Activation of TRESK channels by the inflammatory mediator lysophosphatidic acid balances nociceptive signalling.
ABSTRACT: In dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons TRESK channels constitute a major current component of the standing outward current IKSO. A prominent physiological role of TRESK has been attributed to pain sensation. During inflammation mediators of pain e.g. lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are released and modulate nociception. We demonstrate co-expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in DRG neurons. Heterologous expression of TRESK and LPA receptors in Xenopus oocytes revealed augmentation of basal K(+) currents upon LPA application. In DRG neurons nociception can result from TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or LPA. Upon co-expression in Xenopus oocytes LPA simultaneously increased both depolarising TRPV1 and hyperpolarising TRESK currents. Patch-clamp recordings in cultured DRG neurons from TRESK[wt] mice displayed increased IKSO after application of LPA whereas under these conditions IKSO in neurons from TRESK[ko] mice remained unaltered. Under current-clamp conditions LPA application differentially modulated excitability in these genotypes upon depolarising pulses. Spike frequency was attenuated in TRESK[wt] neurons and, in contrast, augmented in TRESK[ko] neurons. Accordingly, excitation of nociceptive neurons by LPA is balanced by co-activation of TRESK channels. Hence excitation of sensory neurons is strongly controlled by the activity of TRESK channels, which therefore are good candidates for the treatment of pain disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Despite the availability of pharmacologic treatments, chronic inflammatory pain remains inadequately treated. Understanding the nociceptive signaling pathways of such pain is therefore important in developing long-acting treatments with limited side effects. High local proton concentrations (tissue acidosis) causing direct excitation or modulation of nociceptive sensory neurons by proton-sensing receptors are responsible for pain in some inflammatory pain conditions. We previously found that all four proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed in pain-relevant loci (dorsal root ganglia, DRG), which suggests their possible involvement in nociception, but their functions in pain remain unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we first demonstrated differential change in expression of proton-sensing GPCRs in peripheral inflammation induced by the inflammatory agents capsaicin, carrageenan, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In particular, the expression of TDAG8, one proton-sensing GPCR, was increased 24 hours after CFA injection because of increased number of DRG neurons expressing TDAG8. The number of DRG neurons expressing both TDAG8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was increased as well. Further studies revealed that TDAG8 activation sensitized the TRPV1 response to capsaicin, suggesting that TDAG8 could be involved in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain through regulation of TRPV1 function. CONCLUSION: Each subtype of the OGR1 family was expressed differently, which may reflect differences between models in duration and magnitude of hyperalgesia. Given that TDAG8 and TRPV1 expression increased after CFA-induced inflammation and that TDAG8 activation can lead to TRPV1 sensitization, it suggests that high concentrations of protons after inflammation may not only directly activate proton-sensing ion channels (such as TRPV1) to cause pain but also act on proton-sensing GPCRs to regulate the development of hyperalgesia.
Project description:Oxytocin is a hormone with various actions. Oxytocin-containing parvocellular neurons project to the brainstem and spinal cord. Oxytocin release from these neurons suppresses nociception of inflammatory pain, the molecular mechanism of which remains unclear. Here, we report that the noxious stimulus receptor TRPV1 is an ionotropic oxytocin receptor. Oxytocin elicits TRPV1 activity in native and heterologous expression systems, regardless of the presence of the classical oxytocin receptor. In TRPV1 knockout mice, DRG neurons exhibit reduced oxytocin sensitivity relative to controls, and oxytocin injections significantly attenuate capsaicin-induced nociception in in vivo experiments. Furthermore, oxytocin potentiates TRPV1 in planar lipid bilayers, supporting a direct agonistic action. Molecular modeling and simulation experiments provide insight into oxytocin-TRPV1 interactions, which resemble DkTx. Together, our findings suggest the existence of endogenous regulatory pathways that modulate nociception via direct action of oxytocin on TRPV1, implying its analgesic effect via channel desensitization.
