An Intraventricular Schwannoma with Associated Hydrocephalus and Ventricular Entrapment: A Case Report.
ABSTRACT: Intraventricular schwannomas are rare primary brain tumors, with fewer than 25 cases reported in the literature. Here, we present the case of a 20-year-old male patient with a 2 year history of blurry vision and dysesthesia involving his right occiput and upper neck. Imaging demonstrated a homogeneously enhancing mass located within the atrium of the right lateral ventricle with associated right lateral ventricular entrapment. Pathology confirmed the tumor to be an intraventricular schwannoma. Imaging findings, presentation, complications, and treatment options for intraventricular schwannomas are described.
Project description:Background:Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid (EET) approach is well suited for trigeminal schwannomas.Case Description:A 25-year-old female presented with the right hemifacial pain for 1 month. Examination revealed mild sensory loss to both touch and pain in the right V2 and V3 dermatomal distribution. On magnetic resonance imaging, a well-defined extra-axial lesion was seen in the right infratemporal fossa extending intracranially, widening the foramen ovale. Erosion of the lateral pterygoid plate was evident on computed tomography. Diagnosis of a trigeminal schwannoma was made and excision through endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach was planned. After adequate nasal decongestion, lateralization of the inferior turbinate followed by medialization of middle turbinate done to expose the posterior part of the lateral nasal wall. Sphenopalatine foramen was visualized and the branches of the sphenopalatine artery to turbinate were coagulated followed by partial inferior and middle turbinectomy. Next, antegrade uncinectomy, bullectomy, and middle meatal antrostomy performed. Anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy was done to gain access to the sphenoid sinus. Medial maxillectomy done, posterior maxillary sinus wall exposed and drilled to reach infratemporal fossa harboring the tumor. The lateral recess was further exposed to visualize the vidian and maxillary nerves. Palatine bone and pterygoid body along with the medial pterygoid plate were completely drilled to expose the tumor capsule, which was gently dissected off. Complete tumor excision was performed uneventfully.Conclusion:EET provides a good oncological and functional outcome. With a lesser risk of surgical morbidities, it is an excellent alternative to conventional skull base approaches to trigeminal schwannomas in the modern era.
Project description:Schwannomas are benign, slow growing nerve sheath tumours of Schwann cell origin. They predominantly are known to involve the head, neck and the flexor surfaces of the extremities, retroperitoneum and the posterior spinal roots. The chest wall is a relatively uncommon location for a schwannoma, the vast majority of which are intra-thoracic, which are usually located in the posterior mediastinum and bulge into the thoracic cavity. Schwannomas arising from the lateral chest wall are relatively uncommon (<5 %). Dumbbell shaped schwannomas of the lateral chest wall i.e. with an intra-thoracic and extra-thoracic component, is extraordinarily rare and to the best of our knowledge only one case has been reported prior. We report possibly the second case of a dumbbell shaped lateral chest wall schwannoma in a 33-year-old female patient which masquandered as a case of soft tissue sarcoma.
Project description:Introduction Schwannomas of the eighth cranial nerve are benign tumors that usually occur in the internal auditory canal or the cerebellopontine angle cistern. Rarely, these tumors may originate from the neural elements within the vestibule, cochlea, or semicircular canals and are called intralabyrinthine schwannomas. Intracochlear schwannomas (ICSs) represent a small percentage of these tumors, and their diagnosis is based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Objectives To report the clinical and radiologic features and audiometric testing results of an ICS in a 48-year-old man after a 22-month follow-up period. Resumed Report A patient with an 8-year history of persistent tinnitus in his right ear, combined with ipsilateral progressive hearing loss and aural fullness. Audiometry revealed normal hearing in the left ear and a moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss in the right ear, with decreased speech reception threshold and word recognition score, compared with the exam performed 5 years previously. MRI showed a small intracochlear nodular lesion in the modiolus, isointense on T1 with a high contrast enhancement on T1 postgadolinium images. During the follow-up period, there were no radiologic changes on imaging studies. Thus, a wait-and-scan policy was chosen as the lesion remained stable with no considerable growth and the patient still presents with residual hearing. Conclusions Once diagnosed, not all ICS patients require surgery. Treatment options for ICS include stereotactic radiotherapy and rescanning policy, depending on the tumor's size, evidence of the tumor's growth, degree of hearing loss, intractable vestibular symptoms, concern about the pathologic diagnosis, and the patient's other medical conditions.
Project description:Intraventricular hemorrhage causes spatial memory loss, but the mechanism remains unknown. Our recent studies demonstrated that traumatic brain injury activates Src family kinases, which cause spatial memory loss. To test whether the spatial memory loss was due to blood in the ventricles, which activated Src family kinases, we infused autologous whole blood or thrombin into the lateral ventricles of adult rats to model non-traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage. Hippocampal neuron loss was examined 1?day to 5 weeks later. Spatial memory function was assessed 29 to 33 days later using the Morris water maze. Five weeks after the ventricular injections of blood or thrombin, there was death of most hippocampal neurons and significant memory deficits compared with sham operated controls. These data show that intraventricular thrombin is sufficient to kill hippocampal neurons and produce spatial memory loss. In addition, systemic administration of the non-specific Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 or intraventricular injection of siRNA-Fyn, a Src family kinase family member, prevented hippocampal neuronal loss and spatial memory deficits following intraventricular hemorrhage. The data support the conclusions that thrombin mediates the hippocampal neuronal cell death and spatial memory deficits produced by intraventricular blood and that these can be blocked by non-specific inhibition of Src family kinases or by inhibiting Fyn.
