Trans-Symmetric Dynamic Covalent Systems: Connected Transamination and Transimination Reactions.
ABSTRACT: The development of chemical transaminations as a new type of dynamic covalent reaction is described. The key 1,3-proton shift is under complete catalytic control and can be conducted orthogonally to, or simultaneous with, transimination in the presence of an amine to rapidly yield two-dimensional dynamic systems with a high degree of complexity evolution. The transamination-transimination systems are proven to be fully reversible, stable over several days, compatible with a range of functional groups, and highly tunable. Kinetic studies show transamination to be the rate-limiting reaction in the network. Furthermore, it was discovered that readily available quinuclidine is a highly potent catalyst for aldimine transaminations. This study demonstrates how connected dynamic reactions give rise to significantly larger systems than the unconnected counterparts, and shows how reversible isomerizations can be utilized as an effective diversity-generating element.
Project description:The first example of a bifunctional organocatalyst assembled through dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) is described. The catalyst is based on reversible imine chemistry and can catalyze the Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction of enones with aldehydes or N-tosyl imines. Furthermore, these dynamic catalysts were shown to be optimizable through a systemic screening approach, in which large mixtures of catalyst structures were generated, and the optimal catalyst could be directly identified by using dynamic deconvolution. This strategy allowed one-pot synthesis and in situ evaluation of several potential catalysts without the need to separate, characterize, and purify each individual structure. The systems were furthermore shown to catalyze and re-equilibrate their own formation through a previously unknown thiourea-catalyzed transimination process.
Project description:It remains unclear how ?-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and leucine are metabolized to stimulate insulin secretion. Mitochondrial BCATm (branched-chain aminotransferase) catalyzes reversible transamination of leucine and ?-ketoglutarate to KIC and glutamate, the first step of leucine catabolism. We investigated the biochemical mechanisms of KIC and leucine-stimulated insulin secretion (KICSIS and LSIS, respectively) using BCATm(-/-) mice. In static incubation, BCATm disruption abolished insulin secretion by KIC, D,L-?-keto-?-methylvalerate, and ?-ketocaproate without altering stimulation by glucose, leucine, or ?-ketoglutarate. Similarly, during pancreas perfusions in BCATm(-/-) mice, glucose and arginine stimulated insulin release, whereas KICSIS was largely abolished. During islet perifusions, KIC and 2 mM glutamine caused robust dose-dependent insulin secretion in BCATm(+/+) not BCATm(-/-) islets, whereas LSIS was unaffected. Consistently, in contrast to BCATm(+/+) islets, the increases of the ATP concentration and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio in response to KIC were largely blunted in BCATm(-/-) islets. Compared with nontreated islets, the combination of KIC/glutamine (10/2 mM) did not influence ?-ketoglutarate concentrations but caused 120 and 33% increases in malate in BCATm(+/+) and BCATm(-/-) islets, respectively. Although leucine oxidation and KIC transamination were blocked in BCATm(-/-) islets, KIC oxidation was unaltered. These data indicate that KICSIS requires transamination of KIC and glutamate to leucine and ?-ketoglutarate, respectively. LSIS does not require leucine catabolism and may be through leucine activation of glutamate dehydrogenase. Thus, KICSIS and LSIS occur by enhancing the metabolism of glutamine/glutamate to ?-ketoglutarate, which, in turn, is metabolized to produce the intracellular signals such as ATP and NADPH for insulin secretion.
Project description:The controlled attachment of synthetic groups to proteins is important for a number of fields, including therapeutics, where antibody-drug conjugates are an emerging area of biologic medicines. We have previously reported a site-specific protein modification method using a transamination reaction that chemoselectively oxidizes the N-terminal amine of a polypeptide chain to a ketone or an aldehyde group. The newly introduced carbonyl can be used for conjugation to a synthetic group in one location through the formation of an oxime or a hydrazone linkage. To expand the scope of this reaction, we have used a combinatorial peptide library screening platform as a method to explore new transamination reagents while simultaneously identifying their optimal N-terminal sequences. N-Methylpyridinium-4-carboxaldehyde benzenesulfonate salt (Rapoport's salt, RS) was identified as a highly effective transamination reagent when paired with glutamate-terminal peptides and proteins. This finding establishes RS as a transamination reagent that is particularly well suited for antibody modification. Using a known therapeutic antibody, herceptin, it was demonstrated that RS can be used to modify the heavy chains of the wild-type antibody or to modify both the heavy and the light chains after N-terminal sequence mutation to add additional glutamate residues.
