Performance of a brief survey to assess health literacy in patients receiving hemodialysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Health literacy is associated with important outcomes among patients with kidney disease, but widely used measures of health literacy can be burdensome. In an effort to make a practical assessment available, we compared the performance of the three-item brief health literacy screen (BHLS) to other widely used measures of health literacy among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS: Adult hemodialysis patients (n = 150) from four urban dialysis facilities participated in a cross-sectional study from 2009 to 2012. Three health literacy measures were administered including (i) the rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM), (ii) the short test of functional health literacy in adults (S-TOFHLA) and (iii) the three-item BHLS. The mini-mental state exam assessed cognitive status, and the chronic hemodialysis knowledge survey (CHeKS) and perceived kidney disease knowledge survey (PiKS) assessed kidney knowledge. Spearman's ?s and area under the receiver-operating curves examined relationships between the aforementioned variables. RESULTS: Participants had received dialysis for a mean of 4.6 years. They were 49% female, 73% African American and averaged 52 years of age. Less education and less cognitive capacity were each associated (P < 0.05) with lower health literacy for all three health literacy measures. Performance on the BHLS was significantly associated with the REALM [0.35 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.20-0.49); P < 0.001] and S-TOFHLA [0.49 (95% CI: 0.35-0.69); P < 0.001], the CHeKS [0.43 (95% CI: 0.28-0.55); P < 0.001] and PiKS [0.41 (95% CI: 0.27-0.54); P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The BHLS demonstrates evidence of construct validity among ESRD patients. Furthermore, health literacy was associated with kidney knowledge, supporting it as a potential intervention target to improve outcomes among patients with lower health literacy.
Project description:Introduction:Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) generally have poor participation in self-care. We hypothesized that greater kidney disease knowledge and health literacy would associate with better self-care. Methods:We enrolled 401 participants with non-dialysis-dependent CKD from one academic center in this cross-sectional study. Validated surveys were used to assess health literacy level (inadequate vs. adequate; Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine), perceived kidney disease knowledge (Perceived Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey [PiKS]), objective kidney disease knowledge (Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey [KiKS]), and a CKD self-care measure was constructed as the sum of self-reported self-care behaviors using the adapted Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Assessment. The association between health literacy level, PiKS scores, KiKS scores, and the CKD self-care measure was assessed with multivariable adjusted linear regression models. Results:Participants had a mean age of 57 years and 17.7% had inadequate health literacy. PiKS scores were positively associated with the CKD self-care measure (? = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-1.63), and a positive trend was observed for KiKS scores and the CKD self-care measure (? = 0.30, 95% CI: -0.12 to 0.72). Health literacy was not associated with CKD self-care measure. Conclusion:Objective kidney disease knowledge is likely necessary, but not sufficient for self-care and may depend on the level of health literacy. Perceived kidney knowledge may offer a novel target to assess patients at risk for poor self-care, and be used in targeted educational interventions.
Project description:The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of five health literacy screening instruments in emergency department (ED) patients: the Rapid Evaluation of Adult Literacy in Medicine-Revised (REALM-R), the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Single Item Literacy Screens (SILS), health numeracy, and physician gestalt. A secondary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of these instruments as measured by administration time, time on task, and interruptions during test administration.This was a prospective observational cross-sectional study of a convenience sampling of adult patients presenting during March 2011 and February 2012 to one urban university-affiliated ED. Subjects were consenting non-critically ill, English-speaking patients over the age of 18 years without aphasia, dementia, mental retardation, or inability to communicate. The diagnostic test characteristics of the REALM-R, NVS, SILS, health numeracy, and physician gestalt were quantitatively assessed by using the short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). A score of 22 or less was the criterion standard for limited health literacy (LHL).A total of 435 participants were enrolled, with a mean (±SD) age of 45 (±15.7) years, and 18% had less than a high school education. As defined by an S-TOFHLA score of 22 or less, the prevalence of LHL was 23.9%. In contrast, the NVS, REALM-R, and physician gestalt identified 64.8, 48.5, and 35% of participants as LHL, respectively. A normal NVS screen was the most useful test to exclude LHL, with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01 to 0.17). When abnormal, none of the screening instruments, including physician gestalt, significantly increased the posttest probability of LHL. The NVS and REALM-R require 3 and 5 minutes less time to administer than the S-TOFHLA. Administration of the REALM-R is associated with fewer test interruptions.One-quarter of these ED patients had marginal or inadequate health literacy. Among the brief screening instruments evaluated, a normal NVS result accurately reduced the probability of LHL, although it will identify two-thirds of ED patients as high risk for LHL. None of the brief screening instruments significantly increases the probability of LHL when abnormal.