Project description:Schwannomas are benign tumours that originate from the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves. They are characterised by a slow growth tendency. Benign schwannomas represent 35% of the head and neck district tumours. Hypoglossal schwannomas account for 5% of non-vestibular schwannomas, and malignant schwannomas occur very rarely. In the present case report, the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with paraesthesias in the left parotid and submandibular region, associated with sensation of foreign bodies and dysphagia for solids, is described. A clinical examination revealed the presence of an ovoid palpable mass in the lateral-cervical region of the neck. The patient subsequently underwent excisional surgery, and neuropathological evaluation of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of benign schwannoma with Antoni areas A and B. Despite the rarity of schwannomas, this condition should be considered in differential diagnoses for masses localised in the neck, as in cases where they reach considerable sizes (>3 cm in diameter). Surgery therefore represents the first-choice treatment.
Project description:Schwannomas commonly arise in the torso, extremities, and mediastinum. However, no interlobar lymph node (#11i) lesions have ever been reported. This is a thought-provoking case, because it involved a schwannoma arising in a lymph node mimicking metastatic pulmonary carcinoma. A 72-year-old man was diagnosed with primary pulmonary carcinoma, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography demonstrated high FDG uptake in the primary lesion and in #11i, which suggested metastasis (clinical stage IIA). A right lower lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Fortunately, the enlarged #11i was a schwannoma and not metastasis. The take-home message is "a patient with multiple neuromatosis tends to have schwannomas throughout the body".
Project description:BACKGROUND:As intraventricular blood is a strong negative prognostic factor, intraventricular hemorrhage requires prompt and aggressive management to reduce intracranial hypertension. METHOD:A flexible scope can be used to navigate and to aspirate blood clots from all four ventricles. Complete restoration of CSF pathways from the lateral ventricle to the foramen of Magendie can be obtained. CONCLUSION:Flexible neuroendoscopic aspiration of IVH offers the opportunity to immediately reduce intracranial hypertension, reduce EVD obstruction and replacement rates, and decrease infections and shunt dependency.
Project description:A basal encephalocele often shows an insidious clinical course. Only two cases of temporal lobe encephalocele accompanied with tension pneumocephalus have previously been reported. In this paper, we describe a case of lateral sphenoid sinus encephalocele presenting with intraventricular tension pneumocephalus. A 54-year-old man was referred to our institution presenting with intraventricular tension pneumocephalus. He had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for postmeningitis hydrocephalus 3 months before this admission. Precise imaging examinations detected evidence suggestive of a lateral sphenoidal sinus recess encephalocele. Endoscopic transnasal approach was performed for surgical repair of the encephalocele. The encephalocele was removed with subsequent repair of the bony defect. Histological examination showed that the encephalocele includes a part of the ventricular system. This indicates that air might enter directly into the ventricular system after rupture of the temporal lobe encephalocele. A lateral sphenoid sinus encephalocele would potentially cause intraventricular tension pneumocephalus, although pneumocephalus is an extremely unusual complication of this type of basal encephaloceles.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Purely extradural lumbar schwannomas are rare lesions. Resection traditionally requires an open laminectomy and ipsilateral complete facectomy. Recent reports have demonstrated safety and efficacy of removal of these tumors using mini-open access devices with expandable retractors. We report a case of a giant L3 schwannoma successfully resected through a minimally invasive approach using the non-expandable Spotlight tubular retrator (Depuy Spine). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 77-year-old woman presented with a history of chronic right leg pain, paresthesias and proximal right leg weakness. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large dumbbell-shaped extradural foraminal lesion at the L3-L4 level with significant extraforaminal extension. The patient underwent a minimally invasive gross total resection (GTR) of the tumor using an 18-mm Spotlight tubular retractor system. Pathology confirmed the lesion to be a benign schwannoma. Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms resolved and she was discharged from the hospital on the second postoperative day. Postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor. The patient returned to normal activities after 2 weeks and remained asymptomatic with no neurological deficits at final 6 months follow-up. CONCLUSION: Giant lumbar extradural schwannomas can be safely and completely resected using minimally invasive surgery without the need for facectomy or subsequent spinal fusion.
Project description:Neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage is common and often results in hydrocephalus. The pathogenesis of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is not fully understood.To explore the potential role of hemoglobin and iron released after hemorrhage.Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), hemoglobin, or iron was injected into the right lateral ventricle of postnatal day-7 Sprague Dawley rats. Ventricle size, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, and the presence of iron were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after injection. A subset of animals was treated with an iron chelator (deferoxamine) or vehicle for 24 hours after hemoglobin injection, and ventricle size and cell death were evaluated.Intraventricular injection of hemoglobin and iron resulted in ventricular enlargement at 24 hours compared with the injection of aCSF. Protoporphyrin IX, the iron-deficient immediate heme precursor, did not result in ventricular enlargement after injection into the ventricle. HO-1, the enzyme that releases iron from heme, was increased in the hippocampus and cortex of hemoglobin-injected animals at 24 hours compared with aCSF-injected controls. Treatment with an iron chelator, deferoxamine, decreased hemoglobin-induced ventricular enlargement and cell death.Intraventricular injection of hemoglobin and iron can induce hydrocephalus. Treatment with an iron chelator reduced hemoglobin-induced ventricular enlargement. This has implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.aCSF, artificial cerebrospinal fluidDAB, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-4HClGMH-IVH, germinal matrix hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhageHO-1, heme oxygenase-1ICH, intracerebral hemorrhagePBS, phosphate-buffered salineSVZ, subventricular zoneTBST, tris-buffered saline with Tween 20.