Project description:The peptide Asp-Ala-His-NH-Me was subjected to removal of its N-terminal residue by transamination and scission. Despite the high affinity of the peptide for Cu2+ ions, they catalysed its transamination smoothly. Two main transamination products were found, a complication previously observed with another peptide with an N-terminal aspartic residue, but their scission gave a single product, Ala-His-NH-Me. This was subjected to a further cycle of transamination and scission, and gave a single product after each step. For scission of transaminated peptides it proved unnecessary to remove them from transamination reagents provided that transamination was stopped with EDTA before adding the scission reagent.
Project description:Non-enzymic transamination reactions at 85 degrees between various amino acids and alpha-oxoglutaric acid are catalysed by metal ions, e.g. Al(3+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+) and Fe(3+). The reaction is optimum at pH4.0. Of the 14 amino acids studied histidine is the most active. In the presence of Al(3+) histidine transaminates with alpha-oxoglutaric acid, forming glutamic acid and Al(3+)-imidazolylpyruvic acid complex as the end products. However, in the presence of Fe(2+) or Cu(2+) the products are glutamic acid and a 1:2 metal ion-imidazolylpyruvic acid chelate. The greater effectiveness of histidine in these reactions is attributed to the presence of the tertiary imidazole nitrogen atom, which is involved in the formation of stable sparingly soluble metal ion-imidazolylpyruvic acid complexes or chelates as end products of these reactions. Of the metal ions studied only Al(3+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) are effective catalysts for the transamination reactions, and EDTA addition completely inhibits the catalytic effect of the Al(3+). Spectrophotometric evidence is presented to demonstrate the presence of metal ion complexes of Schiff bases of histidine as intermediates in the transamination reactions. These results may contribute to understanding the role of histidine in enzyme catalysis.
Project description:Improving the ability of animals to convert feed resources into food for humans is needed for more sustainable livestock systems. Genetic selection for animals eating less while maintaining their performance (i.e., low residual feed intake [RFI]) appears a smart strategy but its effectiveness relies on high-throughput animal phenotyping. Here, we explored plasma nitrogen (N) isotope ratios in an attempt to identify easily superior young bulls in terms of RFI. For this, 48 Charolais young bulls fed two contrasting diets (corn vs. grass silage diets) were selected from a larger population as extreme RFI animals (24 low-RFI vs. 24 high-RFI) and their plasma analyzed for natural 15N abundance (?15N) in the whole protein (bulk protein) and in the individual protein-bound amino acids (PbAA). For the first time, we showed that the ??15N in plasma bulk protein differed (P = 0.007) between efficient (low-RFI) and inefficient (high-RFI) cattle regardless of diet. Furthermore, most analyzed PbAA followed the same trend as the bulk protein, with lower (P < 0.05) ??15N values in more efficient (low-RFI) compared with less efficient (high-RFI) cattle, again regardless of diet. The only three exceptions were Phe, Met, and Lys (P > 0.05) for which the first metabolic reaction before being catabolized does not involve transamination, a pathway known naturally to enrich AAs in 15N. The contrasted isotopic signatures across RFI groups only in those PbAA undergoing transamination are interpreted as differences in transamination rates and N-use efficiency between low- and high-RFI phenotypes. Natural isotopic N signatures in bulk proteins and specific PbAA can be proposed as biomarkers of RFI in growing beef cattle fed different diets. However, the current study cannot delineate whether this effect only occurs post-absorption or to some extent also in the rumen. Our data support the conclusion that most efficient cattle in terms of RFI upregulate N conservation mechanisms compared with less efficient cattle and justify future research on this topic.
Project description:The potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biocatalytic whole-cell transamination was investigated using the kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine (1-PEA) to (R)-1-PEA as a model reaction. As native yeast do not possess any ?-transaminase activity for the reaction, a recombinant yeast biocatalyst was constructed by overexpressing the gene coding for vanillin aminotransferase from Capsicum chinense. The yeast-based biocatalyst could use glucose as the sole co-substrate for the supply of amine acceptor via cell metabolism. In addition, the biocatalyst was functional without addition of the co-factor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), which can be explained by a high inherent cellular capacity to sustain PLP-dependent reactions in living cells. In contrast, external PLP supplementation was required when cell viability was low, as it was the case when using pyruvate as a co-substrate. Overall, the results indicate a potential for engineered S. cerevisiae as a biocatalyst for whole-cell transamination and with glucose as the only co-substrate for the supply of amine acceptor and PLP.
