Class III PI3K-mediated prolonged activation of autophagy plays a critical role in the transition of cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.
ABSTRACT: Pathological cardiac hypertrophy often leads to heart failure. Activation of autophagy has been shown in pathological hypertrophic hearts. Autophagy is regulated positively by Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). However, it is unknown whether Class III PI3K plays a role in the transition of cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. To address this question, we employed a previously established cardiac hypertrophy model in heat shock protein 27 transgenic mice which shares common features with several types of human cardiomyopathy. Age-matched wild-type mice served as control. Firstly, a prolonged activation of autophagy, as reflected by autophagosome accumulation, increased LC3 conversion and decreased p62 protein levels, was detected in hypertrophic hearts from adaptive stage to maladaptive stage. Moreover, morphological abnormalities in myofilaments and mitochondria were presented in the areas accumulated with autophagosomes. Secondly, activation of Class III PI3K Vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34), as demonstrated by upregulation of Vps34 expression, increased interaction of Vps34 with Beclin-1, and deceased Bcl-2 expression, was demonstrated in hypertrophic hearts from adaptive stage to maladaptive stage. Finally, administration with Wortmaninn, a widely used autophagy inhibitor by suppressing Class III PI3K activity, significantly decreased autophagy activity, improved morphologies of intracellular apartments, and most importantly, prevented progressive cardiac dysfunction in hypertrophic hearts. Collectively, we demonstrated that Class III PI3K plays a central role in the transition of cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure via a prolonged activation of autophagy in current study. Class III PI3K may serve as a potential target for the treatment and management of maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:The Beclin 1-Vps34 complex, the core component of the class III phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K-III), binds Atg14L or UVRAG to control different steps of autophagy. However, the mechanism underlying the control of PI3K-III activity remains elusive. Here we report the identification of NRBF2 as a component in the specific PI3K-III complex and a modulator of PI3K-III activity. Through its microtubule interaction and trafficking (MIT) domain, NRBF2 binds Atg14L directly and enhances Atg14L-linked Vps34 kinase activity and autophagy induction. NRBF2-deficient cells exhibit enhanced vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is reversed by re-introducing exogenous NRBF2. NRBF2-deficient mice develop focal liver necrosis and ductular reaction, accompanied by impaired Atg14L-linked Vps34 activity and autophagy, although the mice show no increased mortality. Our data reveal a key role for NRBF2 in the assembly of the specific Atg14L-Beclin 1-Vps34-Vps15 complex for autophagy induction. Thus, NRBF2 modulates autophagy via regulation of PI3K-III and prevents ER stress-mediated cytotoxicity and liver injury.
Project description:Decreased autophagy has been reported to contribute to the progression of cardiac hypertrophy. Our previous research has demonstrated that endophilin A2 (EndoA2) attenuates H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by strengthening autophagy. However, the role of EndoA2 in the regulation of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EndoA2 suppresses cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO) by activating autophagy. In vivo, we established a cardiac hypertrophy model by subcutaneous injection of ISO and used intramyocardial delivery of adenovirus vector harboring EndoA2 cDNA (Ad-EndoA2) to overexpress EndoA2. The cardiac hypertrophic response and autophagy level were measured. EndoA2 overexpression suppressed pathological cardiac hypertrophy and enhanced autophagy in rat hearts. In addition, the effects of EndoA2 on cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy were observed in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) with gain- and loss-of-function approaches to regulate EndoA2 expression. The results were consistent with those of the in vivo study. Furthermore, the involvement of EndoA2-mediated autophagy in the attenuation of ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy was explored by pharmaceutical inhibition of autophagy. Pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) clearly diminished the anti-hypertrophic effects of EndoA2 in ISO-treated NRCMs. The results presented here provide the first evidence that EndoA2 is involved in ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The anti-hypertrophic effects of EndoA2 can be partially attributed to its regulation of autophagy.
