Out-of-hospital use of proton pump inhibitors and hypomagnesemia at hospital admission: a nested case-control study.
ABSTRACT: Case series suggest that long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with hypomagnesemia, but the current literature lacks systematically collected data. Our aim was to examine whether hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission is associated with out-of-hospital use of PPIs.Nested case-control study matched for age and sex.Data were collected retrospectively from a tertiary acute-care facility. Eligible cases consisted of 402 adults with hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium <1.4 mEq/L) at the time of hospital admission to medical services, age- and sex-matched with 402 control individuals with normal serum magnesium levels (1.4-2.0 mEq/L).Out-of-hospital PPI use was identified in the hospital record. An omeprazole equivalent dose was calculated when possible. Covariates included the Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index, diabetes, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and gastroesophageal reflux.Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association of PPI use with hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission.PPI use was not associated with hypomagnesemia (adjusted OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61-1.11). Neither PPI type nor omeprazole equivalent daily dose was associated with hypomagnesemia. Sensitivity analyses of PPI use restricted to patients with esophageal disorders (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.69-1.45), severe hypomagnesemia (magnesium, ?1.0 mEq/L; adjusted OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.13-4.61), or estimated glomerular filtration rate ?60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.53-1.34) were unrevealing.Exposure misclassification; hospitalized patients on medical services may not be representative of a broader ambulatory-based population.In a hospital-based adult population, out-of-hospital PPI use is not associated with hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission to medical services. In light of these inconclusive results, prospective cohort studies are needed to address this rare potential medication-related adverse effect.
Project description:Magnesium concentration is a proven predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Recent reports have indicated that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use affects serum magnesium levels, however few studies have investigated the relationship between PPI use and magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPI use and serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. We designed this cross sectional study and included 1189 hemodialysis patients in stable condition. Associations between PPI and magnesium-related factors, as well as other possible confounders, were evaluated using a multiple regression model. We defined hypomagnesemia as a value < 2.0 mg/dL, and created comparable logistic regression models to assess the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia. PPI use is associated with a significantly lower mean serum magnesium level than histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonists or no acid-suppressive medications (mean [SD] PPI: 2.52 [0.45] mg/dL; H2 receptor antagonist: 2.68 [0.41] mg/dL; no acid suppressive medications: 2.68 [0.46] mg/dL; P = 0.001). Hypomagnesemia remained significantly associated with PPI (adjusted OR, OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.14-3.69; P = 0.017). PPI use is associated with an increased risk of hypomagnesemia in hemodialysis patients. Future prospective studies are needed to explore magnesium replacement in PPI users on hemodialysis.
Project description:Although many case reports have described patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesemia, the impact of PPI use on hypomagnesemia has not been fully clarified through comparative studies. We aimed to evaluate the association between the use of PPI and the risk of developing hypomagnesemia by conducting a systematic review with meta-analysis.We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the primary keywords "proton pump," "dexlansoprazole," "esomeprazole," "ilaprazole," "lansoprazole," "omeprazole," "pantoprazole," "rabeprazole," "hypomagnesemia," "hypomagnesaemia," and "magnesium." Studies were included if they evaluated the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia and reported relative risks or odds ratios or provided data for their estimation. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics.Nine studies including 115,455 patients were analyzed. The median Newcastle-Ottawa quality score for the included studies was seven (range, 6-9). Among patients taking PPIs, the median proportion of patients with hypomagnesemia was 27.1% (range, 11.3-55.2%) across all included studies. Among patients not taking PPIs, the median proportion of patients with hypomagnesemia was 18.4% (range, 4.3-52.7%). On meta-analysis, pooled odds ratio for PPI use was found to be 1.775 (95% confidence interval 1.077-2.924). Significant heterogeneity was identified using Cochran's Q test (df?=?7, P<0.001, I2?=?98.0%).PPI use may increase the risk of hypomagnesemia. However, significant heterogeneity among the included studies prevented us from reaching a definitive conclusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are an under-appreciated risk factor for hypomagnesemia. Whether hospitalization with hypomagnesemia is associated with use of PPIs is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of multiple health care databases in Ontario, Canada, from April 2002 to March 2012. Patients who were enrolled as cases were Ontarians aged 66 years or older hospitalized with hypomagnesemia. For each individual enrolled as a case, we identified up to four individuals as controls matched on age, sex, kidney disease, and use of various diuretic classes. Exposure to PPIs was categorized according to the most proximate prescription prior to the index date as current (within 90 days), recent (within 91 to 180 days), or remote (within 181 to 365 days). