Actual Use of Medications Prescribed During Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Data from a Population-Based Congenital Anomaly Registry.
ABSTRACT: Data from prescription databases are increasingly being used to study associations between maternal medications used in pregnancy and congenital anomalies. We therefore investigated the extent to which prescriptions reflect the actual use of medication during pregnancy, and whether medicines used during pregnancy are taken according to the prescribed dosage and duration.We performed a cross-sectional study in a population-based congenital anomaly register (EUROCAT Northern Netherlands). We included 202 women who had at least one prescription during their pregnancy and who gave birth between 2009 and 2011. Compliance with the prescribed medication was verified by telephone interview. We calculated the compliance rates for several medication groups by dividing the number of mothers who confirmed they had taken the medication by the total number to whom it had been prescribed. Compliance was positive if the mother confirmed she took the medication, even if she only took one of several prescriptions from the same medication group. For each prescription taken, we also determined whether her use conformed to the prescribed dosage and duration.During the first trimester, the compliance rates ranged from 0.84 (for chronic diseases) to 0.92 (for pregnancy-related symptoms). Most of the medications actually taken were used at the prescribed dosage or lower. More than half of the medications actually taken were used for the duration prescribed or shorter.Prescription records are generally a relatively reliable source of data for research into associations between medication use in pregnancy and congenital anomalies compared with other data sources. Pharmacy records of medication use in pregnancy might represent an overestimation, which should be taken into account. However, our results show that, except for 'corticosteroids, dermatological preparations'; 'ear, eye, nose and throat preparations'; and 'anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives', this overestimation generally seems minimal.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To characterize prescription and other medication use in a geographically and ethnically diverse cohort of women in their first pregnancy. METHODS:In a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of nulliparous women followed through pregnancy from the first trimester, medication use was chronicled longitudinally throughout pregnancy. Structured questions and aids were used to capture all medications taken as well as reasons they were taken. Total counts of all medications taken including number in each category and class were captured. Additionally, reasons the medications were taken were recorded. Trends in medications taken across pregnancy and in the first trimester were determined. RESULTS:Of the 9,546 study participants, 9,272 (97.1%) women took at least one medication during pregnancy with 9,139 (95.7%) taking a medication in the first trimester. Polypharmacy, defined as taking at least five medications, occurred in 2,915 (30.5%) women. Excluding vitamins, supplements, and vaccines, 73.4% of women took a medication during pregnancy with 55.1% taking one in the first trimester. The categories of drugs taken in pregnancy and in the first trimester include the following: gastrointestinal or antiemetic agents (34.3%, 19.5%), antibiotics (25.5%, 12.6%), and analgesics (23.7%, 15.6%, which includes 3.6%; 1.4% taking an opioid pain medication). CONCLUSION:In this geographically and ethnically diverse cohort of nulliparous pregnant women, medication use was nearly universal and polypharmacy was common. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01322529.
Project description:This study aimed to describe the management of antihypertensive medications in pregnancy by general practitioners in the UK and compare it with current guidelines.We used electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network database from 1996 to 2010 to identify completed pregnancies. The study cohort included the first pregnancy identified during the study period in women aged 13-49?years. Information on both hypertension diagnoses and prescription of specific antihypertensive medications within the 90?days before the last menstrual period (LMP) and during pregnancy was ascertained from electronic medical records.Among 148,544 eligible pregnancies, we identified 1995 (1.3%) during which the women had pre-existing hypertension diagnosed by the LMP date. Overall, the prevalence of antihypertensive medications during the first trimester was 1.5%; beta-blockers were the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive. Among women with pre-existing hypertension, 36% were prescribed an antihypertensive medication during the 90?days before the LMP. Among those, 9.6% and 22.2% had discontinued their medication by the first and second trimesters, respectively. For contraindicated drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, the corresponding discontinuation rates were around 25% and 70%. Women who switched therapy received preferably either methyldopa or an alpha/beta-blocker.In this population of UK pregnant women, prescription patterns of antihypertensive medications were dominated by recommended treatments, although some patients continued on contraindicated drugs throughout pregnancy or switched to preferred agents in a delayed fashion.