Project description:For over a century, there has been intense debate as to the reason why some cardiac stresses are pathological and others are physiological. One long-standing theory is that physiological overloads such as exercise are intermittent, while pathological overloads such as hypertension are chronic. In this study, we hypothesized that the nature of the stress on the heart, rather than its duration, is the key determinant of the maladaptive phenotype. To test this, we applied intermittent pressure overload on the hearts of mice and tested the roles of duration and nature of the stress on the development of cardiac failure. Despite a mild hypertrophic response, preserved systolic function, and a favorable fetal gene expression profile, hearts exposed to intermittent pressure overload displayed pathological features. Importantly, intermittent pressure overload caused diastolic dysfunction, altered beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) function, and vascular rarefaction before the development of cardiac hypertrophy, which were largely normalized by preventing the recruitment of PI3K by betaAR kinase 1 to ligand-activated receptors. Thus stress-induced activation of pathogenic signaling pathways, not the duration of stress or the hypertrophic growth per se, is the molecular trigger of cardiac dysfunction.
Project description:The homeostasis of naive T cells is essential for protective immunity against infection, but the cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that control naïve T-cell homeostasis are poorly understood. Genetic ablation in lower organisms has revealed a critical role for Vps34, an evolutionary conserved class III phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), in regulating endocytosis and autophagy; however, the physiological function of Vps34 in the immune system, especially in T cells, is unclear. Here we report that Vps34 is required for the maintenance of naïve T cells, acting in a cell-intrinsic manner. T-cell-specific deletion of the gene encoding Vps34 resulted in reduced stability of Vps15 and Beclin-1, components of the class III PI3K complex, and impaired autophagy in T cells. Vps34 was dispensable for T-cell development but important for the survival of naïve T cells. Vps34-deficient T cells showed increased mitochondrial mass and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, consistent with deficient removal of damaged mitochondria. Thus, Vps34-dependent canonical autophagy plays a critical role in maintaining T-cell homeostasis by promoting T-cell survival through quality control of mitochondria.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophic stimuli induce both adaptive and maladaptive growth response pathways in heart. Here we show that mice lacking junD develop less adaptive hypertrophy in heart after mechanical pressure overload, while cardiomyocyte-specific expression of junD in mice results in spontaneous ventricular dilation and decreased contractility. In contrast, fra-1 conditional knock-out mice have a normal hypertrophic response, whereas hearts from fra-1 transgenic mice decompensate prematurely. Moreover, fra-1 transgenic mice simultaneously lacking junD reveal a spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy associated with increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and a primary mitochondrial defect. These data suggest that junD promotes both adaptive-protective and maladaptive hypertrophy in heart, depending on its expression levels.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy eventually leads to heart failure without adequate treatment. The immunoproteasome is an inducible form of the proteasome that is intimately involved in inflammatory diseases. Here, we found that the expression and activity of immunoproteasome catalytic subunit β5i were significantly up-regulated in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes and in the hypertrophic hearts. Knockout of β5i in cardiomyocytes and mice markedly attenuated the hypertrophic response, and this effect was aggravated by β5i overexpression in cardiomyocytes and transgenic mice. Mechanistically, β5i interacted with and promoted ATG5 degradation thereby leading to inhibition of autophagy and cardiac hypertrophy. Further, knockdown of ATG5 or inhibition of autophagy reversed the β5i knockout-mediated reduction of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by Ang II or pressure overload. Together, this study identifies a novel role for β5i in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. The inhibition of β5i activity may provide a new therapeutic approach for hypertrophic diseases.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) is often the end phase of maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy. A contributing factor is activation of a hypertrophic gene expression program controlled by decreased class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptional repression via HDAC phosphorylation. Cardiac-specific overexpression of G proteinen-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) has previously been shown to possess nuclear activity as a HDAC5 kinase, promoting an intolerance to in vivo ventricular pressure overload; however, its endogenous requirement in adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy remains unknown.We used mouse models with global or cardiomyocyte-specific GRK5 gene deletion to determine the absolute requirement of endogenous GRK5 for cardiac hypertrophy and HF development after chronic hypertrophic stimuli.Mice with global deletion of GRK5 were subjected to transverse aortic constriction. At 12 weeks, these mice showed attenuated hypertrophy, remodeling, and hypertrophic gene transcription along with preserved cardiac function. Global GRK5 deletion also diminished hypertrophy and related gene expression due to chronic phenylephrine infusion. We then generated mice with conditional, cardiac-specific deletion of GRK5 that also demonstrated similar protection from pathological cardiac hypertrophy and HF after transverse aortic constriction.These results define myocyte GRK5 as a critical regulator of pathological cardiac growth after ventricular pressure overload, supporting its role as an endogenous (patho)-physiological HDAC kinase. Further, these results define GRK5 as a potential therapeutic target to limit HF development after hypertrophic stress.