Project description:Cloxyquin (5-cloroquinolin-8-ol) has been described as an activator of TRESK (K2P 18.1, TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel) background potassium channel. We have examined the specificity of the drug by testing several K2P channels. We have investigated the mechanism of cloxyquin-mediated TRESK activation, focusing on the differences between the physiologically relevant regulatory states of the channel.Potassium currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes and by whole-cell patch clamp in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.Cloxyquin (100 µM) activated mouse and human TRESK 4.4 ± 0.3 (n = 28) and 3.9 ± 0.3-fold (n = 8), respectively. The drug selectively targeted TRESK in the K2P channel family and exerted state-dependent effects. TRESK was potently activated by cloxyquin in the resting state. However, after robust activation of the current by the calcium signal, evoked by stimulation of Gq-coupled receptors, the compound did not influence mouse TRESK and only slightly affected the human channel. The constitutively active mutant channels, mimicking the dephosphorylated state (S276A) or containing altered channel pore (F156A and F364A), were not further stimulated by cloxyquin. In a subpopulation of isolated DRG neurons, cloxyquin substantially activated the background potassium current.Cloxyquin activates TRESK by a Ca2+ /calcineurin-independent mechanism. The drug is specific for TRESK within the K2P channel family and useful for studying TRESK currents in native cells. The state-dependent pharmacological profile of this channel should be considered in the development of therapeutics for migraine and other nociceptive disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Peptides from venomous animals have long been important for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Ph?1?, a peptide from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer, produces analgesia by blocking the TRPA1 channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human fetal lung fibroblasts (IMR90) or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), human TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or human TRPV4 channels (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology. Nociceptive responses induced by TRPA1, TRPV1 or TRPV4 agonists or by bortezomib were investigated in mice. KEY RESULTS:Ph?1? selectively inhibited calcium responses and currents evoked by the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), on hTRPA1-HEK293, IMR90 fibroblasts and DRG neurons. Ph?1? did not affect calcium responses evoked by selective TRPV1 (capsaicin) or TRPV4 (GSK 1016790A) agonists on the various cell types. Intrathecal (i.t.) and intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of low doses of Ph?1? (up to 300 pmol per paw) attenuated acute nociception and mechanical and cold hyperalgesia evoked by AITC (i.t. or i.pl.), without affecting responses produced by capsaicin or hypotonic solution. Notably, Ph?1? abated the TRPA1-dependent neuropathic pain-like responses induced by bortezomib. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of TRPA1 by Ph?1? was reproduced by a recombinant form of the peptide, CTK 01512-2. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Ph?1? and CTK 01512-2 selectively target TRPA1, but not other TRP channels. This specific action underlines the potential of Ph?1? and CTK 01512-2 for pain treatment.
Project description:Safranal, contained in Crocus sativus L., exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, the underlying mechanisms for such effects are poorly understood. We explored whether safranal targets the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, which in nociceptors mediates pain signals. Safranal by binding to specific cysteine/lysine residues, stimulates TRPA1, but not the TRP vanilloid 1 and 4 channels (TRPV1 and TRPV4), evoking calcium responses and currents in human cells and rat and mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of TRPA1 attenuated safranal-evoked release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from rat and mouse dorsal spinal cord, and acute nociception in mice. Safranal contracted rat urinary bladder isolated strips in a TRPA1-dependent manner, behaving as a partial agonist. After exposure to safranal the ability of allyl isothiocyanate (TRPA1 agonist), but not that of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) or GSK1016790A (TRPV4 agonist), to evoke currents in DRG neurons, contraction of urinary bladder strips and CGRP release from spinal cord slices in rats, and acute nociception in mice underwent desensitization. As previously shown for other herbal extracts, including petasites or parthenolide, safranal might exert analgesic properties by partial agonism and selective desensitization of the TRPA1 channel.
Project description:Two pore domain potassium (K2P) channels (KCNKx.x) cause K? leak currents and are major contributors to resting membrane potential. Their roles in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons normally, and in pathological pain models, are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined mRNA levels for 10 K2P channels in L4 and L5 rat DRGs normally, and 1 day and 4 days after unilateral cutaneous inflammation, induced by intradermal complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injections. Spontaneous foot lifting (SFL) duration (spontaneous pain behaviour) was measured in 1 day and 4 day rats <1h before DRG harvest. mRNA levels for KCNK channels and Kv1.4 relative to GAPDH (n=4-6 rats/group) were determined with real-time RT-PCR. This study is the first to demonstrate expression of THIK1, THIK2 and TWIK2 mRNA in DRGs. Abundance in normal DRGs was, in descending order: Kv1.4>TRESK(KCNK18)>TRAAK(KCNK4)>TREK2(KCNK10)=TWIK2(KCNK6)>TREK1 (KCNK2)=THIK2(KCNK12)>TASK1(KCNK3)>TASK2(KCNK5)>THIK1(KCNK13)=TASK3(KCNK9). During inflammation, the main differences from normal in DRG mRNA levels were bilateral, suggesting systemic regulation, although some channels showed evidence of ipsilateral modulation. By 1 day, bilateral K2P mRNA levels had decreased (THIK1) or increased (TASK1, THIK2) but by 4 days they were consistently decreased (TASK2, TASK3) or tended to decrease (excluding TRAAK). The decreased TASK2 mRNA was mirrored by decreased protein (TASK2-immunoreactivity) at 4 days. Ipsilateral mRNA levels at 4days compared with 1 day were lower (TRESK, TASK1, TASK3, TASK2 and THIK2) or higher (THIK1). Ipsilateral SFL duration during inflammation was positively correlated with ipsilateral TASK1 and TASK3 mRNAs, and contralateral TASK1, TRESK and TASK2 mRNAs. Thus changes in K2P mRNA levels occurred during inflammation and for 4 K2P channels were associated with spontaneous pain behaviour (SFL). K2P channels and their altered expression are therefore associated with inflammation-induced pain.