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Empirical evidence on how health literacy affects diabetes outcomes is inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the findings on the associations between health literacy and diabetes knowledge, self-care activities, and glycemic control as disease-related outcomes, with specific focus on the type of health literacy assessment. DATA SOURCES:Nine databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Communication and Mass Media Complete, PsychInfo, PsychArticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, ERIC, Sociology, Embase) were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published until 31 March 2018. METHODS:Studies with type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes patients aged 18 or older, providing a calculable baseline effect size for functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge, self-care activities, or HbA1C were included. RESULTS:The meta-analysis includes 61 studies with a total of 18,905 patients. The majority were conducted in the USA, on type 2 diabetes patients, and used the S-TOFHLA as a performance-based or the BHLS as a perception-based measure of functional health literacy. Meta-analytic results show that all three outcomes are related to health literacy. Diabetes knowledge was best predicted by performance-based health literacy measures, self-care by self-report measures, and glycemic control equally by both types of health literacy assessment. DISCUSSION:Health literacy plays a substantial role in diabetes knowledge. Findings for the role of health literacy in self-care and glycemic control remain heterogeneous, partly due to the type of health literacy assessment (performance- vs. perception-based). This has implications for the use of health literacy measures in clinical settings and original research. This meta-analysis was limited to functional health literacy and, due to the paucity of studies, did not investigate the role of other dimensions including communicative and critical health literacy.
Project description:The intent of the study was to develop and validate a comparable health literacy test for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking populations.The design of the instrument, named the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English (SAHL-S&E), combined a word recognition test, as appearing in the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and a comprehension test using multiple-choice questions designed by an expert panel. We used the item response theory (IRT) in developing and validating the instrument.Validation of SAHL-S&E involved testing and comparing the instrument with other health literacy instruments in a sample of 201 Spanish-speaking and 202 English-speaking subjects recruited from the Ambulatory Care Center at the University of North Carolina Healthcare System.Based on IRT analysis, 18 items were retained in the comparable test. The Spanish version of the test, SAHL-S, was highly correlated with other Spanish health literacy instruments, Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish-Speaking Adults (r=0.88, p<.05) and the Spanish Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) (r=0.62, p<.05). The English version, SAHL-E, had high correlations with REALM (r=0.94, p<.05) and the English TOFHLA (r=0.68, p<.05). Significant correlations were found between SAHL-S&E and years of schooling in both Spanish- and English-speaking samples (r=0.15 and 0.39, respectively). SAHL-S&E displayed satisfactory reliability of 0.80 and 0.89 in the Spanish- and English-speaking samples, respectively. IRT analysis indicated that the SAHL-S&E score was highly reliable for individuals with a low level of health literacy.The new instrument, SAHL-S&E, has good reliability and validity. It is particularly useful for identifying individuals with low health literacy and could be used to screen for low health literacy among Spanish and English speakers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to gain access to, use, and understand health information and services in order to maintain a good health. It is especially important in nephrology due to the complexity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The present study sought to define health literacy levels in patients followed in predialysis clinic, in-center dialysis (ICHD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD).<h4>Methods</h4>This transversal monocentric observational study analysed 363 patients between October 2016 and April 2017. The Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) were used to measure health literacy. Multivariate linear regressions were used to compare the mean scores on the BHLS and HLQ, across the four groups.<h4>Results</h4>Patients on PD had a significantly higher BHLS'score than patients on ICHD (p = 0.04). HLQ's scores differed across the groups: patients on HHD (p = 0.01) and PD (p = 0.002) were more likely to feel understood by their healthcare providers. Compared to ICHD, patients on HHD were more likely to have sufficient information to manage their health (p = 0.02), and patients in the predialysis clinic were more likely to report high abilities for health information appraisal (p < 0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In a monocentric study, there is a significant proportion of CKD patients, especially in predialysis clinic and in-centre hemodialysis, with limited health literacy. Patients on home dialysis (HHD and PD) had a higher level of health literacy compared to the other groups.
