Midkine Regulates BP through Cytochrome P450-Derived Eicosanoids.
ABSTRACT: The effects of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors have been attributed to cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but the regulation and role of EETs in endothelial dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Hypertension is a primary risk factor for renal dysfunction, which is frequently accompanied by various systemic diseases induced by endothelial dysfunction in the microcirculation. We previously reported that the endothelial growth factor midkine (MK) enhances hypertension in a model of CKD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that MK regulates EET activity and thereby BP. MK gene-deleted mice were resistant to hypertension and developed less glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria after administration of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor in the setting of uninephrectomy. The hypertension observed in uninephrectomized wild-type mice after NOS inhibition was ameliorated by anti-MK antibody. MK-deficient mice produced higher amounts of EETs, and EETs dominantly regulated BP in these mice. Furthermore, MK administration to MK-deficient mice recapitulated the BP control observed in wild-type mice. EETs also dominantly regulated renal blood flow, which may influence renal function, in MK-deficient mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the MK/EET pathway is physiologically engaged in BP control and could be a target for the treatment of hypertension complicated by endothelial dysfunction.
Project description:Obesity is a global epidemic and a common risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and the subsequent development of diabetes mellitus and vascular diseases such as hypertension. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived metabolites of arachidonic acid that contribute to vascular protection by stimulating vasodilation and inhibiting inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 is a stress response protein that plays an important cytoprotective role against oxidative insult in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We recently demonstrated interplay between EETs and heme oxygenase-1 in the attenuation of adipogenesis. We examined whether adipocyte dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet could be prevented by endothelial-specific targeting of the human CYP epoxygenase, CYP2J2. Tie2-CYP2J2 transgenic mice, fed a high-fat diet, had a reduction in body weight gain, blood glucose, insulin levels, and inflammatory markers. Tie2-CYP2J2 gene targeting restored HF-mediated decreases in vascular heme oxygenase-1, Cyp2C44, soluble epoxide hydrolase, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylated protein kinase B, and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate protein kinase protein expression, thus improving vascular function. These changes translated into decreased inflammation and oxidative stress within adipose tissue and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, mesoderm-specific transcript, and adipocyte 2 expression and increased uncoupling protein 1 and uncoupling protein 2 expression, reflecting the effect of vascular EET overproduction on adipogenesis. The current study documents a direct link between endothelial-specific EET production and adipogenesis, further implicating the EET-heme oxygenase-1 crosstalk as an important cytoprotective mechanism in the amelioration of vascular and adipocyte dysfunction resulting from diet-induced obesity.
Project description:Small renal arteries have a significant role in the regulation of renal hemodynamics and blood pressure (BP). To study potential changes in the regulation of vascular function in hypertension, we examined renal vasodilatory responses of small arteries from nonclipped kidneys of the 2-kidney, 1-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats to native epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) that are believed to be involved in the regulation of renal vascular function and BP. A total of 2 newly synthesized EET analogues were also examined.Renal interlobular arteries isolated from the nonclipped kidneys on day 28 after clipping were preconstricted with phenylephrine, pressurized and the effects of a 14,15-EET analogue, native 14,15-EET and 11,12-ether-EET-8ZE, an analogue of 11,12-EET, on the vascular diameter were determined and compared to the responses of arteries from the kidneys of sham-operated rats.In the arteries from nonclipped kidneys isolated in the maintenance phase of Goldblatt hypertension, the maximal vasodilatory response to 14,15-EET analogue was 30.1 ± 2.8% versus 49.8 ± 7.2% in sham-operated rats; the respective values for 11,12-ther-EET-8ZE were 31.4 ± 6.4% versus 80.4 ± 6%, and for native EETs they were 41.7 ± 6.6% versus 62.8 ± 4.4% (P ? 0.05 for each difference).We propose that reduced vasodilatory action and decreased intrarenal bioavailability of EETs combined with intrarenal angiotensin II levels that are inappropriately high for hypertensive rats underlie functional derangements of the nonclipped kidneys of 2-kidney, 1-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. These derangements could play an important role in pathophysiology of sustained BP elevation observed in this animal model of human renovascular hypertension.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We examined the effects of treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHi) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) analogue (EET-A), given alone or combined, on blood pressure (BP) and ischemia/reperfusion myocardial injury in rats with angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension. METHODS:Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR) were used as a model of ANG II-dependent hypertension and Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls. Rats were treated for 14 days with sEHi or EET-A and BP was measured by radiotelemetry. Albuminuria, cardiac hypertrophy and concentrations of ANG II and EETs were determined. Separate groups were subjected to acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the infarct size and ventricular arrhythmias were determined. RESULTS:Treatment of TGR with sEHi and EET-A, given alone or combined, decreased BP to a similar degree, reduced albuminuria and cardiac hypertrophy to similar extent; only treatment regimens including sEHi increased myocardial and renal tissue concentrations of EETs. sEHi and EET-A, given alone or combined, suppressed kidney ANG II levels in TGR. Remarkably, infarct size did not significantly differ between TGR and Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats, but the incidence of ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillations was higher in TGR. Application of sEHi and EET-A given alone and combined sEHi and EET-A treatment were all equally effective in reducing life-threatening ventricular fibrillation in TGR. CONCLUSION:The findings indicate that chronic treatment with either sEHi or EET-A exerts distinct antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic actions in our ANG II-dependent model of hypertension whereas combined administration of sEHi and EET-A does not provide additive antihypertensive or cardioprotective effects.
