PPAR? stimulates expression of L-type amino acid and taurine transporters in human placentas: the evidence of PPAR? regulating fetal growth.
ABSTRACT: Placental amino acid transporters and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated to placental development and therefore regulation of fetal growth. We analyzed the correlation between the expression of amino acid transporters and PPARs and investigated whether PPARs control the expression of amino acid transporters in placentas. It was found that protein expression of PPAR? and L-type amino acid transporter 1(LAT1) and 2 (LAT2) was decreased in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) placentas. LAT1, LAT2 and taurine transporter (TAUT) expression correlated to PPAR? level and birth weight. In cultured placental cells, PPAR? agonist stimulated LAT1 and LAT2 and TAUT, which was reversed by PPAR? siRNA. PPAR? up-regulation of LAT1 and TAUT was through specificity protein 1 (Sp-1) while stimulation of LAT2 expression was via induction of gene transcription. Our data suggest that PPAR?, SP-1, LAT1 and LAT2 in placentas are involved in control of fetal growth. PPAR? signaling pathway may be the therapeutic target for intrauterine growth restriction.
Project description:The human L-type amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 mediate the transport of amino acids and amino acid derivatives across plasma membranes in a sodium-independent, obligatory antiport mode. In mammalian cells, LAT1 and LAT2 associate with the type-II membrane N-glycoprotein 4F2hc to form heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs). The glycosylated ancillary protein 4F2hc is known to be important for successful trafficking of the unglycosylated transporters to the plasma membrane. The heavy (i.e., 4F2hc) and light (i.e., LAT1 and LAT2) chains belong to the solute carrier (SLC) families SLC3 and SLC7, and are covalently linked by a conserved disulfide bridge. Overexpression, absence, or malfunction of certain HATs is associated with human diseases and HATs are therefore considered therapeutic targets. Here, we present a comparative, functional characterization of the HATs 4F2hc-LAT1 and 4F2hc-LAT2, and their light chains LAT1 and LAT2. For this purpose, the HATs and the light chains were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and a radiolabel transport assay was established. Importantly and in contrast to mammalian cells, P. pastoris has proven useful as eukaryotic expression system to successfully express human LAT1 and LAT2 in the plasma membrane without the requirement of co-expressed trafficking chaperone 4F2hc. Our results show a novel function of the heavy chain 4F2hc that impacts transport by modulating the substrate affinity and specificity of corresponding LATs. In addition, the presented data confirm that the light chains LAT1 and LAT2 constitute the substrate-transporting subunits of the HATs, and that light chains are also functional in the absence of the ancillary protein 4F2hc.
Project description:Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a significant risk factor for stillbirth, neonatal complications and adulthood morbidity. Compared with those of appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA), FGR babies have smaller placentas with reduced activity of amino acid transporter systems A and L, thought to contribute to poor fetal growth. The amino acids glutamine and glutamate are essential for normal placental function and fetal development; whether transport of these is altered in FGR is unknown. We hypothesised that FGR is associated with reduced placental glutamine and glutamate transporter activity and expression, and propose the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a candidate mechanism. FGR infants [individualised birth weight ratio (IBR)?<?5th centile] had lighter placentas, reduced initial rate uptake of 14C-glutamine and 14C-glutamate (per mg placental protein) but higher expression of key transporter proteins (glutamine: LAT1, LAT2, SNAT5, glutamate: EAAT1) versus AGA [IBR 20th–80th]. In further experiments, in vitro exposure to rapamycin inhibited placental glutamine and glutamate uptake (24 h, uncomplicated pregnancies) indicating a role of mTOR in regulating placental transport of these amino acids. These data support our hypothesis and suggest that abnormal glutamine and glutamate transporter activity is part of the spectrum of placental dysfunction in FGR.
