Mesaconase Activity of Class I Fumarase Contributes to Mesaconate Utilization by Burkholderia xenovorans.
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, and many other bacteria are able to utilize the C5-dicarboxylic acid itaconate (methylenesuccinate). Itaconate degradation starts with its activation to itaconyl coenzyme A (itaconyl-CoA), which is further hydrated to (S)-citramalyl-CoA, and citramalyl-CoA is finally cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. The xenobiotic-degrading betaproteobacterium Burkholderia xenovorans possesses a P. aeruginosa-like itaconate degradation gene cluster and is able to grow on itaconate and its isomer mesaconate (methylfumarate). Although itaconate degradation proceeds in B. xenovorans in the same way as in P. aeruginosa, the pathway of mesaconate utilization is not known. Here, we show that mesaconate is metabolized through its hydration to (S)-citramalate. The latter compound is then metabolized to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate with the participation of two enzymes of the itaconate degradation pathway, a promiscuous itaconate-CoA transferase able to activate (S)-citramalate in addition to itaconate and (S)-citramalyl-CoA lyase. The first reaction of the pathway, the mesaconate hydratase (mesaconase) reaction, is catalyzed by a class I fumarase. As this enzyme (Bxe_A3136) has similar efficiencies (kcat/Km) for both fumarate and mesaconate hydration, we conclude that B. xenovorans class I fumarase is in fact a promiscuous fumarase/mesaconase. This promiscuity is physiologically relevant, as it allows the growth of this bacterium on mesaconate as a sole carbon and energy source.
Project description:Mesaconase catalyzes the hydration of mesaconate (methylfumarate) to (S)-citramalate. The enzyme participates in the methylaspartate pathway of glutamate fermentation as well as in the metabolism of various C5-dicarboxylic acids such as mesaconate or L-threo-?-methylmalate. We have recently shown that Burkholderia xenovorans uses a promiscuous class I fumarase to catalyze this reaction in the course of mesaconate utilization. Here we show that classical Escherichia coli class I fumarases A and B (FumA and FumB) are capable of hydrating mesaconate with 4% (FumA) and 19% (FumB) of the catalytic efficiency kcat/Km, compared to the physiological substrate fumarate. Furthermore, the genomes of 14.8% of sequenced Enterobacteriaceae (26.5% of E. coli, 90.6% of E. coli O157:H7 strains) possess an additional class I fumarase homologue which we designated as fumarase D (FumD). All these organisms are (opportunistic) pathogens. fumD is clustered with the key genes for two enzymes of the methylaspartate pathway of glutamate fermentation, glutamate mutase and methylaspartate ammonia lyase, converting glutamate to mesaconate. Heterologously produced FumD was a promiscuous mesaconase/fumarase with a 2- to 3-fold preference for mesaconate over fumarate. Therefore, these bacteria have the genetic potential to convert glutamate to (S)-citramalate, but the further fate of citramalate is still unclear. Our bioinformatic analysis identified several other putative mesaconase genes and revealed that mesaconases probably evolved several times from various class I fumarases independently. Most, if not all iron-dependent fumarases, are capable to catalyze mesaconate hydration.
Project description:The phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus uses the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO(2) fixation. This cycle starts with acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and produces glyoxylate. Glyoxylate is an unconventional cell carbon precursor that needs special enzymes for assimilation. Glyoxylate is combined with propionyl-CoA to beta-methylmalyl-CoA, which is converted to citramalate. Cell extracts catalyzed the succinyl-CoA-dependent conversion of citramalate to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, the central cell carbon precursor. This reaction is due to the combined action of enzymes that were upregulated during autotrophic growth, a coenzyme A transferase with the use of succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor and a lyase cleaving citramalyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate. Genomic analysis identified a gene coding for a putative coenzyme A transferase. The gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to code for succinyl-CoA:d-citramalate coenzyme A transferase. This enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction d-citramalate + succinyl-CoA --> d-citramalyl-CoA + succinate, was purified and studied. It belongs to class III of the coenzyme A transferase enzyme family, with an aspartate residue in the active site. The homodimeric enzyme composed of 44-kDa subunits was specific for succinyl-CoA as a CoA donor but also accepted d-malate and itaconate instead of d-citramalate. The CoA transferase gene is part of a cluster of genes which are cotranscribed, including the gene for d-citramalyl-CoA lyase. It is proposed that the CoA transferase and the lyase catalyze the last two steps in the glyoxylate assimilation route.