Project description:Isotactic polyethylenimines with (S)-benzyl side chains were synthesized from 4-(S)-4-benzyl-2-oxazolines. When alpha-keto acids were subjected to transamination in the presence of this polymer, and a pyridoxamine coenzyme modified with hydrophobic chains, enantioselectivity toward the natural isomer (l > d) was observed, followed by racemization of the amino acid products. However, the racemization did not occur when the coenzyme was covalently attached to the polymer. [reaction: see text]
Project description:To obtain information on the reaction specificity of cystalysin from the spirochaete bacterium Treponema denticola, the interaction with L- and D-alanine has been investigated. Binding of both alanine enantiomers leads to the appearance of an external aldimine absorbing at 429 nm and of a band absorbing at 498 nm, indicative of a quinonoid species. Racemization and transamination reactions were observed to occur with both alanine isomers as substrates. The steady-state kinetic parameters for racemization, k (cat) and K (m), for L-alanine are 1.05+/-0.03 s(-1) and 10+/-1 mM respectively, whereas those for D-alanine are 1.4+/-0.1 s(-1) and 10+/-1 mM. During the reaction of cystalysin with L- or D-alanine, a time-dependent loss of beta-elimination activity occurs concomitantly with the conversion of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) coenzyme into pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The catalytic efficiency of the half-transamination of L-alanine is found to be 5.3x10(-5) mM(-1) x s(-1), 5-fold higher when compared with that of D-alanine. The partition ratio between racemization and half-transamination reactions is 2.3x10(3) for L-alanine and 1.4x10(4) for D-alanine. The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters for both the reactions shows that the enzyme possesses a single ionizing residue with p K values of 6.5-6.6, which must be unprotonated for catalysis. Addition of pyruvate converts the PMP form of the enzyme back into the PLP form and causes the concomitant recovery of beta-elimination activity. In contrast with other PLP enzymes studied so far, but similar to alanine racemases, the apoform of the enzyme abstracted tritium from C4' of both (4' S)- and (4' R)-[4'-(3)H]PMP in the presence of pyruvate. Together with molecular modelling of the putative binding sites of L- and D-alanine at the active site of the enzyme, the implications of these studies for the mechanisms of the side reactions catalysed by cystalysin are discussed.
Project description:Whole-cell biocatalysis based on metabolically active baker's yeast with engineered transamination activity can be used to generate molecules carrying a chiral amine moiety. A prerequisite is though to express efficient ?-transaminases and to reach sufficient intracellular precursor levels.Herein, the efficiency of three different ?-transaminases originating from Capsicum chinense, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Ochrobactrum anthropi was compared for whole-cell catalyzed kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine to (R)-1-phenylethylamine. The gene from the most promising candidate, C. violaceum ?-transaminase (CV-TA), was expressed in a strain lacking pyruvate decarboxylase activity, which thereby accumulate the co-substrate pyruvate during glucose assimilation. However, the conversion increased only slightly under the applied reaction conditions. In parallel, the effect of increasing the intracellular pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) level by omission of thiamine during cultivation was investigated. It was found that without thiamine, PLP supplementation was redundant to keep high in vivo transamination activity. Furthermore, higher reaction rates were achieved using a strain containing several copies of CV-TA gene, highlighting the necessity to also increase the intracellular transaminase level. At last, this strain was also investigated for asymmetric whole-cell bioconversion of acetophenone to (S)-1-phenylethylamine using L-alanine as amine donor. Although functionality could be demonstrated, the activity was extremely low indicating that the native co-product removal system was unable to drive the reaction towards the amine under the applied reaction conditions.Altogether, our results demonstrate that (R)-1-phenylethylamine with >99% ee can be obtained via kinetic resolution at concentrations above 25 mM racemic substrate with glucose as sole co-substrate when combining appropriate genetic and process engineering approaches. Furthermore, the engineered yeast strain with highest transaminase activity was also shown to be operational as whole-cell catalyst for the production of (S)-1-phenylethylamine via asymmetric transamination of acetophenone, albeit with very low conversion.