Project description:BACKGROUND:6-18F-fluoro-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA) PET is a useful tool in the clinical management of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). 18F-FDOPA is a large neutral amino acid biochemically resembling endogenous L-DOPA and taken up by the L-type amino acid transporters (LAT1 and LAT2). This study was conducted to examine the expression of the LAT system in PHEO and MTC. METHODS:Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to assess LAT1 and LAT2 gene and protein expression in 32 PHEO, 38 MTC, 16 normal adrenal medulla and 15 normal thyroid tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry method was applied to identify the proteins' subcellular localization. RESULTS:LAT1 and LAT2 were overexpressed in both PHEO and MTC by comparison with normal tissues. LAT1 presented a stronger induction than LAT2, and their greater expression was more evident in PHEO (15.1- and 4.1-fold increases, respectively) than in MTC (9.9- and 4.1-fold increases, respectively). Furthermore we found a good correlation between LAT1/2 and GLUT1 expression levels. A positive correlation was also found between urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline levels and LAT1 gene expression in PHEO. The increased expression of LAT1 is also confirmed at the protein level, in both PHEO and MTC, with a strong cytoplasmic localization. CONCLUSIONS:The present study is the first to provide experimental evidence of the overexpression in some NET cancers (such as PHEO or MTC) of L-type amino acid transporters, and the LAT1 isoform in particular, giving the molecular basis to explain the increase of the DOPA uptake seen in such tumor cells.
Project description:We recently reported that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation decreases the expression of the primary thyroid hormone transporters at the blood-brain barrier, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1c1 (OATP1c1) and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8). L-type amino acid transporters 1 and 2 (LAT1 & LAT2) are regarded as secondary thyroid hormone transporters, and are expressed in cells of the blood-brain or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and by neurons. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of LPS-induced inflammation on the expression of LAT1 and LAT2, as these may compensate for the downregulation of OATP1c1 and MCT8.LPS (2.5 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally to adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats and C57Bl/6 mice, which were euthanized 2, 4, 9, 24 or 48 h later. LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA expression were studied on forebrain sections using semiquantitative radioactive in situ hybridization. LAT1 protein levels in brain vessels were studied using LAT1 immunofluorescence. Statistical comparisons were made by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests.In both species, LAT1 mRNA decreased in brain blood vessels as soon as 2 h after LPS injection and was virtually undetectable at 4 h and 9 h. During recovery from endotoxemia, 48 h after LPS injection, LAT1 mRNA in brain vessels increased above control levels. A modest but significant decrease in LAT1 protein levels was detected in the brain vessels of mice at 24 h following LPS injection. LPS did not affect LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA expression in neurons and choroid plexus epithelial cells.The results demonstrate that LPS-induced inflammation rapidly decreases LAT1 mRNA expression at the blood-brain barrier in a very similar manner to primary thyroid hormone transporters, while changes in LAT1 protein level follow a slower kinetics. The data raise the possibility that inflammation may similarly down-regulate other blood-brain barrier transport systems at the transcriptional level. Future studies are required to examine this possibility and the potential pathophysiological consequences of inflammation-induced changes in blood-brain barrier transport functions.
Project description:The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy relies on the selective delivery of boron carriers to malignant cells. p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA), a boron delivery agent, has been proposed to be localized to cells through transporter-mediated mechanisms. In this study, we screened aromatic amino acid transporters to identify BPA transporters. Human aromatic amino acid transporters were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined for BPA uptake and kinetic parameters. The roles of the transporters in BPA uptake were characterized in cancer cell lines. For the quantitative assessment of BPA uptake, HPLC was used throughout the study. Among aromatic amino acid transporters, ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 were found to transport BPA with Km values of 137.4 ± 11.7, 20.3 ± 0.8 and 88.3 ± 5.6 ?M, respectively. Uptake experiments in cancer cell lines revealed that the LAT1 protein amount was the major determinant of BPA uptake at 100 ?M, whereas the contribution of ATB(0,+) became significant at 1000 ?M, accounting for 20-25% of the total BPA uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATB(0,+), LAT1 and LAT2 transport BPA at affinities comparable with their endogenous substrates, suggesting that they could mediate effective BPA uptake in vivo. The high and low affinities of LAT1 and ATB(0,+), respectively, differentiate their roles in BPA uptake. ATB(0,+), as well as LAT1, could contribute significantly to the tumor accumulation of BPA at clinical dose.
