Glycodendrimers and Modified ELISAs: Tools to Elucidate Multivalent Interactions of Galectins 1 and 3.
ABSTRACT: Multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions that are mediated by sugar-binding proteins, i.e., lectins, have been implicated in a myriad of intercellular recognition processes associated with tumor progression such as galectin-mediated cancer cellular migration/metastatic processes. Here, using a modified ELISA, we show that glycodendrimers bearing mixtures of galactosides, lactosides, and N-acetylgalactosaminosides, galectin-3 ligands, multivalently affect galectin-3 functions. We further demonstrate that lactose functionalized glycodendrimers multivalently bind a different member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-1. In a modified ELISA, galectin-3 recruitment by glycodendrimers was shown to directly depend on the ratio of low to high affinity ligands on the dendrimers, with lactose-functionalized dendrimers having the highest activity and also binding well to galectin-1. The results depicted here indicate that synthetic multivalent systems and upfront assay formats will improve the understanding of the multivalent function of galectins during multivalent protein carbohydrate recognition/interaction.
Project description:Four generations of lactose-functionalized polyamidoamine (PAMAM) were employed to further the understanding of multivalent galectin-1 mediated interactions. Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence microscopy were used to study the multivalent interaction of galectin-1 with the glycodendrimers in solution, and glycodendrimers were observed to organize galectin-1 into nanoparticles. In the presence of a large excess of galectin-1, glycodendrimers nucleated galectin-1 into nanoparticles that were remarkably homologous in size (400-500 nm). To understand augmentation of oncologic cellular aggregation by galectin-1, glycodendrimers were used in cell-based assays with human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145). The results revealed that glycodendrimers provided competitive binding sites for galectin-1, which diverted galectin-1 from its typical function in cellular aggregation of DU145 cells.
Project description:Galectin-3 is considered a cancer biomarker and bioindicator of fibrosis and cardiac remodeling and, therefore, it is desirable to develop convenient methods for its detection. Herein, an approach based on the development of multivalent electrochemical probes with high galectin-3 sensing abilities is reported. The probes consist of multivalent presentations of lactose-ferrocene conjugates scaffolded on poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and gold nanoparticles. Such multivalent lactose-ferrocene conjugates are synthesized by coupling of azidomethyl ferrocene-lactose building blocks on alkyne-functionalized PAMAM, for the case of the glycodendrimers, and to disulfide-functionalized linkers that are then used for the surface modification of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles. The binding and sensing abilities toward galectin-3 of both ferrocene-containing lactose dendrimers and gold nanoparticles have been evaluated by means of isothermal titration calorimetry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and differential pulse voltammetry. The highest sensitivity by electrochemical methods to galectin-3 was shown by lactosylferrocenylated gold nanoparticles, which are able to detect the lectin in nanomolar concentrations.
Project description:By using lactose-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as a tunable multivalent platform, we studied cancer cell aggregation in three different cell lines (A549, DU-145, and HT-1080) with galectin-3. We found that small lactose-functionalized G(2)-dendrimer 1 inhibited galectin-3-induced aggregation of the cancer cells. In contrast, dendrimer 4 (a larger, generation 6 dendrimer with 100 carbohydrate end groups) caused cancer cells to aggregate through a galectin-3 pathway. This study indicates that inhibition of cellular aggregation occurred because 1 provided competitive binding sites for galectin-3 (compared to its putative cancer cell ligand, TF-antigen on MUC1). Dendrimer 4, in contrast, provided an excess of ligands for galectin-3 binding; this caused crosslinking and aggregation of cells to be increased.
Project description:Galectin-3 meditates cell surface glycoprotein clustering, cross linking, and lattice formation. In cancer biology, galectin-3 has been reported to play a role in aggregation processes that lead to tumor embolization and survival. Here, we show that lactose-functionalized dendrimers interact with galectin-3 in a multivalent fashion to form aggregates. The glycodendrimer-galectin aggregates were characterized by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence microscopy methodologies and were found to be discrete particles that increased in size as the dendrimer generation was increased. These results show that nucleated aggregation of galectin-3 can be regulated by the nucleating polymer and provide insights that improve the general understanding of the binding and function of sugar-binding proteins.
