Mitochondrial biogenesis is impaired in osteoarthritis chondrocytes but reversible via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1?.
ABSTRACT: The etiology of chondrocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoarthritis (OA) is not completely understood. OA chondrocytes are deficient in the metabolic biosensors active AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1), which modulate the mitochondrial biogenesis "master regulator" peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?). Moreover, PGC-1? critically mediates AMPK anticatabolic activity in chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis is deficient in human OA chondrocytes and that this deficiency functionally increases chondrocyte procatabolic responses, which are reversed by activation of the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-1? pathway.We assessed the expression and activity (phosphorylation) of AMPK?, SIRT-1, and PGC-1? in human knee chondrocytes and human and mouse knee cartilage, and we defined and compared the content and function of mitochondria, including oxidative phosphorylation and expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors (mitochondrial transcriptional factor A [TFAM] and nuclear respiratory factors [NRFs]).Human knee OA chondrocytes had a decreased mitochondrial biogenesis capacity, which was linked to reduced AMPK? activity and decreased expression of SIRT-1, PGC-1?, TFAM, NRF-1, and NRF-2. Human knee OA and aging mouse knee cartilage had decreased expression of TFAM and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein, a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, in situ. Chondrocyte TFAM knockdown inhibited mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced procatabolic responses to interleukin-1?. Finally, activation of AMPK by A-769662 increased PGC-1? expression via SIRT-1 and reversed impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and intracellular ATP in human knee OA chondrocytes.Mitochondrial biogenesis is deficient in human OA chondrocytes, and this deficiency promotes chondrocyte procatabolic responses. TFAM-mediated activation of the AMPK/SIRT-1/PGC-1? pathway reverses these effects, suggesting translational potential of pharmacologic AMPK activators to limit OA progression.
Project description:Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) stimulate chondrocyte matrix catabolic responses, thereby compromising cartilage homeostasis in osteoarthritis (OA). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism, also exerts antiinflammatory effects in multiple tissues. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that AMPK activity limits chondrocyte matrix catabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF?.Expression of AMPK subunits was examined, and AMPK? activity was ascertained by the phosphorylation status of AMPK? Thr(172) in human knee articular chondrocytes and cartilage by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Procatabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF?, such as release of glycosaminoglycan, nitric oxide, and matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 13 were determined by dimethylmethylene blue assay, Griess reaction, and Western blotting, respectively, in cartilage explants and chondrocytes with and without knockdown of AMPK? by small interfering RNA.Normal human knee articular chondrocytes expressed AMPK?1, ?2, ?1, ?2, and ?1 subunits. AMPK activity was constitutively present in normal articular chondrocytes and cartilage, but decreased in OA articular chondrocytes and cartilage and in normal chondrocytes treated with IL-1? and TNF?. Knockdown of AMPK? resulted in enhanced catabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF? in chondrocytes. Moreover, AMPK activators suppressed cartilage/chondrocyte procatabolic responses to IL-1? and TNF? and the capacity of TNF? and CXCL8 (IL-8) to induce type X collagen expression.Our findings indicate that AMPK activity is reduced in OA cartilage and in chondrocytes following treatment with IL-1? or TNF?. AMPK activators attenuate dephosphorylation of AMPK? and procatabolic responses in chondrocytes induced by these cytokines. These observations suggest that maintenance of AMPK activity supports cartilage homeostasis by protecting cartilage matrix from inflammation-induced degradation.
Project description:Mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for cell viability. Growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO), calorie restriction, and surgical visceral fat removal constitute experimental interventions to delay aging and increase life span. We examined the expression of known regulators of mitochondriogenesis: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? co-activator 1? (PGC-1?), adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) and sirtuin-3 (SIRT-3), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and mitofusin-2 (MFN-2) in the skeletal muscles and hearts of control and calorie-restricted female GHRKO mice and in the kidneys of male GHRKOs after visceral fat removal or sham surgery. Expression of PGC-1? in skeletal muscles, AMPK, SIRT-1, SIRT-3, eNOS, and MFN-2 in the heart and PGC-1?, AMPK, SIRT-3, eNOS, and MFN-2 in kidneys was increased in GHRKO mice but was not affected by calorie restriction or visceral fat removal. GHRKO mice have increased expression of key regulators of mitochondriogenesis, which is not improved further by calorie restriction or visceral fat removal.
Project description:Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is an endogenous inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) that regulates cellular stress responses. REDD1 expression is decreased in aged and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, and it regulates mTOR signaling and autophagy in articular chondrocytes in vitro. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of REDD1 deletion in vivo using a mouse model of experimental OA.OA severity was histologically assessed in 4-month-old wild-type and REDD1-/- mice subjected to surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Chondrocyte autophagy, apoptosis, mitochondrial content, and expression of mitochondrial biogenesis markers were determined in cartilage and cultured chondrocytes from wild-type and REDD1-/- mice.REDD1 deficiency increased the severity of changes in cartilage, menisci, subchondral bone, and synovium in the DMM model of OA. Chondrocyte death was increased in the cartilage of REDD1-/- mice and in cultured REDD1-/- mouse chondrocytes under oxidative stress conditions. Expression of key autophagy markers (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 and autophagy protein 5) was markedly reduced in cartilage from REDD1-/- mice and in cultured human and mouse chondrocytes with REDD1 depletion. Mitochondrial content, ATP levels, and expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM) were also decreased in REDD1-deficient chondrocytes. REDD1 was required for AMP-activated protein kinase-induced PGC-1? in chondrocytes.Our findings suggest that REDD1 is a key mediator of cartilage homeostasis through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis and that REDD1 deficiency exacerbates the severity of injury-induced OA.