Project description:Serine/threonine protein kinase C ?II isoform (PKC?II) or the pain receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) have been separately implicated in mediating heat hyperalgesia during inflammation or diabetic neuropathy. However, detailed information on the role of PKC ?II in nociceptive signaling mediated by TRPV1 is lacking. This study presents evidence for activation and translocation of the PKC ?II isoform as a signaling event in nociception mediated by activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin. We show that capsaicin induces translocation of cytosolic PKC?II isoform fused with enhanced green fluorescence protein (PKC?II-EGFP) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We also show capsaicin-induced translocation in Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells co-transfected with TRPV1 and PKC?II-EGFP, but not in CHO cells expressing PKC?II-EGFP alone. By contrast, the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced translocation of PKC?II-EGFP which was sustained and independent of calcium or TRPV1. In addition PMA-induced sensitization of TRPV1 to capsaicin response in DRG neurons was attenuated by PKC?II blocker CGP 53353. Capsaicin response via TRPV1 in the DRG neurons was confirmed by TRPV1 antagonist AMG 9810. These results suggested a novel and potential signaling link between PKC?II and TRPV1. These cell culture models provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of painful neuropathies mediated by nociceptors expressing the pain sensing gene TRPV1, and its regulation by the PKC isoform PKC?II.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:TMEM16A, also known as anoctamin 1 channel, is a member of the Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels family and serves as a heat sensor in the primary nociceptors. Eact is a recently discovered small molecule activator of the TMEM16A channel. Here, we asked if Eact produces pain- and itch-related responses in vivo and investigated the cellular and molecular basis of Eact-elicited responses in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:We employed behavioural testing combined with pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation approaches to identify transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) as the prominent mediator for Eact-evoked itch- or pain-related responses. We investigated the effects of Eact on TRPV1 and TMEM16A channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in DRG neurons isolated from wild type and Trpv1(-/-) mice using Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis to determine the molecular basis of Eact activation of TRPV1. KEY RESULTS:Administration of Eact elicited both itch- and pain-related behaviours. Unexpectedly, the Eact-elicited behavioural responses were dependent on the function of TRPV1, as shown by pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation studies. Eact activated membrane currents and increased intracellular free Ca(2+) in both TRPV1-expressing HEK293T cells and isolated DRG neurons in a TRPV1-dependent manner. Eact activation of the TRPV1 channel was severely attenuated by mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding sites. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Our results suggest that Eact activates primary sensory nociceptors and produces both pain and itch responses mainly through direct activation of TRPV1 channels.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent-like kinase 5 (<i>CDKL5</i>) gene mutations lead to an X-linked disorder that is characterized by infantile epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay, and hypotonia. However, we found that a substantial percentage of these patients also report a previously unrecognized anamnestic deficiency in pain perception. Consistent with a role in nociception, we found that CDKL5 is expressed selectively in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in mice and in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived human nociceptors. CDKL5-deficient mice display defective epidermal innervation, and conditional deletion of <i>CDKL5</i> in DRG sensory neurons impairs nociception, phenocopying CDKL5 deficiency disorder in patients. Mechanistically, CDKL5 interacts with calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ? (CaMKII?) to control outgrowth and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1)-dependent signaling, which are disrupted in both <i>CDKL5</i> mutant murine DRG and human iPS-derived nociceptors. Together, these findings unveil a previously unrecognized role for CDKL5 in nociception, proposing an original regulatory mechanism for pain perception with implications for future therapeutics in CDKL5 deficiency disorder.
Project description:The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 have each been associated with regulation of efferent properties of primary afferent neurons that initiate neurogenic inflammation and are required for the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. To evaluate the role of these channels in producing pain during pancreatic inflammation, we studied pancreatic nodose ganglion (NG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons (identified by content of retrograde tracer) and behavioral outcomes in a mouse model of acute pancreatitis.Pancreatic inflammation was induced by 8 hourly injections of cerulein (50 ?g/kg). The extent of inflammation, pancreatic neuron TRP channel expression and function and excitability, and pain-related behaviors were evaluated over the course of the following week.Histology and myeloperoxidase activity confirmed pancreatic inflammation that was associated with increased excitability and messenger RNA expression of the TRP channels in NG and DRG pancreatic neurons. Calcium imaging of pancreatic NG and DRG neurons from mice given cerulein revealed increased responses to TRP agonists. TRPV1 and TRPA1 antagonists attenuated cerulein-induced pain behaviors and pancreatic inflammation; they had a synergistic effect.Pancreatic inflammation significantly increased the expression and functional properties of TRPV1 and TRPA1, as well as the excitability of pancreatic sensory neurons in vagal and spinal pathways. TRP channel antagonists acted synergistically to reverse pancreatic inflammation and associated pain behaviors; reagents that target interactions between these channels might be developed to reduce pain in patients with acute pancreatitis.