors. Initiation has three steps, 43S, 48S and 80S formation. 43S formation is repressed by eIF2? phosphorylation. The subsequent steps, 48S and 80S formation are enabled by growth factors. 48S relies on eIF4E-mediated assembly of eIF4F complex; 4E-BPs competitively displace eIF4E from eIF4F. Two pathways control eIF4F: 1) mTORc1 phosphorylates and inactivates 4E-BPs, leading to eIF4F formation; 2) the Ras-Mnk cascade phosphorylates eIF4E. We show that REN and NCI-H28 mesothelioma cells have constitutive activation of both pathways and maximal translation rate, in the absence of exogenous growth factors. Translation is rapidly abrogated by phosphorylation of eIF2?. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of mTORc1 leads to the complete dephosphorylation of downstream targets, without changes in methionine incorporation. In addition, the combined administration of mTORc1 and MAPK/Mnk inhibitors has no additive effect. The inhibition of both mTORc1 and mTORc2 does not affect the metabolic rate. In spite of this, mTORc1 inhibition reduces eIF4F complex formation, and depresses translocation of TOP mRNAs on polysomes. Downregulation of eIF4E and overexpression of 4E-BP1 induce rapamycin sensitivity, suggesting that disruption of eIF4F complex, due to eIF4E modulation, competes with its recycling to ribosomes. These data suggest the existence of a dynamic equilibrium in which eIF4F is not essential for all mRNAs and is not displaced from translated mRNAs, before recycling to the next.
Project description:Tuberculosis remains a global pandemic and drives lung matrix destruction to transmit. Whilst pathways driving inflammatory responses in macrophages have been relatively well described, negative regulatory pathways are less well defined. We hypothesised that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) specifically targets negative regulatory pathways to augment immunopathology. Inhibition of signalling through the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 pathway increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) gene expression and secretion, a collagenase central to TB pathogenesis, and multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. In patients with confirmed pulmonary TB, PI3K? expression was absent within granulomas. Furthermore, Mtb infection suppressed PI3K? gene expression in macrophages. Interestingly, inhibition of the MNK pathway, downstream of pro-inflammatory p38 and ERK MAPKs, also increased MMP-1 secretion, whilst suppressing secretion of TH1 cytokines. Cross-talk between the PI3K and MNK pathways was demonstrated at the level of eIF4E phosphorylation. Mtb globally suppressed the MMP-inhibitory pathways in macrophages, reducing levels of mRNAs encoding PI3K?, mTORC-1 and MNK-1 via upregulation of miRNAs. Therefore, Mtb disrupts negative regulatory pathways at multiple levels in macrophages to drive a tissue-destructive phenotype that facilitates transmission.