Project description:With the aging process, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and dysfunction related to metabolic syndrome is observed in older people. Yams are commonly use in functional foods and medications with various effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and allantoin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?), sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM), and the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were determined in C2C12 myotubes by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blot. The glucose levels and total ATP contents were measured by glucose consumption, glucose uptake and ATP assays, respectively. Treatment with yam extract (1 mg/mL) and allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) significantly increased MyHC expression compared with non-treated myotubes. Yam extract and allantoin significantly increased the expression of PGC-1?, Sirt-1, NRF-1 and TFAM, as well as the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, yam extract and allantoin significantly increased glucose uptake levels and ATP contents. Finally, HPLC analysis revealed that the yam water extract contained 1.53% of allantoin. Yam extract and allantoin stimulated myoblast differentiation into myotubes and increased energy production through the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators. These findings indicate that yam extract and allantoin can help to prevent skeletal muscle dysfunction through the stimulation of the energy metabolism.
Project description:Abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been linked to multiple diseases including diabetes. Recently, we demonstrated the role of renal (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) in the dysregulation of mitochondria. We hypothesized that PRR contributes to the reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in diabetic kidney via PGC-1?/AMPK/SIRT-1 signaling pathway. In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted in C57BL/6 mouse and mouse renal mesangial cells (mRMCs). Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were injected with scramble or PRR shRNA and followed for a period of eight weeks. PRR mRNA and protein expression increased by 44% and 39% respectively (P<0.05) in kidneys of diabetic mice, and in mRMCs exposed to high glucose by 43 and 61% respectively compared to their respective controls. These results were accompanied by reduced mRNA and protein expressions of PGC-1? (67% and 75%), nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1, 48% and 53%), mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (mtTFA, 56% and 40%), mitochondrial DNA copy number by 75% (all, P<0.05), and ATP production by 54%, respectively in diabetic kidneys and in mRMCs exposed to high glucose. Compared to non-diabetic control mice, PRR knockdown in diabetic mice and in mRMCs, not only attenuated the PRR mRNA and protein expression but also normalized mRNA and protein expressions of PGC-1?, NRF-1, mtTFA, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and ATP production. Treatment with AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, or SIRT-1 inhibitor, EX-527, alone, or combined with PRR siRNA caused marked reduction of mRNA expression of PGC-1?, NRF-1 and mtTFA, and ATP production in mRMCs exposed to high glucose. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the contribution of the PRR to the reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in diabetic kidney disease via decreasing AMPK/SIRT-1/ PGC-1? signaling pathway.
Project description:This study evaluated the effects of benfotiamine on the growth performance and mitochondrial biogenesis and function in Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-carbohydrate (HC) diets. The fish (45.25 ± 0.34 g) were randomly fed six diets: the control diet (30% carbohydrate, C), the HC diet (43% carbohydrate), and the HC diet supplemented with different benfotiamine levels (0.7125 (HCB1), 1.425 (HCB2), 2.85 (HCB3), and 5.7 (HCB4) mg/kg) for 12 weeks. High-carbohydrate levels remarkably decreased the weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), relative feed intake (RFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), p-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)?/t-AMPK? ratio, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) protein expression, complexes I, III, and IV activities, and hepatic transcriptions of cytochrome b (CYT-b) and cytochrome c oxidase-2 (COX-2), whereas the opposite was true for plasma glucose, glycated serum protein, advanced glycation end product and insulin levels, tissue glycogen and lipid contents, hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and AMP contents and ATP/AMP ratio, complexes V activities, and the expressions of AMPK?-2, PGC-1?, NRF-1, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), mitofusin-1 (Mfn-1), optic atrophy-1 (Opa-1), dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp-1), fission-1 (Fis-1), mitochondrial fission factor (Mff), and ATP synthase-6 (ATP-6). As with benfotiamine supplementation, the HCB2 diet remarkably increased WGR, SGR, tissue glycogen and lipid contents, AMP content, p-AMPK?/t-AMPK? ratio, PGC-1? and NRF-1 levels, complexes I, III, IV, and V activities, and hepatic transcriptions of AMPK?-2, PGC-1?, NRF-1, TFAM, Mfn-1, Opa-1, CYT-b, COX-2, and ATP-6, while the opposite was true for the remaining indicators. Overall, 1.425 mg/kg benfotiamine improved the growth performance and mitochondrial biogenesis and function in fish fed HC diets by the activation of the AMPK/PGC-1?/NRF-1 axis and the upregulation of the activities and transcriptions of mitochondrial complexes as well as the enhancement of mitochondrial fusion coupled with the depression of mitochondrial fission.
