Partial protection against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) of seasonal influenza vaccination and related regional factors: Updated systematic review and meta-analyses.
ABSTRACT: This updated systematic review and meta-analyses aims to systematically evaluate the cross-protection of seasonal influenza vaccines against the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1) influenza infection, and investigate the potential effect of the influenza strains circulating previous to the pandemic on the association between vaccine receipt and pandemic infection. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed based on the study locations and previous circulating influenza viruses. Relevant articles in English and Chinese from 2009 to October 2013 were systematically searched, and 21 eligible studies were included. For case-control studies, an insignificant 20% reduced risk for pandemic influenza infection based on combined national data (OR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.60, 1.05) was calculated for people receiving seasonal influenza vaccination. However, for RCTs, an insignificant increase in the risk of seasonal influenza vaccines was observed (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.46, 3.53). For the subgroup analysis, a significant 35% cross-protection was observed in the subgroup where influenza A outbreaks were detected before the 2009 pandemic. Moreover, the results indicated that seasonal influenza vaccination may reduce the risk of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99). Our findings partially support the hypothesis that seasonal vaccines may offer moderate cross-protection for adults against laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and ILIs. Further immunological studies are needed to understand the mechanism underlying these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 2009 H1N1 pandemic emerged even though seasonal H1N1 viruses have circulated for decades. Epidemiological evidence suggested that the current seasonal vaccine did not offer significant protection from the novel pandemic, and that people over the age of 50 were less susceptible to infection. OBJECTIVES:In a mouse challenge study with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, we evaluated protective immune responses elicited by prior infection with human and swine influenza A viruses. RESULTS:Mice infected with A/Mexico/4108/2009 (Mex09) showed significant weight loss and 40% mortality. Prior infection with a 1976 classical swine H1N1 virus resulted in complete protection from Mex09 challenge. Prior infection with either a 2009 or a 1940 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus provided partial protection and a >100-fold reduction in viral lung titers at day 4 post-infection. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that in experimental animals recently induced immunity to 1918-derived H1N1 seasonal influenza viruses, and to a 1976 swine influenza virus, afford a degree of protection against the 2009 pandemic virus. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of accumulating data suggesting partial protection of older persons during the 2009 pandemic.
Project description:In recent years, influenza viruses with pandemic potential have been a major concern worldwide. One unresolved issue is how infection or vaccination with seasonal influenza virus strains influences the ability to mount a protective immune response to novel pandemic strains. In this study, we developed a mouse model of primary and secondary influenza infection by using a widely circulating seasonal H1N1 virus and the pandemic strain of H1N1 that emerged in Mexico in 2009, and we evaluated several key issues. First, using overlapping peptide libraries encompassing the entire translated sequences of 5 major influenza virus proteins, we assessed the specificity of CD4 T cell reactivity toward epitopes conserved among H1N1 viruses or unique to the seasonal or pandemic strain by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays. Our data show that CD4 T cells reactive to both virus-specific and genetically conserved epitopes are elicited, allowing separate tracking of these responses. Populations of cross-reactive CD4 T cells generated from seasonal influenza infection were found to expand earlier after secondary infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus than CD4 T cell populations specific for new epitopes. Coincident with this rapid CD4 T cell response was a potentiated neutralizing-antibody response to the pandemic strain and protection from the pathological effects of infection with the pandemic virus. This protection was not dependent on CD8 T cells. Together, our results indicate that exposure to seasonal vaccines and infection elicits CD4 T cells that promote the ability of the mammalian host to mount a protective immune response to pandemic strains of influenza virus.
