MiRNA-133 augments coelomocyte phagocytosis in bacteria-challenged Apostichopus japonicus via targeting the TLR component of IRAK-1 in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we explored the potential roles of miRNA-133 in regulating TLR pathways in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Target screening of RNA-Seq data successfully identified interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (AjIRAK-1) as a putative target of miR-133. This result was further validated by negative expression profiles in Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed cell cultures. HEK-293T cells transfected with a dual-luciferase reporter fused to the 3'UTR of wild-type or mutant AjIRAK-1 exhibited a 52.9% reduction in luciferase activity (p?
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in many pathological processes by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. MiR-2008 was previously found to be significantly up-regulated in diseased sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by high-through sequencing, whereas the reads of miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, displayed no significant change. In the present study, we found that miR-137 expression was slightly attenuated and miR-2008 was significantly enhanced after Vibrio splendidus infection or Lipopolysaccharides application. Further target screening and dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the two important miRNAs shared a common target gene of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (AjBHMT), which exhibited noncorrelated messenger RNA and protein expression patterns after bacterial challenge. In order to fully understand their regulatory mechanisms, we conducted the functional experiments in vitro and in vivo. The overexpression of miR-137 in sea cucumber or primary coelomocytes significantly decreased, whereas the inhibition of miR-137 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of AjBHMT. In contrast, miR-2008 overexpression and inhibition showed no effect on AjBHMT mRNA levels, but the concentration of AjBHMT protein displayed significant changes both in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, the homocysteine (Hcy) contents were also accordingly altered in the aberrant expression analysis of both miRNAs, consistent with the results of the AjBHMT silencing assay in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, small interfering RNA mediated AjBHMT knockdown and Hcy exposure analyses both significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased the number of surviving invasive pathogen in sea cucumber coelomocytes. Taken together, these findings confirmed the differential roles of sea cucumber miR-137 and miR-2008 in regulating the common target AjBHMT to promote ROS production and the clearance of pathogenic microorganisms through Hcy accumulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The immune system of echinoderm sea urchins is characterised by a high degree of complexity that is not completely understood. The Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus coelomocytes mediate immune responses through phagocytosis, encapsulation of non-self particles, and production of diffusible factors including antimicrobial molecules. Details of these processes, and molecular pathways driving these mechanisms, are still to be fully elucidated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In the present study we treated the sea urchin P. lividus with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and collected coelomocytes at different time-points (1, 3, 6 and 24 hours). We have shown, using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry, how LPS is able to modulate the coelomocyte proteome and to effect cellular pathways, such as endocytosis and phagocytosis, as soon as the immunomodulating agent is injected. The present study has also shown that treatment can modulate various cellular processes such as cytoskeleton reorganisation, and stress and energetic homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrates, through mass spectrometry and the following functional annotation bioinformatics analysis, how the bacterial wall constituent is sufficient to set off an immune response inducing cytoskeleton reorganisation, the appearance of clusters of heat shock proteins (Hsp) and histone proteins and the activation of the endocytic and phagocytic pathways. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008439.
Project description:Coelomocytes, the heterogeneous population of sea urchin putative immune cells, were found to express a complex set of transcripts featuring scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) repeats. SRCR domains define a metazoan superfamily of proteins, many of which are implicated in development and regulation of the immune system of vertebrates. Coelomocytes transcribe multiple SRCR genes from among a multigene family encoding an estimated number of 1,200 SRCR domains in specific patterns particular to each individual. Transcription levels for given SRCR genes may range from pronounced to undetectable, yet all tested animals harbor the genomic loci encoding these genes. Analysis of several SRCR genes revealed multiple loci corresponding to each type. In the case of one SRCR type, a cluster of at least three genes was detected within a 133-kb bacterial artificial chromosome insert, and conserved as well as unique regions were identified in sequences of three genomic clones derived from a single animal. Array hybridizations with repeated samples of coelomocyte messages revealed substantial alterations in levels of expression of many SRCR genes, with fluctuations of up to 10-fold in 1 week and up to 30-fold over a period of 3 months. This report is the first demonstration of genomic and transcriptional complexity in molecules expressed by invertebrate coelomocytes. The mechanisms controlling SRCR gene expression and the functional significance of this dynamic system await elucidation.