Project description:CLYBL encodes a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial enzyme, conserved across all vertebrates, whose cellular activity and pathway assignment are unknown. Its homozygous loss is tolerated in seemingly healthy individuals, with reduced circulating B12 levels being the only and consistent phenotype reported to date. Here, by combining enzymology, structural biology, and activity-based metabolomics, we report that CLYBL operates as a citramalyl-CoA lyase in mammalian cells. Cells lacking CLYBL accumulate citramalyl-CoA, an intermediate in the C5-dicarboxylate metabolic pathway that includes itaconate, a recently identified human anti-microbial metabolite and immunomodulator. We report that CLYBL loss leads to a cell-autonomous defect in the mitochondrial B12 metabolism and that itaconyl-CoA is a cofactor-inactivating, substrate-analog inhibitor of the mitochondrial B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). Our work de-orphans the function of human CLYBL and reveals that a consequence of exposure to the immunomodulatory metabolite itaconate is B12 inactivation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Itaconic acid (IA), a C5-dicarboxylic acid, has previously been identified as one of the top twelve biochemicals that can be produced by biotechnological means. IA is naturally produced by <i>Aspergillus terreus</i>, however, heterologous production in the related species <i>Aspergillus niger</i> has been proposed earlier. Remarkably, we observed that during high producing conditions and elevated titers <i>A</i>. <i>niger</i> detoxifies the extracellular medium of IA. In order to determine the genes responsible for this decline in IA titers a transcriptome analysis was performed.<h4>Results</h4>Transcriptome analysis has led to the identification of two novel and previously unknown IA bioconversion pathways in <i>A</i>. <i>niger</i>. One pathway is proposed to convert IA into pyruvate and acetyl-CoA through the action of itaconyl-CoA transferase (IctA), itaconyl-CoA hydratase (IchA) and citramalyl-CoA lyase, similar to the pathway identified in <i>A</i>. <i>terreus</i>. Another pathway putatively converts IA into 1-methyl itaconate through the action of trans-aconitate methyltransferase (TmtA). Upon deleting the key genes <i>ictA</i> and <i>ichA</i> we have observed increased IA production and titers and cessation of IA bioconversion. Surprisingly, deletion of <i>tmtA</i> lead to strong reduction of heterologous IA production.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Heterologous IA production in <i>A</i>. <i>niger</i> induces the expression of IA bioconversion pathways. These pathways can be inhibited by deleting the key genes <i>ictA</i>, <i>ichA</i> and <i>tmtA</i>. Deletion of <i>ictA</i> and <i>ichA</i> resulted in increased IA production. Deletion of <i>tmtA</i>, however, resulted in almost complete cessation of IA production.
Project description:Itaconate is an immunometabolite with both anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effects. Its coenzyme A (CoA) derivative, itaconyl-CoA, inhibits B12-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that itaconyl-CoA is a suicide inactivator of human and Mycobacterium tuberculosis MCM, which forms a markedly air-stable biradical adduct with the 5'-deoxyadenosyl moiety of the B12 coenzyme. Termination of the catalytic cycle in this way impairs communication between MCM and its auxiliary repair proteins. Crystallography and spectroscopy of the inhibited enzyme are consistent with a metal-centered cobalt radical ~6 angstroms away from the tertiary carbon-centered radical and suggest a means of controlling radical trajectories during MCM catalysis. Mycobacterial MCM thus joins enzymes in the glyoxylate shunt and the methylcitrate cycle as targets of itaconate in pathogen propionate metabolism.
Project description:1. Cell-free extracts, prepared from a non-fluorescent Pseudomonas grown on m-cresol, oxidized gentisate and certain alkyl-substituted gentisates with the consumption of 1 mol of oxygen and the formation of 1 mol of pyruvate from 1 mol of substrate. 2. In addition to pyruvate, malate was formed from gentisate; citramalate was formed from 3-methylgentisate and 4-methylgentisate; 2,3-dimethylmalate was formed from 3,4-dimethylgentisate. 3. One enantiomer, d-(-)-citramalate, was formed enzymically from 3-methylgentisate, 4-methylgentisate and citraconate. l-(+)-Citramalate was formed from mesaconate by the same extracts. When examined as its dimethyl ester by gas-liquid chromatography, enzymically formed 2,3-dimethylmalate showed the same behaviour as one of the two racemates prepared from the synthetic compound. 4. Maleate, citraconate and 2,3-dimethylmaleate were rapidly hydrated by cell extracts, but ethylfumarate and 2,3-dimethylfumarate were not attacked. 5. Cell extracts oxidized 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate to give pyruvate and phthalate. 6. Alkylgentisates were oxidized by a gentisate oxygenase (EC 18.104.22.168) present in Pseudomonas 2,5. The ring-fission products were attacked by maleylpyruvase, but not by fumarylpyruvase, and their u.v.-absorption spectra were those expected for alkyl-substituted maleylpyruvates. 7. When supplemented with ATP, CoA, succinate and Mg(2+) ions, an enzyme system from cells grown with 2,5-xylenol formed pyruvate from d- but not from l-citramalate. Extracts from cells grown with dl-citramalate or with itaconate attacked both d- and l-citramalate; other alkylmalates were cleaved in similar fashion to give pyruvate or 2-oxobutyrate. 8. These results accord with a general sequence of reactions in which the benzene nucleus of an alkylgentisate is cleaved to give an alkyl-substituted maleylpyruvate. The ring-fission products are hydrolysed to give pyruvate, plus alkylmalic acids which then undergo aldol fissions, probably as their CoA esters. In Pseudomonas 2,5 several homologous sequences of this general type appear to be catalysed by a single battery of enzymes with broad substrate specificities, whereas the metabolic capabilities of the fluorescent Pseudomonas 3,5 are more restricted. 9. Intact cells of both organisms metabolize d-malic acid by reactions that have not been elucidated, but are different from those which degrade alkylmalates.