Project description:Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) contribute to haemodynamics, electrolyte homoeostasis and blood pressure regulation, leading to the concept that EETs can be therapeutically targeted for hypertension. In the present study, multiple structural EET analogues were synthesized based on the EET pharmacophore and vasodilator structure-activity studies. Four EET analogues with 91-119% vasodilatory activity in the isolated bovine coronary artery (EC50: 0.18-1.6 ?M) were identified and studied for blood-pressure-lowering in hypertension. Two EET analogues in which the COOH group at carbon 1 of the EET pharmacophore was replaced with either an aspartic acid (EET-A) or a heterocyclic surrogate (EET-X) were administered for 14 days [10 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. Both EET-A and EET-X lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. On day 14, the mean arterial pressures in EET analogue-treated AngII-hypertensive and SHRs were 30-50 mmHg (EET-A) and 15-20 mmHg (EET-X) lower than those in vehicle-treated controls. These EET analogues (10 mg/kg per day) were further tested in AngII hypertension by administering orally in drinking water for 14 days and EET-A lowered blood pressure. Additional experiments demonstrated that EET-A inhibits epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity in cultured cortical collecting duct cells and reduced renal expression of ENaC subunits in AngII hypertension. In conclusion, we have characterized EET-A as an orally active antihypertensive EET analogue that protects vascular endothelial function and has ENaC inhibitory activity in AngII hypertension.
Project description:Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid and EETs have a number of beneficial cardiovascular actions. This has led to the concept that EETs and its metabolic pathway can be therapeutically targeted for hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. One approach has been to prevent the conversion of EETs to their inactive diols by inhibiting the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme. Inhibition of sEH has been demonstrated to decrease blood pressure in certain experimental models of hypertension, decrease inflammation, and protect organs from damage associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. The development of sEH inhibitors has reached the point where they are being evaluated in humans. A second therapeutic approach has been to develop EET agonists. EET agonists have been essential for determining the structure function relationship for EETs and determining cell-signaling mechanisms by which EETs exert their cardiovascular actions. More recently, EET agonists have been administered chronically to experimental animal models of hypertension and metabolic syndrome and have been demonstrated to decrease blood pressure, improve insulin signaling, and improve vascular function. These experimental findings provide evidence for sEH inhibitors and EET agonists as a therapeutic approach for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and the associated end-organ damage.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Endothelial dysfunction, including upregulation of inflammatory adhesion molecules and impaired vasodilatation, is a key element in cardiovascular disease. Aging and estrogen withdrawal in women are associated with endothelial inflammation, vascular stiffness and increased cardiovascular disease. Epoxyecosatrienoic acids (EETs), the products of arachidonic acid metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2J, 2C and other isoforms, are regulated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)-catalyzed conversion into less active diols. We hypothesized that 11,12-EETs would reduce the endothelial dysfunction associated with aging and estrogen loss. APPROACH/RESULTS:When stabilized by an sEH inhibitor (seHi), 11,12-EET at a physiologically low dose (0.1nM) reduced cytokine-stimulated upregulation of adhesion molecules on human aorta endothelial cells (HAEC) and monocyte adhesion under shear flow through marked depolarization of the HAEC when combined with TNF?. Mechanistically, neither 11,12-EETs nor 17?-estradiol (E2) at physiologic concentrations prevented activation of NF?B by TNF?. E2 at physiological concentrations reduced sEH expression in HAEC, but did not alter CYP expression, and when combined with TNF? depolarized the cell. We also examined vascular dysfunction in adult and aged ovariectomized Norway brown rats (with and without E2 replacement) using an ex-vivo model to analyze endothelial function in an intact segment of artery. sEHi and 11,12-EET with or without E2 attenuated phenylephrine induced constriction and increased endothelial-dependent dilation of aortic rings from ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing 11,12-EETs through sEH inhibition effectively attenuates inflammation and may provide an effective strategy to preserve endothelial function and prevent atherosclerotic heart disease in postmenopausal women.