Project description:Background: The location of coelomocyte proliferation in adult sea urchins is unknown and speculations since the early 1800s have been based on microanatomy and tracer uptake studies. In adult sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) with down-regulated immune systems, coelomocyte numbers increase in response to immune challenge, and whether some or all of these cells are newly proliferated is not known. The gene regulatory network that encodes transcription factors that control hematopoiesis in embryonic and larval sea urchins has not been investigated in adults. Hence, to identify the hematopoietic tissue in adult sea urchins, cell proliferation, expression of phagocyte specific genes, and expression of genes encoding transcription factors that function in the conserved regulatory network that controls hematopoiesis in embryonic and larval sea urchins were investigated for several tissues. Results: Cell proliferation was induced in adult sea urchins either by immune challenge through injection of heat-killed Vibrio diazotrophicus or by cell depletion through aspiration of coelomic fluid. In response to either of these stimuli, newly proliferated coelomocytes constitute only about 10% of the cells in the coelomic fluid. In tissues, newly proliferated cells and cells that express SpTransformer proteins (formerly Sp185/333) that are markers for phagocytes are present in the axial organ, gonad, pharynx, esophagus, and gut with no differences among tissues. The expression level of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate hematopoiesis show that both the axial organ and the pharynx have elevated expression compared to coelomocytes, esophagus, gut, and gonad. Similarly, an RNAseq dataset shows similar results for the axial organ and pharynx, but also suggests that the axial organ may be a site for removal and recycling of cells in the coelomic cavity. Conclusions: Results presented here are consistent with previous speculations that the axial organ may be a site of coelomocyte proliferation and that it may also be a center for cellular removal and recycling. A second site, the pharynx, may also have hematopoietic activity, a tissue that has been assumed to function only as part of the intestinal tract.
Project description:Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is considered to be a major constraint for the stable development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. In this study, we investigated protein changes in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus challenged by Vibrio splendidus using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) over a 96 h time course. Consequently, 228 differentially expressed proteins were identified in two iTRAQs. A comparison of the protein expression profiles among different time points detected 125 proteins primarily involved in response to endogenous stimuli at 24 h. At 48 h, the number of differentially expressed proteins decreased to 67, with their primary function being oxidation reduction. At the end of pathogen infection, proteins responsive to amino acid stimuli and some metabolic processes were classified as the predominant group. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed at all time points, among which eight proteins related to pathologies in higher animals were shown to be down-regulated after V. splendidus infection: paxillin, fascin-2, aggrecan, ololfactomedin-1, nesprin-3, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (Adamts7), C-type lectin domain family 4 (Clec4g) and n-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1). To gain more insight into two SUS-related miRNA (miR-31 and miR-2008) targets at the protein level, all 129 down-regulated proteins were further analyzed in combination with RNA-seq. Twelve and eight proteins were identified as putative targets for miR-31 and miR-2008, respectively, in which six proteins (5 for miR-31 and 1 for miR-2008) displayed higher possibilities to be regulated at the level of translation. Overall, the present work enhances our understanding of the process of V. splendidus-challenged sea cucumber and provides a new method for screening miRNAs targets at the translation level.
Project description:Echinoderms possess a variety of cells populating the coelomic fluid; these cells are responsible for mounting defense against foreign agents. In the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima, four different coelomocyte types were readily distinguished using morphological, histochemical and physiological (phagocytic activity) parameters: lymphocytes, phagocytes, spherulocytes and "giant" cells (listed in order of abundance). Monoclonal antibodies generated against sea cucumber tissues and one polyclonal against sea urchin mayor yolk protein (MYP) were also used to characterize these cell populations. The effects of several pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs): Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia. coli (LPS), heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and a synthetic dsRNA were studied on coelomocyte cell populations. PAMPs increased the phagocytic activity of the holothurian coelomocytes, and were able to induce selective immune responses in several of these populations, demonstrating the ability of the sea cucumber to respond to a different variety of immune challenges. Overall, these results show the variety of cells that populate the coelomic fluid of the holothurian and demonstrate their involvement in immune reactions. These animals represent an untapped resource for new findings into the evolution and development of the immune response not only in invertebrates but also in phylogenetically shared reactions with vertebrates.