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for the association of outpatient PPI use and hospitalization with hypomagnesemia. To test the specificity of our findings we examined use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists, drugs with no causal link to hypomagnesemia. We studied 366 patients hospitalized with hypomagnesemia and 1,464 matched controls. Current PPI use was associated with a 43% increased risk of hypomagnesemia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI 1.06-1.93). In a stratified analysis, the risk was particularly increased among patients receiving diuretics, (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI 1.11-2.70) and not significant among patients not receiving diuretics (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI 0.81-1.91). We estimate that one excess hospitalization with hypomagnesemia will occur among 76,591 outpatients treated with a PPI for 90 days. Hospitalization with hypomagnesemia was not associated with the use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists (adjusted odds ratio 1.06; 95% CI 0.54-2.06). Limitations of this study include a lack of access to serum magnesium levels, uncertainty regarding diagnostic coding of hypomagnesemia, and generalizability of our findings to younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: PPIs are associated with a small increased risk of hospitalization with hypomagnesemia among patients also receiving diuretics. Physicians should be aware of this association, particularly for patients with hypomagnesemia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous meta-analyses have suggested that there might be an association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the development of hypomagnesemia, although the conclusions were no definitive. METHODS:To provide an update on this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of all observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the development of hypomagnesemia. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1970 to June 2018) to identify observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the incidence and prevalence of hypomagnesemia. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:In the absence of randomized controlled trials, we focused primarily on observational studies, including cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective, and prospective cohort studies. There was no limitation on sample size or study duration. Random-effect models meta-analyses were used to compute pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for binary variables. RESULTS:Sixteen observational studies were identified, including 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, and 1 cohort study, with a total of 131,507 patients. The pooled percentage of PPI users was 43.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.0%, 64.0%). Among PPI users, 19.4% (95% CI 13.8%, 26.5%) had hypomagnesemia compared to 13.5% (95% CI 7.9%, 22.2%) among nonusers. By meta-analysis, PPI use was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, with a pooled unadjusted OR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.26, 2.67; P?=?.002) and a pooled adjusted OR of 1.71 (95% CI 1.33, 2.19; P?<?.001). In subgroup analyses, high-dose PPI use was associated with higher odds for hypomagnesemia relative to low-dose PPI use (pooled adjusted OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.26, 3.59; P?=?.005). CONCLUSION:Our findings are in support of the results of the previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, we found a dose-response between the PPI use and development of hypomagnesemia.
Project description:Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used after kidney transplantation and there is rarely an incentive to discontinue treatment. In the general population, PPI use has been associated with hypomagnesaemia. We aimed to investigate whether PPI use is associated with plasma magnesium, 24-h urinary magnesium excretion and hypomagnesaemia, in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Plasma magnesium and 24-h urinary magnesium excretion were measured in 686 stable outpatient KTR with a functioning allograft for ?1 year from the TransplantLines Food and Nutrition Biobank and Cohort-Study (NCT02811835). PPIs were used by 389 KTR (56.6%). In multivariable linear regression analyses, PPI use was associated with lower plasma magnesium (?: -0.02, P = 0.02) and lower 24-h urinary magnesium excretion (?: -0.82, P < 0.001). Moreover, PPI users had a higher risk of hypomagnesaemia (plasma magnesium <0.70 mmol/L), compared with non-users (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.15, P < 0.001). This risk tended to be highest among KTR taking high PPI dosages (>20 mg omeprazole Eq/day) and was independent of adjustment for potential confounders (OR: 2.46; 95% CI 1.32-4.57, P < 0.005). No interaction was observed between PPI use and the use of loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, tacrolimus, or diabetes (Pinteraction > 0.05). These results demonstrate that PPI use is independently associated with lower magnesium status and hypomagnesaemia in KTR. The concomitant decrease in urinary magnesium excretion indicates that this likely is the consequence of reduced intestinal magnesium absorption. Based on these results, it might be of benefit to monitor magnesium status periodically in KTR on chronic PPI therapy.