Project description:Cell surfaces are often decorated with glycoconjugates that contain linear and more complex symmetrically and asymmetrically branched carbohydrates essential for cellular recognition and communication processes. Mannose is one of the fundamental building blocks of glycans in many biological membranes. Moreover, oligomannoses are commonly found on the surface of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses as both glycolipids and glycoproteins. However, their mechanism of action is not well understood, even though this is of great potential interest for translational medicine. Sequence-defined amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers containing simple mono- and disaccharides that mimic glycolipids are known to self-assemble into glycodendrimersomes, which in turn resemble the surface of a cell by encoding carbohydrate activity via supramolecular multivalency. The synthetic challenge of preparing Janus glycodendrimers containing more complex linear and branched glycans has so far prevented access to more realistic cell mimics. However, the present work reports the use of an isothiocyanate-amine "click"-like reaction between isothiocyanate-containing sequence-defined amphiphilic Janus dendrimers and either linear or branched oligosaccharides containing up to six monosaccharide units attached to a hydrophobic amino-pentyl linker, a construct not expected to assemble into glycodendrimersomes. Unexpectedly, these oligoMan-containing dendrimers, which have their hydrophobic linker connected via a thiourea group to the amphiphilic part of Janus glycodendrimers, self-organize into nanoscale glycodendrimersomes. Specifically, the mannose-binding lectins that best agglutinate glycodendrimersomes are those displaying hexamannose. Lamellar "raft-like" nanomorphologies on the surface of glycodendrimersomes, self-organized from these sequence-defined glycans, endow these membrane mimics with high biological activity.
Project description:New therapeutic strategies for personalized medicine need to involve innovative pharmaceutical tools, for example, modular nanoparticles designed for direct immunomodulatory properties. We synthesized mannose-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) glycodendrimers with a novel architecture, where freely accessible mannose moieties are presented on poly(ethylene glycol)-based linkers embedded within an open-shell maltose coating. This design enhanced glycodendrimer bioactivity and led to complex functional effects in myeloid cells, with specific induction of interleukin-8 expression by mannose glycodendrimers detected in HL-60 and THP-1 cells. We concentrated on explaining the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, which turned out to be different in both investigated cell lines: in HL-60 cells, transcriptional activation via AP-1 binding to the promoter predominated, while in THP-1 cells (which initially expressed less IL-8), induction was mediated mainly by mRNA stabilization. The success of directed immunomodulation, with synthetic design guided by assumptions about mannose-modified dendrimers as exogenous regulators of pro-inflammatory chemokine levels, opens new possibilities for designing bioactive nanoparticles.
Project description:To investigate the effect of MGL ligation in monocyte-derived dendritic cell biology, we generated control dendrimers and two different glycodendrimers exposing the MGL ligands αGalNAc or GalNAcβ1-4Gal. αGalNAc and GalNAcβ1-4Gal glycodendrimers were validated in the corresponding manuscript. Monocyte-derirved dendritic cells were generated by culturing monocytes for 4 days with IL-4 and GM-CSF. To study the effect of MGL-ligation at the transcriptional level, next generation sequencing was performed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells from three independent donors, stimulated for 4 h with control, αGalNAc or GalNAcβ1-4Gal glycodendrimers in the absence or presence of LPS. Overall design: 18 samples were included in next generation sequencing, including triplicates for control, αGalNAc and GalNAcβ1-4Gal glycodendrimers, all-in the absence or presence of LPS. The control dendrimers and control dendrimers in the presence of LPS serve as reference samples
Project description:Measuring the binding affinity for proteins that can aggregate or undergo complex binding motifs presents a variety of challenges. In this study, fluorescence lifetime measurements using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence were performed to address these challenges and to quantify the binding of a series of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-functionalized dendrimers to recombinant human galectin-3. Collectively, galectins represent an important target for study; in particular, galectin-3 plays a variety of roles in cancer biology. Galectin-3 binding dissociation constants (K D) were quantified: lactoside (73 ± 4 ?M), methyllactoside (54 ± 10 ?M), and lactoside-functionalized G(2), G(4), and G(6)-PAMAM dendrimers (120 ± 58 ?M, 100 ± 45 ?M, and 130 ± 25 ?M, respectively). The chosen examples showcase the widespread utility of time-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy for determining binding constants, including interactions for which standard methods have significant limitations.