Project description:PURPOSE:We described the medication use during pregnancy in the French population using the French Pregnancy Cohort (FPC). METHODS:The FPC was built with the sampling of all pregnant women included in the French Echantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires (EGB), which is a 1/97th representative sample of the population covered by the French health insurance. The EGB includes anonymized information on the socio-demographic and medical characteristics of beneficiaries, and the health care services they have received such as diagnoses and procedure codes as well as data on filled reimbursed medication; EGB also includes data on hospital stays in all public and private French health facilities. Each filled prescription record contains information on drug brand and generic names, date of prescription and date of dispensing, quantity dispensed, mode of administration, duration of prescription, dosage, and prescribing physician specialty. FPC includes data on all pregnancies of women in the EGB (2010-2013). Date of entry in the FPC is the first day of pregnancy regardless of pregnancy outcome (spontaneous abortions or planned abortions (with or without medical reasons), deliveries), and data on women are collected retrospectively for a period of one year before pregnancy, and prospectively during pregnancy, and up to one year after delivery. The prevalence of prescribed medications before, during and after pregnancy was compared; comparison was also done between trimesters. Pregnancy outcomes are described and include spontaneous and planned abortions, livebirths, and stillbirths. RESULTS:FPC includes data on 36,065 pregnancies. Among them, 27,253 (75.6%) resulted in a delivery including 201 stillbirths (0.7%). The total number of spontaneous abortions was 6,718 (18.6%), and planned abortions 2,094 (5.8%). The prevalence of filled medication use was 91.1%, 89.9%, and 95.6% before, during and after pregnancy, respectively. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of use once the pregnancy was diagnosed (first trimester exposure, 76.4% vs. exposure in the year prior to pregnancy, 91.1% (p < .01)), post-pregnancy medication use was above the pre-pregnancy level (95.6%). Maternal depression was the most prevalent comorbidity during pregnancy (20%), and post-partum depression was higher in those who delivered a stillborn infant (38.8%) as well as in those with a spontaneous (19.5%) or planned abortion (22.4%) compared to those with a liveborn (12.0%). CONCLUSION:FPC is an excellent tool for the study of the risk and benefit of drug use during the perinatal period. FPC has the advantage of including a representative sample of French pregnant women, and study medications only available in France in addition to others available worldwide.
Project description:Poor adherence to medication regimens and medical record inconsistencies result in incomplete knowledge of medication therapy in polypharmacy patients. By quantitatively identifying medications in the blood of patients and reconciling detected medications with the medical record, we have defined the severity of this knowledge gap and created a path toward optimizing medication therapy.We validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay to detect and/or quantify 38 medications across a broad range of chronic diseases to obtain a comprehensive survey of patient adherence, medical record accuracy, and exposure variability in two patient populations. In a retrospectively tested 821-patient cohort representing U.S. adults, we found that 46% of medications assessed were detected in patients as prescribed in the medical record. Of the remaining medications, 23% were detected, but not listed in the medical record while 30% were prescribed to patients, but not detected in blood. To determine how often each detected medication fell within literature-derived reference ranges when taken as prescribed, we prospectively enrolled a cohort of 151 treatment-regimen adherent patients. In this cohort, we found that 53% of medications that were taken as prescribed, as determined using patient self-reporting, were not within the blood reference range. Of the medications not in range, 83% were below and 17% above the lower and upper range limits, respectively. Only 32% of out-of-range medications could be attributed to short oral half-lives, leaving extensive exposure variability to result from patient behavior, undefined drug interactions, genetics, and other characteristics that can affect medication exposure.This is the first study to assess compliance, medical record accuracy, and exposure as determinants of real-world treatment and response. Variation in medication detection and exposure is greater than previously demonstrated, illustrating the scope of current therapy issues and opening avenues that warrant further investigation to optimize medication therapy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE::Pregnant women are often concerned about the impact of medication use on their pregnancy, such as congenital abnormalities. This study examined the rate of adherence to and persistence with antidepressant medications during pregnancy based on the class of antidepressants prescribed. METHODS::Women who gave birth between 2012 and 2015 in Alberta, Canada; had ≥1 diagnosis of depression within 1 year of preconception in outpatient physician claims, emergency department, or hospitalization