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy is classically regarded as a compensatory response, yet the active tissue remodeling processes triggered by various types of mechanical stress can enhance or diminish the function of the heart. Despite the disparity in outcomes, there are similarities in the hypertrophic responses. We hypothesized that a generic genetic response that is not dependent on the particular nature of the hypertrophic stimulus exists. To test our hypothesis, we compared the temporal evolution of transcriptomes measured in hearts subjected to either adaptive (exercise-induced) or maladaptive (aortic banding-induced) hypertrophy.Generic hypertrophy-associated genes were identified and distinguished from stimulus-dependent transcripts by coupling a metric of cardiac growth with a dynamic time-warping algorithm to align transcriptome changes with respect to the hypertrophy response. The major differences in expression between the adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy models were centered around the genes involved in metabolism, fibrosis, and immune response. Conversely, transcripts with common expression patterns in both hypertrophy models were associated with signal transduction, cytoskeletal development, and muscle contraction. Thus, despite the apparent differences in the expression response of the heart to either athletic conditioning or pressure overload, there is a set of genes that displays similar expression profiles.This finding lends support to the notion of a generalized cardiac growth mechanism that is activated in response to mechanical perturbation. The common and unique genetic signatures of adaptive and maladaptive hypertrophy may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of pathological myocardial remodeling.
Project description:PI3K? has been found to be over-expressed in B-Cell-related malignancies. Despite the clinical success of the first selective PI3K? inhibitor, CAL-101, inhibition of PI3K? itself did not show too much cytotoxic efficacy against cancer cells. One possible reason is that PI3K? inhibition induced autophagy that protects the cells from death. Since class III PI3K isoform PIK3C3/Vps34 participates in autophagy initiation and progression, we predicted that a PI3K? and Vps34 dual inhibitor might improve the anti-proliferative activity observed for PI3K?-targeted inhibitors. We discovered a highly potent ATP-competitive PI3K?/Vps34 dual inhibitor, PI3KD/V-IN-01, which displayed 10-1500 fold selectivity over other PI3K isoforms and did not inhibit any other kinases in the kinome. In cells, PI3KD/V-IN-01 showed 30-300 fold selectivity between PI3K? and other class I PI3K isoforms. PI3KD/V-IN-01 exhibited better anti-proliferative activity against AML, CLL and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines than known selective PI3K? and Vps34 inhibitors. Interestingly, we observed FLT3-ITD AML cells are more sensitive to PI3KD/V-IN-01 than the FLT3 wt expressing cells. In AML cell inoculated xenograft mouse model, PI3KD/V-IN-01 exhibited dose-dependent anti-tumor growth efficacies. These results suggest that dual inhibition of PI3K? and Vps34 might be a useful approach to improve the PI3K? inhibitor's anti-tumor efficacy.
Project description:Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) by Vps34, a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), is critical for the initial steps of autophagosome (AP) biogenesis. Although Vps34 is the sole source of PI3P in budding yeast, mammalian cells can produce PI3P through alternate pathways, including direct synthesis by the class II PI3Ks; however, the physiological relevance of these alternate pathways in the context of autophagy is unknown. Here we generated Vps34 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and using a higher affinity 4x-FYVE finger PI3P-binding probe found a Vps34-independent pool of PI3P accounting for (~)35% of the total amount of this lipid species by biochemical analysis. Importantly, WIPI-1, an autophagy-relevant PI3P probe, still formed some puncta upon starvation-induced autophagy in Vps34 knockout MEFs. Additional characterization of autophagy by electron microscopy as well as protein degradation assays showed that while Vps34 is important for starvation-induced autophagy there is a significant component of functional autophagy occurring in the absence of Vps34. Given these findings, class II PI3Ks (? and ? isoforms) were examined as potential positive regulators of autophagy. Depletion of class II PI3Ks reduced recruitment of WIPI-1 and LC3 to AP nucleation sites and caused an accumulation of the autophagy substrate, p62, which was exacerbated upon the concomitant ablation of Vps34. Our studies indicate that while Vps34 is the main PI3P source during autophagy, class II PI3Ks also significantly contribute to PI3P generation and regulate AP biogenesis.