Project description:Influenza represents a substantial global healthcare burden, with annual epidemics resulting in 3-5 million cases of severe illness with a significant associated mortality. In addition, the risk of a virulent and lethal influenza pandemic has generated widespread and warranted concern. Currently licensed influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to induce efficacious and long-lasting herd immunity. In addition, and as evidenced by the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, there can be a significant delay between the emergence of a pandemic influenza and an effective, antibody-inducing vaccine. There is, therefore, a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection-obviating the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Development of such a vaccine would yield enormous health benefits to society and also greatly reduce the associated global healthcare burden. There are a number of alternative influenza vaccine technologies being assessed both preclinically and clinically. In this review we discuss viral vectored vaccines, either recombinant live-attenuated or replication-deficient viruses, which are current lead candidates for inducing efficacious and long-lasting immunity toward influenza viruses. These alternate influenza vaccines offer real promise to deliver viable alternatives to currently deployed vaccines and more importantly may confer long-lasting and universal protection against influenza viral infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:National seasonal influenza programs have been recommended as a foundation for pandemic preparedness. During the 2009 pandemic, WHO aimed to increase Member States' equitable access to influenza vaccines through pandemic vaccine donation. METHODS:This analysis explores whether the presence of a seasonal influenza program contributed to more rapid national submission of requirements to receive vaccine during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Data from 2009 influenza vaccine donation, deployment, and surveillance initiatives were collected during May-September 2018 from WHO archival material. Data about the presence of seasonal influenza vaccine programs prior to 2009 were gathered from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between presence of a seasonal influenza program and time to submission of a national deployment and vaccination plan and to vaccine delivery. FINDING:Of 97 countries eligible to receive WHO-donated vaccine, 83 (86%) submitted national deployment and vaccination plans and 77 (79%) received vaccine. Countries with a seasonal influenza vaccine program were more likely to submit a national deployment and vaccination plan (hazards ratio [HR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. Countries with regulatory delays were less likely to receive vaccine than those without these delays (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6). INTERPRETATION:During the 2009 pandemic, eligible countries with a seasonal influenza vaccine program weremore ready to receive and use donated vaccines than those without a program. Our findings suggest that robust seasonal influenza vaccine programs increase national familiarity with the management of influenza vaccines and therefore enhance pandemic preparedness. FUNDING:N/A.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vaccination is generally considered to be the best primary prevention measure against influenza virus infection. Many countries encourage specific target groups of people to undertake vaccination, often with financial subsidies or a priority list. To understand differential patterns of national target groups for influenza vaccination before, during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, we reviewed and analyzed the country-specific policies in the corresponding time periods.<h4>Methods</h4>Information on prioritized groups targeted to receive seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines was derived from a multi-step internet search of official health department websites, press releases, media sources and academic journal articles. We assessed the frequency and consistency of targeting 20 different groups within populations which are associated with age, underlying medical conditions, role or occupations among different countries and vaccines. Information on subsidies provided to specific target groups was also extracted.<h4>Results</h4>We analyzed target groups for 33 (seasonal 2009 and 2009-10 vaccines), 72 (monovalent pandemic 2009-10 vaccine) and 34 (seasonal 2010 and 2010-11 vaccines) countries. In 2009-10, the elderly, those with chronic illness and health care workers were common targets for the seasonal vaccine. Comparatively, the elderly, care home residents and workers, animal contacts and close contacts were less frequently targeted to receive the pandemic vaccine. Pregnant women, obese persons, essential community workers and health care workers, however, were more commonly targeted. After the pandemic, pregnant women, obese persons, health care and care home workers, and close contacts were more commonly targeted to receive the seasonal vaccine compared to 2009-10, showing continued influence from the pandemic. Many of the countries provided free vaccines, partial subsidies, reimbursements or national health insurance coverage to specific target groups and over one-third of the countries offered universal subsidy regarding the pandemic vaccine. There was also some inconsistency between countries in target groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Differences in target groups between countries may reflect variable objectives as well as uncertainties regarding the transmission dynamics, severity and age-specific immunity against influenza viruses before and after vaccination. Clarification on these points is essential to elucidate optimal and object-oriented vaccination strategies.
Project description:There are few data on the comparative epidemiology and virology of the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and cocirculating seasonal influenza A viruses in community settings.We recruited 348 index patients with acute respiratory illness from 14 outpatient clinics in Hong Kong in July and August 2009. We then prospectively followed household members of 99 patients who tested positive for influenza A virus on rapid diagnostic testing. We collected nasal and throat swabs from all household members at three home visits within 7 days for testing by means of quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay and viral culture. Using hemagglutination-inhibition and viral-neutralization assays, we tested baseline and convalescent serum samples from a subgroup of patients for antibody responses to the pandemic and seasonal influenza A viruses.Secondary attack rates (as confirmed on RT-PCR assay) among household contacts of index patients were similar for the pandemic influenza virus (8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3 to 14) and seasonal influenza viruses (9%; 95% CI, 5 to 15). The patterns of viral shedding and the course of illness among index patients were also similar for the pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. In a subgroup of patients for whom baseline and convalescent serum samples were available, 36% of household contacts who had serologic evidence of pandemic influenza virus infection did not shed detectable virus or report illness.Pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus has characteristics that are broadly similar to those of seasonal influenza A viruses in terms of rates of viral shedding, clinical illness, and transmissibility in the household setting.
Project description:An association between AS03 adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine and the occurrence of Bell's palsy was found in a population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden. To evaluate this association in a different population, we conducted a self-controlled case series in a primary health care database, THIN, in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an increased risk of Bell's palsy following vaccination with any influenza vaccine containing A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like viral strains. Secondly, we investigated whether risks were different following pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines and seasonal influenza vaccines containing the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain.The study population comprised all incident Bell's palsy cases between 1 June 2009 and 30 June 2013 identified in THIN. We determined the relative incidence (RI) of Bell's palsy during the 6 weeks following vaccination with either pandemic or seasonal influenza vaccine. All analyses were adjusted for seasonality and confounding variables.We found an incidence rate of Bell's palsy of 38.7 per 100,000 person years. Both acute respiratory infection (ARI) consultations and pregnancy were found to be confounders. When adjusted for seasonality, ARI consultations and pregnancies, the RI during the 42 days after vaccination with an influenza vaccine was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.72-1.01). The RI was similar during the 42 days following seasonal vaccine (0.96, 95%CI: 0.82-1.13) or pandemic vaccine (0.73, 95%CI: 0.47-1.12).We found no evidence for an increased incidence of Bell's palsy following seasonal influenza vaccination overall, nor for monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine in 2009.