Project description:The clinical consequences of low health literacy are not fully understood.We evaluated the relationship between low health literacy and elevated blood pressure (BP) at hospital presentation.We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of adult patients hospitalized at a university hospital between November 1, 2010 and April 30, 2012.Health literacy was assessed using the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Low health literacy was defined as a BHLS score ?9. BP was assessed using clinical measurements. The outcome was elevated BP (?140/90 mm Hg; ?130/80 mm Hg with diabetes or renal disease) or extremely elevated BP (>160/100 mm Hg) at hospital presentation. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, race, insurance, comorbidities, and antihypertensive medications; preplanned restricted analysis among patients with diagnosed hypertension was performed.Of 46,263 hospitalizations, 23% had low health literacy, which occurred more often among patients who were older (61 vs. 54 y), less educated (28.4% vs. 11.2% had not completed high school), and more often admitted through the emergency department (54.3% vs. 48.1%) than those with BHLS>9. Elevated BP was more frequent among those with low health literacy [40.0% vs. 35.5%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.12]. Low health literacy was associated with extremely elevated BP (aOR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) and elevated BP among those without diagnosed hypertension (aOR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16).More than ? of patients had elevated BP at hospital presentation. Low health literacy was independently associated with elevated BP, particularly among patients without diagnosed hypertension.
Project description:Background:Health literacy is an essential predictor of health status, disease control and adherence to medications. Objectives:The study goals were to assess the health literacy level of the general population in Saudi Arabia using translated Gulf Arabic version of the short-version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) tests and to measure the relationship between health literacy and education level. Methods:The study was a cross-sectional with a convenience sample of 123 participants from the general population in Riyadh. Data were collected using the modified (Gulf) Arabic versions of both S-TOFHLA and SILS. Fisher's Exact test was used to measure the difference of the health literacy scores according to the education degrees and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the internal consistency of the S-TOFHLA items. Results:More than half (55.4%) of the participants were male, 50.4% had a middle school or less education level, and we found that 84.4% had adequate health literacy as measured by the S-TOFHLA, compared to 49.6% as measured by SILS. The Fisher's Exact test showed a significant difference (P<.05) in the S-TOFHLA and SILS scores according to education categories. Conclusions:The level of education has a significant positive association with S-TOFHLA and SILS results. The Gulf Arabic version of S-TOFHLA is a reliable test with a good internal consistency and a significant positive correlation between the two parts of S-TOFHLA. We recommend the use of S-TOFHLA or SILS at the first patient visit.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. METHODS: The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a "reference standard" classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). RESULTS: Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.
Project description:Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) adults have lower health literacy compared to hearing adults, but it is unclear whether this disparity also occurs in adolescence. We used the Health Literacy Skills Instrument-Short Form (HLSI-SF), Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), Comprehensive Heart Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (CHDKQ), and newly constructed interactive and critical health literacy survey items to quantify D/HH and hearing adolescents' health literacy. We adapted and translated survey materials into sign language and spoken English to reduce testing bias due to variable English language skills. Participants were 187 D/HH and 94 hearing college-bound high school students. When we adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, school grade, and socioeconomic status, D/HH adolescents demonstrated weaker general and functional health literacy and cardiovascular health knowledge than hearing adolescents on the HLSI, S-TOFHLA, and CHDKQ (all ps < .0001). Standard health literacy or knowledge scores were associated with several interactive and critical health literacy skills (all ps < .05). D/HH adolescents who reported greater hearing-culture identity, having hearing aids, experiencing better hearing with assistive devices, having good quality of communication with parents, and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher functional health literacy (all ps < .025). Those who reported English as their best language and attending hearing schools at least half of the time had higher cardiovascular health knowledge scores (all ps < .03). Results suggest that interventions to improve D/HH adolescents' health literacy should target their health-related conversations with their families; access to printed health information; and access to health information from other people, especially health care providers and educators.
Project description:Inadequate health literacy in adults is a nationwide issue that is associated with worse health outcomes. There is a paucity of literacy regarding rates of inadequate health literacy in psychiatric populations.The aim of the study was to identify an existing tool that would easily identify patients who had inadequate health literacy, so that a targeted intervention could be performed. Secondarily we attempted to compare rates of inadequate health literacy with providers' perception of patients' health literacy.We assessed health literacy in a psychiatric population by administering the Brief Health Literacy Survey (BHLS). Additionally, all psychiatry residents, psychiatrists, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, and social workers were surveyed to assess their perception of patient health literacy. Differences between patient health literacy and provider expectations of patient health literacy were compared.Inadequate health literacy was identified in 31 out of 61 patients (50.8%) using 2 questions from the BHLS. Only 9 (29%) of patients who were identified as having inadequate health literacy were identified by both BHLS questions. In contrast, almost 100% of providers identified their patients, in general, as having inadequate health literacy.These results identify a higher rate of health literacy in a psychiatric inpatient population than in the general population. However, providers at this institution likely over-identify health literacy. This highlights the need for a health literacy tool that can easily target patients with inadequate health literacy for an intervention.