Project description:From the authors' opinion, this chapter constitutes a modest extension of the seminal and inspiring contribution of Stowell and Lee on neoglycoconjugates published in this series [C. P. Stowell and Y. C. Lee, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem., 37 (1980) 225-281]. The outstanding progresses achieved since then in the field of the "glycoside cluster effect" has witnessed considerable creativity in the design and synthetic strategies toward a vast array of novel carbohydrate structures and reflects the dynamic activity in the field even since the recent chapter by the Nicotra group in this series [F. Nicotra, L. Cipolla, F. Peri, B. La Ferla, and C. Radaelli, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem., 61 (2007) 353-398]. Beyond the more classical neoglycoproteins and glycopolymers (not covered in this work) a wide range of unprecedented and often artistically beautiful multivalent and monodisperse nanostructures, termed glycodendrimers for the first time in 1993, has been created. This chapter briefly surveys the concept of multivalency involved in carbohydrate-protein interactions. The topic is also discussed in regard to recent steps undertaken in glycobiology toward identification of lead candidates using microarrays and modern analytical tools. A systematic description of glycocluster and glycodendrimer synthesis follows, starting from the simplest architectures and ending in the most complex ones. Presentation of multivalent glycostructures of intermediate size and comprising, calix[n]arene, porphyrin, cyclodextrin, peptide, and carbohydrate scaffolds, has also been intercalated to better appreciate the growing synthetic complexity involved. A subsection describing novel all-carbon-based glycoconjugates such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes is inserted, followed by a promising strategy involving dendrons self-assembling around metal chelates. The chapter then ends with those glycodendrimers that have been prepared using commercially available dendrimers possessing varied functionalities, or systematically synthesized using either divergent or convergent strategies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Interaction of transmembrane mucins with the multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 is critical to maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface epithelial glycocalyx. This study aimed to determine whether disruption of galectin-3 multimerization and insertion of synthetic glycopolymers in the plasma membrane could be used to modulate glycocalyx barrier function in corneal epithelial cells.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Abrogation of galectin-3 biosynthesis in multilayered cultures of human corneal epithelial cells using siRNA, and in galectin-3 null mice, resulted in significant loss of corneal barrier function, as indicated by increased permeability to the rose bengal diagnostic dye. Addition of ?-lactose, a competitive carbohydrate inhibitor of galectin-3 binding activity, to the cell culture system, transiently disrupted barrier function. In these experiments, treatment with a dominant negative inhibitor of galectin-3 polymerization lacking the N-terminal domain, but not full-length galectin-3, prevented the recovery of barrier function to basal levels. As determined by fluorescence microscopy, both cellobiose- and lactose-containing glycopolymers incorporated into apical membranes of corneal epithelial cells, independently of the chain length distribution of the densely glycosylated, polymeric backbones. Membrane incorporation of cellobiose glycopolymers impaired barrier function in corneal epithelial cells, contrary to their lactose-containing counterparts, which bound to galectin-3 in pull-down assays.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>These results indicate that galectin-3 multimerization and surface recognition of lactosyl residues is required to maintain glycocalyx barrier function at the ocular surface. Transient modification of galectin-3 binding could be therapeutically used to enhance the efficiency of topical drug delivery.