Project description:After the influenza H1N1 pandemic of 2009, the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/2007 strain was replaced by the A/California/07/2009 strain for the influenza virus vaccine composition. After several seasons with no indications on the occurrence of antigenic drift, A/Michigan/45/2015 was chosen as the H1N1 vaccine strain for the 2017/2018 season. Since the immune response to influenza is shaped by the history of exposure to antigenically similar strains, the potential cross-protection between seasonal human influenza vaccine strains and the emerging pandemic strains was investigated. Human serum samples were tested by hemagglutination inhibition and single radial hemolysis assays against A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/California/07/2009, and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains. Strong cross-reactions between A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains were observed in 2009/2010, most likely induced by the start of the 2009 pandemic, and the subsequent post-pandemic seasons from 2010/2011 onward when A/California/07/2009 became the predominant strain. In the 2014/2015 season, population immunity against A/California/07/2009 and A/Michigan/45/2015 strains increased again, associated with strong cross-reactions. Whereas hemagglutination inhibition assay has a higher sensitivity for detection of new seasonal drift, the single radial hemolysis assay is an excellent tool for determining the presence of pre-existing immunity, allowing a potential prediction on the booster potential of influenza vaccines against newly emerging drifted strains.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines (IIV) may elicit production of heterosubtypic antibodies, which can neutralize avian H5N1 virus in a small proportion of subjects. We hypothesized that prime boost regimens of live and inactivated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines (LAIV and IIV) would enhance production of heterosubtypic immunity and provide evidence of cross-protection against other influenza viruses.In an open-label study, 26 adult volunteers were randomized to receive one of four vaccine regimens containing two doses of 2009-10 seasonal influenza vaccines administered 8 (±1) weeks apart: 2 doses of LAIV; 2 doses of IIV; LAIV then IIV; IIV then LAIV. Humoral immunity assays for avian H5N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), and seasonal vaccine strains were performed on blood collected pre-vaccine and 2 and 4 weeks later. The percentage of cytokine-producing T-cells was compared with baseline 14 days after each dose.Subjects receiving IIV had prompt serological responses to vaccine strains. Two subjects receiving heterologous prime boost regimens had enhanced haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titres against pH1N1, and one subject against avian H5N1; all three had pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies detected at baseline. Significantly elevated titres to H5N1 and pH1N1 by neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay were observed following LAIV-IIV administration. Both vaccines elicited cross-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to nucleoprotein of avian H5N1 and pH1N1. All regimens were safe and well tolerated.Neither homologous nor heterologous prime boost immunization enhanced serum HI and NT titres to 2009 pH1N1 or avian H5N1 compared to single dose vaccine. However heterologous prime-boost vaccination did lead to in vitro evidence of cross-reactivity by NI; the significance of this finding is unclear. These data support the strategy of administering single dose trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine at the outset of an influenza pandemic while a specific vaccine is being developed.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044095.
Project description:We have previously shown that broadly neutralizing antibodies reactive to the conserved stem region of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) were generated in people infected with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain. Such antibodies are rarely seen in humans following infection or vaccination with seasonal influenza virus strains. However, the important question remained whether the inactivated 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine, like the infection, could also induce these broadly neutralizing antibodies. To address this question, we analyzed B-cell responses in 24 healthy adults immunized with the pandemic vaccine in 2009. In all cases, we found a rapid, predominantly IgG-producing vaccine-specific plasmablast response. Strikingly, the majority (25 of 28) of HA-specific monoclonal antibodies generated from the vaccine-specific plasmablasts neutralized more than one influenza strain and exhibited high levels of somatic hypermutation, suggesting they were derived from recall of B-cell memory. Indeed, memory B cells that recognized the 2009 pandemic H1N1 HA were detectable before vaccination not only in this cohort but also in samples obtained before the emergence of the pandemic strain. Three antibodies demonstrated extremely broad cross-reactivity and were found to bind the HA stem. Furthermore, one stem-reactive antibody recognized not only H1 and H5, but also H3 influenza viruses. This exceptional cross-reactivity indicates that antibodies capable of neutralizing most influenza subtypes might indeed be elicited by vaccination. The challenge now is to improve upon this result and design influenza vaccines that can elicit these broadly cross-reactive antibodies at sufficiently high levels to provide heterosubtypic protection.