Project description:Itaconate is a small molecule metabolite that is endogenously produced by cis-aconitate decarboxylase-1 (ACOD1) in mammalian cells and influences numerous cellular processes. The metabolic consequences of itaconate in cells are diverse and contribute to its regulatory function. Here, we have applied isotope tracing and mass spectrometry approaches to explore how itaconate impacts various metabolic pathways in cultured cells. Itaconate is a competitive and reversible inhibitor of Complex II/succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that alters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism leading to succinate accumulation. Upon activation with coenzyme A (CoA), itaconyl-CoA inhibits adenosylcobalamin-mediated methylmalonyl-CoA (MUT) activity and, thus, indirectly impacts branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and fatty acid diversity. Itaconate, therefore, alters the balance of CoA species in mitochondria through its impacts on TCA, amino acid, vitamin B<sub>12</sub>, and CoA metabolism. Our results highlight the diverse metabolic pathways regulated by itaconate and provide a roadmap to link these metabolites to potential downstream biological functions.
Project description:1. An organism, identified as Micrococcus sp., was isolated by elective culture on aconate; it also grew on itaconate. 2. Washed suspensions of the aconate-grown organism readily oxidized intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, aconate and succinic semialdehyde, but not itaconate. Itaconate-grown cells oxidized tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates, succinic semialdehyde and itaconate, but not aconate. Succinate-grown cells oxidized neither itaconate nor aconate. 3. Extracts of aconate-grown cells catalysed the formation of succinic semialdehyde and carbon dioxide, in equimolar amounts, from aconate. In the presence of NAD or NADP, succinic semialdehyde was oxidized to succinate with concomitant reduction of the coenzyme. 4. Extracts of itaconate-grown cells catalysed the formation of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA from itaconyl-CoA. 5. Key enzymes involved in the formation of succinate from aconate, and of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA from itaconate, were distinct and inducible: their formation preceded growth on the appropriate substrate.
Project description:Itaconate is derived from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate <i>cis</i>-aconitate and links innate immunity and metabolism. Its synthesis is altered in inflammation-related disorders and it therefore has potential as clinical biomarker. Mesaconate and citraconate are naturally occurring isomers of itaconate that have been linked to metabolic disorders, but their functional relationships with itaconate are unknown. We aimed to establish a sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay for the quantification of itaconate, mesaconate, citraconate, the pro-drug 4-octyl-itaconate, and selected TCA intermediates. The assay was validated for itaconate, mesaconate, and citraconate for intra- and interday precision and accuracy, extended stability, recovery, freeze/thaw cycles, and carry-over. The lower limit of quantification was 0.098 µM for itaconate and mesaconate and 0.049 µM for citraconate in 50 µL samples. In spike-in experiments, itaconate remained stable in human plasma and whole blood for 24 and 8 h, respectively, whereas spiked-in citraconate and mesaconate concentrations changed during incubation. The type of anticoagulant in blood collection tubes affected measured levels of selected TCA intermediates. Human plasma may contain citraconate (0.4-0.6 µM, depending on the donor), but not itaconate or mesaconate, and lipopolysaccharide stimulation of whole blood induced only itaconate. Concentrations of the three isomers differed greatly among mouse organs: Itaconate and citraconate were most abundant in lymph nodes, mesaconate in kidneys, and only citraconate occurred in brain. This assay should prove useful to quantify itaconate isomers in biomarker and pharmacokinetic studies, while providing internal controls for their effects on metabolism by allowing quantification of TCA intermediates.
Project description:The phototrophic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus uses a yet unsolved 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO(2) fixation. It starts from acetyl-CoA, with acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases acting as carboxylating enzymes. In a first cycle, (S)-malyl-CoA is formed from acetyl-CoA and 2 molecules of bicarbonate. (S)-Malyl-CoA cleavage releases the CO(2) fixation product glyoxylate and regenerates the starting molecule acetyl-CoA. Here we complete the missing steps devoted to glyoxylate assimilation. In a second cycle, glyoxylate is combined with propionyl-CoA, an intermediate of the first cycle, to form beta-methylmalyl-CoA. This condensation is followed by dehydration to mesaconyl-C1-CoA. An unprecedented CoA transferase catalyzes the intramolecular transfer of the CoA moiety to the C4 carboxyl group of mesaconate. Mesaconyl-C4-CoA then is hydrated by an enoyl-CoA hydratase to (S)-citramalyl-CoA. (S)-Citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by a tri-functional lyase, which previously cleaved (S)-malyl-CoA and formed beta-methylmalyl-CoA. Thus, the enigmatic disproportionation of glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate is solved in an elegant and economic way requiring only 3 additional enzymes. The whole bicyclic pathway results in pyruvate formation from 3 molecules of bicarbonate and involves 19 steps but only 13 enzymes. Elements of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle may be used for the assimilation of small organic molecules. The 3-hydroxypropionate cycle is compared with the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle and other autotrophic pathways.