Project description:We demonstrated previously that cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C29 is the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) synthase responsible for the EET-mediated flow/shear stress-induced dilation of vessels of female nitric oxide (NO)-deficient mice (Sun D, Yang YM, Jiang H, Wu H, Ojami C, Kaley G, Huang A. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298: R862-R869, 2010). In the present study, we aimed to identify which specific CYP isoform(s) is the source of the synthesis and release of EETs in response to stimulation by shear stress in vessels of rats. Cannulated mesenteric arteries isolated from both sexes of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated rats were perfused with 2 and 10 dyn/cm(2) shear stress, followed by collection of the perfusate to determine EET concentrations and isoforms. Shear stress stimulated release of EETs in the perfusate of female (but not male) NO-deficient vessels, associated with an EET-mediated vasodilation, in which 11,12- and 14,15-EET contributed predominantly to the responses. Rat CYP cDNA array screened a total of 32 CYP genes of mesenteric arteries, indicating a significant upregulation of CYP2C7 in female L-NAME-treated rats. Endothelial RNA and protein were extracted from intact single vessels. Expression of CYP2C7 mRNA and protein in pooled extractions of endothelial lysate was identified by PCR and Western blot analyses. Transfection of the vessels with CYP2C7 short interfering RNA eliminated the release of EETs, consequently abolishing the EET-mediated flow-induced dilation; these responses, however, were maintained in vessels transfected with nonsilencing short interfering RNA. Knockdown of endothelial CYP2C7 was confirmed by PCR and Western blot analyses. In conclusion, CYP2C7 is an endothelial EET synthase in the female rat vasculature, by which, in NO deficiency, shear stress stimulates the release of EETs to initiate vasodilation.
Project description:Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) possess potent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. However, the effect of increased CYP-mediated EET biosynthesis and decreased soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, Ephx2)-mediated EET hydrolysis on vascular inflammation in vivo has not been rigorously investigated. Consequently, we characterized acute vascular inflammatory responses to endotoxin in transgenic mice with endothelial expression of the human CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 epoxygenases and mice with targeted disruption of Ephx2. Compared to wild-type controls, CYP2J2 transgenic, CYP2C8 transgenic, and Ephx2(-/-) mice each exhibited a significant attenuation of endotoxin-induced activation of nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling, cellular adhesion molecule, chemokine and cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration in lung in vivo. Furthermore, attenuation of endotoxin-induced NF-?B activation and cellular adhesion molecule and chemokine expression was observed in primary pulmonary endothelial cells isolated from CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice. This attenuation was inhibited by a putative EET receptor antagonist and CYP epoxygenase inhibitor, directly implicating CYP epoxygenase-derived EETs with the observed anti-inflammatory phenotype. Collectively, these data demonstrate that potentiation of the CYP epoxygenase pathway by either increased endothelial EET biosynthesis or globally decreased EET hydrolysis attenuates NF-?B-dependent vascular inflammatory responses in vivo and may serve as a viable anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy.
Project description:Renal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) regulate sodium transport and blood pressure. Although endothelial CYP-derived EETs are potent vasodilators, their contribution to the regulation of blood pressure remains unclear. Consequently, we developed transgenic mice with endothelial expression of the human CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 epoxygenases to increase endothelial EET biosynthesis. Compared to wild-type littermate controls, an attenuated afferent arteriole constrictor response to endothelin-1 and enhanced dilator response to acetylcholine was observed in CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice. CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice demonstrated modestly, but not significantly, lower mean arterial pressure under basal conditions compared to wild-type controls. However, mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in both CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice during coadministration of N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and indomethacin. In a separate experiment, a high-salt diet and subcutaneous angiotensin II was administered over 4 wk. The angiotensin/high-salt-induced increase in systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, and glomerular injury was significantly attenuated in CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 transgenic mice compared to wild-type controls. Collectively, these data demonstrate that increased endothelial CYP epoxygenase expression attenuates afferent arteriolar constrictor reactivity and hypertension-induced increases in blood pressure and renal injury in mice. We conclude that endothelial CYP epoxygenase function contributes to the regulation of blood pressure.
Project description:Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generated from arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases have many biological functions. Importantly, CYP epoxygenase-derived EETs are involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. In fact, in addition to their potent vasodilating effect, EETs have potent anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit platelet aggregation, promote fibrinolysis, and reduce vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. All EETs are metabolized to the less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Numerous evidences support the role of altered EET biosynthesis in the pathophysiology of hypertension and suggest the utility of antihypertensive strategies that increase CYP-derived EET or EET analogs. Indeed, a number of studies have demonstrated that EET analogs and sEH inhibitors induce vasodilation, lower blood pressure and decrease inflammation. Some of these agents are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. However, the role of CYP epoxygenases and of the metabolites generated in cancer progression may limit the use of these drugs in humans.