administrative data; and were adherent (medication possession ratio ≥80%) to ≥2 consecutive antidepressant prescriptions during the preconception year ( n = 1865) were included in this retrospective cohort study. The rates of adherence and persistence (prescription refill gap ≤30 days) were calculated by antidepressant class and were compared using chi-square tests. RESULTS::During pregnancy, 834 (44.7%; 95% CI, 42.4% to 47.0%) women discontinued antidepressants. Among those continuing antidepressants, the overall rate of adherence was 62.6% (95% CI, 59.4% to 65.7%). The rate differed significantly by medication class ( P < 0.0001), with a rate of 75.1% (95% CI, 68.3% to 80.9%) for serotonin-norepinephrine inhibitors, 60.9% (95% CI, 57.2% to 64.5%) for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 42.8% (95% CI, 19.9% to 69.3%) for nonselective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, and 37.5% (95% CI, 22.5% to 55.4%) for atypical antidepressants. Only, 40.7% (95% CI, 37.5 to 44.1) of women were persistent with antidepressants for the full pregnancy period-the rate differed significantly by medication class ( P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS::Adherence to and persistence with antidepressants is low during pregnancy and varies by medication class. Low adherence and persistence can interfere with a therapeutic effect of antidepressants, which may contribute to the worsening of depression symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The use of psychotropic medications and their adverse effects in frail elderly has been debated extensively. However, recent data from European studies show that these drugs are still frequently prescribed in nursing home residents. In Austria, prevalence data are lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication prescription in Austrian nursing homes and to explore characteristics associated with their prescription. METHODS: Cross-sectional study and association analysis in forty-eight out of 50 nursing homes with 1844 out of a total of 2005 residents in a defined urban-rural region in Austria. Prescribed medication was retrieved from residents' charts. Psychotropic medications were coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification 2005. Cluster-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate institutional and residents' characteristics associated with prescription. RESULTS: Residents' mean age was 81; 73% of residents were female. Mean cluster-adjusted prevalence of residents with at least one psychotropic medication was 74.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 72.0-77.2). A total of 45.9% (95% CI 42.7-49.1) had at least one prescription of an antipsychotic medication. Two third of all antipsychotic medications were prescribed for bedtime use only. Anxiolytics were prescribed in 22.2% (95% CI 20.0-24.5), hypnotics in 13.3% (95% CI 11.3-15.4), and antidepressants in 36.8% (95% CI 34.1-39.6) of residents. None of the institutional characteristics and only few residents' characteristics were significantly associated with psychotropic medication prescription. Permanent restlessness was positively associated with psychotropic medication prescription (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.79) whereas cognitive impairment was inversely associated (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88). CONCLUSION: Frequency of psychotropic medication prescription is high in Austrian nursing homes compared to recent published data from other countries. Interventions should aim at reduction and optimisation of prescriptions.
Project description:We use prescription of statin medications and prescription of warfarin to explore the capacity of electronic health record data to (1) describe cohorts of patients prescribed these medications and (2) identify cohorts of patients with evidence of adverse events related to prescription of these medications. This study was conducted in the WWAMI region Practice and Research Network (WPRN)., a network of primary care practices across Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana and Idaho DataQUEST, an electronic data-sharing infrastructure. We used electronic health record data to describe cohorts of patients prescribed statin or warfarin medications and reported the proportions of patients with adverse events. Among the 35,445 active patients, 1745 received at least one statin prescription and 301 received at least one warfarin prescription. Only 3?percent of statin patients had evidence of myopathy; 51 patients (17% of those prescribed warfarin) had a bleeding complication. Primary-care electronic health record data can effectively be used to identify patients prescribed specific medications and patients potentially experiencing medication adverse events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inappropriate medication prescription is a common cause of preventable adverse drug events among elderly persons in the primary care setting. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review is to quantify the extent of inappropriate prescription to elderly persons in the primary care setting. METHODS:We systematically searched Ovid-Medline and Ovid-EMBASE from 1950 and 1980 respectively to March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened and selected primary studies published in English that measured (in)appropriate medication prescription among elderly persons (>65 years) in the primary care setting. We extracted data sources, instruments for assessing medication prescription appropriateness, and the rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions. We grouped the reported individual medications according to the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification and compared the median rate of inappropriate medication prescription and its range within each therapeutic class. RESULTS:We included 19 studies, 14 of which used the Beers criteria as the instrument for assessing appropriateness of prescriptions. The median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions (IMP) was 20.5% [IQR 18.1 to 25.6%.]. Medications with largest median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions were propoxyphene 4.52 (0.10-23.30)%, doxazosin 3.96 (0.32 15.70)%, diphenhydramine 3.30 (0.02-4.40)% and amitriptiline 3.20 (0.05-20.5)% in a decreasing order of IMP rate. Available studies described unequal sets of medications and different measurement tools to estimate the overall prevalence of inappropriate prescription. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately one in five prescriptions to elderly persons in primary care is inappropropriate despite the attention that has been directed to quality of prescription. Diphenhydramine and amitriptiline are the most common inappropriately prescribed medications with high risk adverse events while propoxyphene and doxazoxin are the most commonly prescribed medications with low risk adverse events. These medications are good candidates for being targeted for improvement e.g. by computerized clinical decision support.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Inappropriate medication use is a major healthcare issue for the elderly population. This study explored the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) in long-term care in metropolitan Quebec. METHODS: A cross sectional chart review of 2,633 long-term care older patients of the Quebec City area was performed. An explicit criteria list for PIPs was developed based on the literature and validated by a modified Delphi method. Medication orders were reviewed to describe prescribing patterns and to determine the prevalence of PIPs. A multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of PIPs. RESULTS: Almost all residents (94.0%) were receiving one or more prescribed medication; on average patients had 4.8 prescribed medications. A majority (54.7%) of treated patients had a potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP). Most common PIPs were drug interactions (33.9% of treated patients), followed by potentially inappropriate duration (23.6%), potentially inappropriate medication (14.7%) and potentially inappropriate dosage (9.6%). PIPs were most frequent for medications of the central nervous system (10.8% of prescribed medication). The likelihood of PIP increased significantly as the number of drugs prescribed increased (odds ratio [OR]: 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-1.43) and with the length of stay (OR: 1.78, CI: 1.43-2.20). On the other hand, the risk of receiving a PIP decreased with age. CONCLUSION: Potentially inappropriate prescribing is a serious problem in the highly medicated long-term care population in metropolitan Quebec. Use of explicit criteria lists may help identify the most critical issues and prioritize interventions to improve quality of care and patient safety.
Project description:To characterize the 20 most common prescription medications and the 10 most common prescription medications classified in the former U.S. Food and Drug Administration categories D or X dispensed to pregnant women enrolled in the U.S. Medicaid program.We conducted a cohort study of 1,106,757 pregnant women with live births using 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data. We used outpatient pharmacy records to identify medication dispensings and reported the proportion of pregnancies that were dispensed at least one prescription medication. Maternal age and race and ethnicity-stratified estimates were compared using prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).During pregnancy, 82.5% of the cohort had a dispensing for one or more prescription medication. The most commonly dispensed medications during pregnancy included nitrofurantoin (21.6%), metronidazole (19.4%), amoxicillin (18.0%), azithromycin (16.9%), and promethazine (13.5%). Proportions were highest among younger women for several medications; eg, nitrofurantoin (23.9% compared with 15.4%; prevalence ratio 1.55, CI 1.52-1.58), metronidazole (20.7% compared with 12.0%; prevalence ratio 1.73, CI 1.69-1.77), and azithromycin (21.1% compared with 11.0%; prevalence ratio 1.93, CI 1.89-1.97) were more common among women younger than 20 years than among women aged 35 years or older. Proportions were highest among white women with some exceptions; eg, compared with white women, metronidazole was more common among black women (29.8% compared with 14.4%; prevalence ratio 2.07, CI 2.05-2.09). Excluding fertility treatments, 42.0% had at least one dispensing for a D or X medication during pregnancy. Codeine (11.9%) and hydrocodone (10.2%) were the most common D medications.Medications used to treat infections were the most commonly dispensed prescription medications. Dispensing of commonly used prescription medications during pregnancy varied by maternal age and race-ethnicity.II.