Project description:The adaptive immune response in jawed vertebrates is marked by the ability to diversify somatically specific immune receptor genes. Somatic recombination and hypermutation of gene segments are used to generate extensive repertoires of T and B cell receptors. In contrast, jawless vertebrates utilize a distinct diversification system based on copy choice to assemble their variable lymphocyte receptors. To date, very little evidence for somatic immune gene diversification has been reported in invertebrate species. Here we show that the SpTransformer (SpTrf ; formerly Sp185/333) immune effector gene family members from individual coelomocytes from purple sea urchins undergo somatic diversification by means of gene deletions, duplications, and acquisitions of single nucleotide polymorphisms. While sperm cells from an individual sea urchin have identical SpTrf gene repertoires, single cells from two distinct coelomocyte subpopulations from the same sea urchin exhibit significant variation in the SpTrf gene repertoires. Moreover, the highly diverse gene sequences derived from single coelomocytes are all in-frame, suggesting that an unknown mechanism(s) driving these somatic changes involve stringent selection or correction processes for expression of productive SpTrf transcripts. Together, our findings infer somatic immune gene diversification strategy in an invertebrate.
Project description:As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na) using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL) in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.
Project description:Nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway is an evolutionally conserved pathway in activating immune response, in which I?Bs can repress the activation. In the present study, cgi-miR-2d, an invertebrate-specific microRNA, was proved to regulate CgI?B2 expression and haemocyte phagocytosis during bacterial infection in oyster Crassostrea gigas. The expression of cgi-miR-2d was significantly up-regulated after Vibrio splendidus challenge, while CgI?B2 transcripts decreased. Significant decreases in both luminescence and CgI?B2 3'UTR level was observed after transfection of cgi-miR-2d in CgI?B2 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay. CgI?B2 mRNA level decreased significantly (0.51-fold of control group, p?<?0.05) in gain-of-function assay of cgi-miR-2d in vivo while it increased markedly (1.27-fold, p?<?0.05) when cgi-miR-2d was repressed (0.10-fold, p?<?0.01). A significant increase of haemocyte phagocytosis rate was observed in cgi-miR-2d overexpression group (p?<?0.01), consistent with results in CgI?B2 knock-down group (p?<?0.01). Moreover, the apoptosis rate of haemocytes was found significantly declined (28.57%, p?<?0.01) in gain-of-function assay of cgi-miR-2d. Together, those results not only depicted the functional conservation of miR-2d family in anti-apoptosis of oysters but also highlighted its interaction with phagocytosis by modulating NF-?B pathway, which might dedicate critically to the well-balance of host immune response.
Project description:Coelomocytes represent the immune cells of echinoderms, but detailed knowledge about their roles during immune responses is very limited. One major challenge for studying coelomocyte biology is the lack of reagents to identify and purify distinct populations defined by objective molecular markers rather than by morphology-based classifications that are subjective at times. Glycosylation patterns are known to differ significantly between cell types in vertebrates, and furthermore they can vary depending on the developmental stage and activation states within a given lineage. Thus fluorescently labeled lectins that recognize distinct glycan structures on cell surface proteins are routinely used to identify discrete cell populations in the vertebrate immune system. Here we now employed a panel of fifteen fluorescently-labeled lectins to determine differences in the glycosylation features on the surface of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus coelomocytes by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Eight of the lectins (succinylated wheat germ agglutinin, Len culinaris lectin, Pisum sativum agglutinin, Saphora japonica agglutinin, Solanum tuberosum lectin, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin, Datura stramonium lectin, Vicia villosa lectin) showed distinct binding patterns to fixed and live cells of three major coelomocyte classes: phagocytic cells, red spherule cells, and vibratile cells. Importantly, almost all lectins bound only to a subgroup of cells within each cell type. Lastly, we established fluorescently-labeled lectin-based fluorescence activated cell sorting as a strategy to purify distinct S. purpuratus coelomocyte (sub-)populations based on molecular markers. We anticipate that this will become a routine approach in future studies focused on dissecting the roles of different coelomocytes in echinoderm immunity.