Project description:Background: Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening ventricular tachycardia occurring in long QT-syndrome patients. It usually develops when multiple QT-prolonging factors are concomitantly present, more frequently drugs and electrolyte imbalances. Since proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)-associated hypomagnesemia is an increasingly recognized adverse event, PPIs were recently included in the list of drugs with conditional risk of TdP, despite only few cases of TdP in PPI users have been reported so far. Objectives: Aim of the present study is to evaluate whether PPI-induced hypomagnesemia actually has a significant clinical impact on the risk of TdP in the general population. Methods: Forty-eight unselected patients who experienced TdP were consecutively enrolled (2008-2017). Shortly after the first TdP episode, in those patients who did not receive magnesium sulfate and/or potassium or calcium replacement therapy, serum electrolytes were measured and their relationship with PPI usage analyzed. Results: Many patients (28/48, 58%) were under current PPI treatment when TdP occurred. Among TdP patients in whom serum electrolyte determinations were obtained before replacement therapy (27/48), those taking PPIs had significantly lower serum magnesium levels than those who did not. Hypomagnesemia occurred in ~40% of patients receiving PPIs (6/14), in all cases after an extended treatment (>2 weeks). In patients taking PPIs the mean QT-prolonging risk factor number was significantly higher than in those who did not, a difference which was mainly driven by lower magnesium levels. Conclusions: In unselected TdP patients, PPI-induced hypomagnesemia was common and significantly contributed to their cumulative arrhythmic risk. By providing clinical support to current recommendations, our data confirm that more awareness is needed when a PPI is prescribed, specifically as regards the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to evaluate short-term and long-term mortalities in a cohort of unselected hospitalized patients with serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) variations within and outside of reference range. METHODS:All adult patients admitted to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA from January 2011 to December 2013 (n?=?147358) were retrospectively screened. Unique patients admitted during the study period were examined. The main exposure was serum [Na+] variation. Outcome measures were hospital and 1-year all-cause mortalities. RESULTS:A total of 60944 patients, mean age 63?±?17?years, were studied. On admission, 17% (n?=?10066) and 1.4% (n?=?852) had hypo- and hypernatremia, respectively. During the hospital stay, 11044 and 4128 developed hypo- and hypernatremia, respectively, accounting for 52.3 and 82.9% of the total hypo- and hypernatremic patients. Serum [Na+] variations of ?6 mEq/L occurred in 40.6% (n?=?24?740) of the 60?944 patients and were significantly associated with hospital and 1-year mortalities after adjusting potential confounders (including demographics, comorbidities, estimated glomerular filtration rate, admission serum [Na+], number of [Na+] measurements and length of hospital stay). Adjusted odds ratios for hospital and 1-year mortalities increased with increasing [Na+] variations in a dose-dependent manner, from 1.47 to 5.48 (all 95% confidence intervals >1.0). Moreover, in fully adjusted models, [Na+] variations (?6 mEq/L) within the reference range (135-145 mEq/L) or borderline hypo- or hypernatremia (133-137 and 143-147 mEq/L, respectively) compared with 138-142 mEq/L were associated with increased hospital and 1-year mortalities. CONCLUSION:In hospitalized adults, [Na+] fluctuation (?6 mEq/L) irrespective of admission [Na+] and borderline hypo- or hypernatremia are independent predictors of progressively increasing short- and long-term mortality burdens.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder among hospitalized patients. Controversies still exist over the relationship between hyponatremia and outcomes of hospitalized patients.<h4>Methods</h4>To analyze the association of low serum sodium levels at hospital admission with in-hospital mortality and patient disposition and to compare the distribution of the risk of death associated with hyponatremia across the lifespan of hospitalized patients, we conducted an observational study of 2.3 million patients using data extracted from the Cerner Health Facts database between 2000 and 2014. Logistic regression models were used in the analyses.