Project description:PURPOSE:The anti-epileptic drug pregabalin crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in spite of its low lipophilicity. This study was performed to determine whether L-type amino acid transporters (LAT1/SLC7A5 and LAT2/SLC7A8) contribute to the uptake of pregabalin. METHODS:Pregabalin uptake by LATs-transfected HEK293 cells or hCMEC/D3 cells, an in vitro human BBB model, was measured by LC-MS/MS analysis. Expression of LAT1 mRNA in hCMEC/D3 cells was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS:Overexpression of LAT1, but not LAT2, in HEK293 cells significantly increased the cellular uptake of pregabalin, and the LAT1-mediated uptake was saturable with a Km of 0.288 mM. LAT1-mediated amino acid uptake was inhibited specifically and almost completely in the presence of 1 mM pregabalin. The uptake of pregabalin by hCMEC/D3 cells was sodium-independent, saturable (Km?=?0.854 mM), and strongly inhibited by large amino acids at 1 mM, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid, a specific system L inhibitor, at 1 mM and by JPH203, a LAT1-selective inhibitor, at 10 ?M. Pregabalin uptake in hCMEC/D3 cells was also decreased by 75% by the silencing of LAT1 gene using LAT1 siRNA. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that LAT1, but not LAT2, recognizes pregabalin as a substrate. It is suggested that LAT1 mediates pregabalin transport at the BBB.
Project description:Background Reabsorption of amino acids (AAs) across the renal proximal tubule is crucial for intracellular and whole organism AA homeostasis. Although the luminal transport step is well understood, with several diseases caused by dysregulation of this process, the basolateral transport step is not understood. In humans, only cationic aminoaciduria due to malfunction of the basolateral transporter y+LAT1/CD98hc (SLC7A7/SLC3A2), which mediates the export of cationic AAs, has been described. Thus, the physiologic roles of basolateral transporters of neutral AAs, such as the antiporter LAT2/CD98hc (SLC7A8/SLC3A2), a heterodimer that exports most neutral AAs, and the uniporter TAT1 (SLC16A10), which exports only aromatic AAs, remain unclear. Functional cooperation between TAT1 and LAT2/CD98hc has been suggested by in vitro studies but has not been evaluated in vivoMethods To study the functional relationship of TAT1 and LAT2/CD98hc in vivo, we generated a double-knockout mouse model lacking TAT1 and LAT2, the catalytic subunit of LAT2/CD98hc (dKO LAT2-TAT1 mice).Results Compared with mice lacking only TAT1 or LAT2, dKO LAT2-TAT1 mice lost larger amounts of aromatic and other neutral AAs in their urine due to a tubular reabsorption defect. Notably, dKO mice also displayed decreased tubular reabsorption of cationic AAs and increased expression of y+LAT1/CD98hc.Conclusions The LAT2/CD98hc and TAT1 transporters functionally cooperate in vivo, and y+LAT1/CD98hc may compensate for the loss of LAT2/CD98hc and TAT1, functioning as a neutral AA exporter at the expense of some urinary loss of cationic AAs. Cooperative and compensatory mechanisms of AA transporters may explain the lack of basolateral neutral aminoacidurias in humans.