Project description:Sestrin2 (Sesn2) exerts neuroprotective properties in some neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of Sesn2 in stroke is unclear. The AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (AMPK/PGC-1?) pathway plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, which helps prevent cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, we aimed to determine whether Sesn2 alleviated I/R damage by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK/PGC-1? signaling pathway. To be able to test this, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1?h with Sesn2 silencing. At 24?h after reperfusion, we found that neurological deficits were exacerbated, infarct volume was enlarged, and oxidative stress and neuronal damage were greater in the Sesn2 siRNA group than in the MCAO group. To explore protective mechanisms, an AMPK activator was used. Expression levels of Sesn2, p-AMPK, PGC-1?, NRF-1, TFAM, SOD2, and UCP2 were significantly increased following cerebral I/R. However, upregulation of these proteins was prevented by Sesn2 small interfering RNA (siRNA). In contrast, activation of AMPK with 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside weakened the effects of Sesn2 siRNA. These results suggest that Sesn2 silencing may suppress mitochondrial biogenesis, reduce mitochondrial biological activity, and finally aggravate cerebral I/R injury through inhibiting the AMPK/PGC-1? pathway.
Project description:Enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress have emerged as crucial therapeutic strategies to ameliorate diabetic myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Melatonin has been reported to be a safe and potent cardioprotective agent. However, its role on mitochondrial biogenesis or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in type 1 diabetic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesize that melatonin ameliorates MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic rats by preserving mitochondrial function via AMPK-PGC-1?-SIRT3 signaling pathway. Both our in vivo and in vitro data showed that melatonin reduced MI/R injury by improving cardiac function, enhancing mitochondrial SOD activity, ATP production and oxidative phosphorylation complex (II, III and IV), reducing myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial MDA, H2O2 generation. Importantly, melatonin also activated AMPK-PGC-1?-SIRT3 signaling and increased SOD2, NRF1 and TFAM expressions. However, these effects were abolished by Compound C (a specific AMPK signaling blocker) administration. Additionally, our cellular experiment showed that SIRT3 siRNA inhibited the cytoprotective effect of melatonin without affecting p-AMPK/AMPK ratio and PGC-1? expression. Taken together, we concluded that melatonin preserves mitochondrial function by reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress and enhancing its biogenesis, thus ameliorating MI/R injury in type 1 diabetic state. AMPK-PGC1?-SIRT3 axis plays an essential role in this process.
Project description:Apples are well known to have various benefits for the human body. Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols found in apples that have demonstrated effects on the circulatory system and skeletal organs. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a locomotive syndrome that is histologically characterized by cartilage degeneration associated with the impairment of proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes. However, no useful therapy for cartilage degeneration has been developed to date. In the present study, we detected beneficial effects of apple polyphenols or their procyanidins on cartilage homeostasis. An in vitro assay revealed that apple polyphenols increased the activities of mitochondrial dehydrogenases associated with an increased copy number of mitochondrial DNA as well as the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC-1?), suggesting the promotion of PGC-1?-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis. Apple procyanidins also enhanced proteoglycan biosynthesis with aggrecan upregulation in primary chondrocytes. Of note, oral treatment with apple procyanidins prevented articular cartilage degradation in OA model mice induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that apple procyanidins are promising food components that inhibit OA progression by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and proteoglycan homeostasis in chondrocytes.
Project description:Adverse maternal environments, such as diabetes and obesity, impair placental mitochondrial function, which affects fetal development and offspring long-term health. The underlying mechanisms and effective interventions to abrogate such effect remain unclear. Our previous studies demonstrated impaired mitochondrial biogenesis in male human placenta of diabetic mothers. In the present studies, epigenetic marks possibly related to mitochondrial biogenesis in placentae of women with diabetes (n?=?23) and controls (n?=?23) were analyzed. Effects of metformin were examined in human placental explants from a subgroup of diabetic women and in a mouse model of maternal high fat diet feeding. We found that maternal diabetes was associated with epigenetic regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in human placenta in a fetal sex-dependent manner, including decreased histone acetylation (H3K27 acetylation) and increased promoter methylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?). In male placenta, the levels of H3K27 acetylation and PGC-1? promoter methylation correlated significantly with the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Metformin treatment on male diabetic placental explant activated AMPK and stimulated PGC-1? expression, concomitant with increased H3K27 acetylation and decreased PGC-1? promoter methylation. In vivo, we show that maternal metformin treatment along with maternal high fat diet significantly increased mouse placental abundance of PGC-1? expression and downstream mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and inhibited maternal high fat diet-impaired placental efficiency and glucose tolerance in offspring. Together, these findings suggest the capability of metformin to stimulate placental mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibit the aberrant epigenetic alterations occurring in maternal diabetes during pregnancy, conferring protective effects on offspring.