<h4>Results</h4>At hospital admission 14.4% of hospitalized patients had serum sodium levels [Na] <135 mEq/L. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis, we found that the risk of in-hospital mortality significantly increases for [Na] levels < 135 or ?143 to ?145 mEq/L compared to the reference interval of 140 to <143 mEq/L (p<0.001). We observed similar trends for the relationship between [Na] levels and discharge to hospice or to a nursing facility. We demonstrated that younger age groups (18 to <45, 45 to <65) had a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared to older age groups (65 to <75, ?75) for [Na] levels <130 mEq/L or 143 to ?145 mEq/L (p<0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Hyponatremia is common among hospitalized patients and is significantly associated with in-hospital mortality, discharge to hospice or to a nursing facility. The risk of death and other outcomes was more evident for [Na] <135 mEq/L. The mortality associated with low [Na] was significantly higher in younger versus older patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Both low serum calcium and magnesium levels have been associated with the extent of bleeding in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, suggesting hypocalcemia- and hypomagnesemia-induced coagulopathy as a possible underlying mechanism. We hypothesized that serum albumin-corrected total calcium and magnesium levels are associated with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. METHODS:The medical records of 4701 patients, including 1201 prospective patients, diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016 were reviewed and analyzed. One thousand two hundred seventy-five patients had available serum calcium, magnesium, and albumin values within 1 day of diagnosis. Individuals were divided into cases with ruptured aneurysms and controls with unruptured aneurysms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between serum albumin-corrected total calcium and magnesium levels and ruptured aneurysms. RESULTS:In multivariable analysis, both albumin-corrected calcium (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.40) and magnesium (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.55) were significantly and inversely associated with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. CONCLUSIONS:In this large case-control study, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia at diagnosis were significantly associated with ruptured aneurysms. Impaired hemostasis caused by hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia may explain this association.
Project description:Fluid and magnesium abnormalities are common in patients with high-output stomas. Subcutaneous magnesium administration may be more feasible for long-term management in ambulatory patients, but magnesium sulfate is approved only for intravenous or intramuscular injection. We describe the management of chronic hypomagnesemia and dehydration secondary to a high-output ileostomy following radiation and chemotherapy for anal squamous cell carcinoma with intermittent home-based subcutaneous magnesium infusions in a 61-year-old female with a history of Crohn's disease and multiple bowel resections. Despite aggressive management with intravenous magnesium sulfate and oral magnesium glucoheptonate over 8 months, 49% of her magnesium concentrations were <0.60 mmol/L (mean 0.61 ± 0.09) necessitating 4 emergency, 1 hospital, and 4 infusion clinic visits. After initiation of subcutaneous magnesium sulfate, all magnesium concentrations were >0.60 mmol/L (mean 0.79 ± 0.08 mmol/L over 9 months). The patient tolerated the infusions well, only developing one minor episode of infusion-related cellulitis. A systematic review of the literature identified 14 reports where subcutaneous magnesium sulfate<sub></sub>was effective and treatment for adults or children with hypomagnesemia was safe. Home-based intermittent administration of subcutaneous magnesium may be a helpful and safe intervention to temporarily prevent and treat select patients with recurrent symptomatic hypomagnesemia.