Project description:Functional expression in heterologous hosts is often less successful for integral membrane proteins than for soluble proteins. Here, two Ambrosiozyma monospora transporters were successfully expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as tagged proteins. Growth of A. monospora on l-arabinose instead of glucose caused transport activities of l-arabinose, l-arabitol, and ribitol, measured using l-[1-(3)H]arabinose, l-[(14)C]arabitol, and [(14)C]ribitol of demonstrated purity. A. monospora LAT1 and LAT2 genes were cloned earlier by using their ability to improve the growth of genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae on l-arabinose. However, the l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of S. cerevisiae carrying LAT1 or LAT2 are only slightly greater than those of control strains. S. cerevisiae carrying the LAT1 or LAT2 gene fused in frame to the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (mCherry) or adenylate kinase (AK) exhibited large (>3-fold for LAT1; >20-fold for LAT2) increases in transport activities. Lat1-mCherry transported l-arabinose with high affinity (Km ? 0.03 mM) and l-arabitol and ribitol with very low affinity (Km ? 75 mM). The Lat2-GFP, Lat2-mCherry, and Lat2-AK fusion proteins could not transport l-arabinose but were high-affinity pentitol transporters (Kms ? 0.2 mM). The l-arabinose and pentitol transport activities of A. monospora could not be completely explained by any combination of the observed properties of tagged Lat1 and Lat2, suggesting either that tagging and expression in a foreign membrane alters the transport kinetics of Lat1 and/or Lat2 or that A. monospora contains at least one more l-arabinose transporter.
Project description:The cationic amino acid arginine, due to its positive charge, is usually accumulated in the cytosol. Nevertheless, arginine has to be released by a number of cell types, e.g. kidney cells, which supply other organs with this amino acid, or the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier which release arginine into the brain. Arginine release in mammalian cells can be mediated by two different transporters, y(+)LAT1 and y(+)LAT2. For insertion into the plasma membrane, these transporters have to be associated with the type-II membrane glycoprotein 4F2hc [Torrents, Estevez, Pineda, Fernandez, Lloberas, Shi, Zorzano and Palacin (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32437-32445]. The present study elucidates the function and distribution of y(+)LAT2. In contrast to y(+)LAT1, which is expressed mainly in kidney epithelial cells, lung and leucocytes, y(+)LAT2 has a wider tissue distribution, including brain, heart, testis, kidney, small intestine and parotis. When co-expressed with 4F2hc in Xenopus laevis oocytes, y(+)LAT2 mediated uptake of arginine, leucine and glutamine. Arginine uptake was inhibited strongly by lysine, glutamate, leucine, glutamine, methionine and histidine. Mutual inhibition was observed when leucine or glutamine was used as substrate. Inhibition of arginine uptake by neutral amino acids depended on the presence of Na(+), which is a hallmark of y(+)LAT-type transporters. Although arginine transport was inhibited strongly by glutamate, this anionic amino acid was only weakly transported by 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2. Amino acid transport via 4F2hc/y(+)LAT2 followed an antiport mechanism similar to the other members of this new family. Only preloaded arginine could be released in exchange for extracellular amino acids, whereas marginal release of glutamine or leucine was observed under identical conditions. These results indicated that arginine has the highest affinity for the intracellular binding site and that arginine release may be the main physiological function of this transporter.
Project description:The feto-placental unit relies on a maternal supply of indispensable amino acids and iodothyronines for early development and normal growth. We examined the role of the System L transporter in placental uptake of these substances, using the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo as a model experimental system. BeWo cells express both heavy (4F2hc) and light (LAT1, LAT2) chains of the System L holotransporter. Saturable transport of both L-[(3)H]tryptophan and [(125)I]tri-iodo-L-thyronine in BeWo cells includes components sensitive to inhibition by the System-L-specific substrate 2-endoamino-bicycloheptane-2-carboxylic acid; kinetic properties of these components indicate that the 4F2hc-LAT1 transporter isoform is likely to predominate for the carriage of both substances at physiologically relevant concentrations. Both 4F2hc and LAT1 proteins are also expressed in human placental membranes and LAT1 at least is localized largely to the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the term human placenta. The 4F2hc-LAT1 transporter might therefore serve a vital role in supplying the developing fetus and the placenta with both thyroid hormones and indispensable amino acids from the maternal circulation.