Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI) is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP) by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups.Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110).Biomechanics laboratory and community.Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed.Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI), as well as predictors of pain reduction.Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks.Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33%) were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697). When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease), again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146). Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030), after adjusting for baseline pain levels.The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were similar in effectiveness for treatment of PFP.Altering KAAI should be a focus of future PFP research. Lateral wedges should be studied further as an alternative therapy to medial wedges for management of PFP.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01332110.
Project description:Pronated foot posture is associated with many clinical and biomechanical outcomes unique to medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). Though shoe-worn insole treatment, including lateral wedges, is commonly studied in this patient population, their effects on the specific subgroup of people with medial knee OA and concomitant pronated feet are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether lateral wedge insoles with custom arch support are more beneficial than lateral wedge insoles alone for knee and foot symptoms in people with medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis (OA) and pronated feet.Twenty-six people with pronated feet and symptomatic medial knee OA participated in a randomized crossover study comparing five degree lateral wedge foot insoles with and without custom foot arch support. Each intervention was worn for two months, separated by a two-month washout period of no insoles wear. Main outcomes included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and physical function subscales, the revised short-form Foot Function Index (FFI-R) pain and stiffness subscales, and the timed stair climb test. Regression modeling was conducted to examine treatment, period, and interaction effects.Twenty-two participants completed the study, and no carryover or interaction effects were observed for any outcome. Significant treatment effects were observed for the timed stair climb, with greater improvements seen with the lateral wedges with arch support. Within-condition significant improvements were observed for WOMAC pain and physical function, as well as FFI-R pain and stiffness with lateral wedges with arch support use. More adverse effects were reported with the lateral wedges alone, while more people preferred the lateral wedges with arch support overall.Addition of custom arch support to a standard lateral wedge insole may improve foot and knee symptoms in people with knee OA and concomitant pronated feet. These preliminary findings suggest further research evaluating the role of shoe-worn insoles for treatment of this specific sub-group of people with knee OA is warranted.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02234895.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:There is no consensus regarding the efficacy of lateral wedge insoles as a treatment for pain in medial knee osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether lateral wedge insoles reduce pain in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis compared with an appropriate control. DATA SOURCES:Databases searched include the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, AMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and BIOSIS from inception to May 2013, with no limits on study date or language. The metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the NHS Evidence website were also searched. STUDY SELECTION:Included were randomized trials comparing shoe-based treatments (lateral heel wedge insoles or shoes with variable stiffness soles) aimed at reducing medial knee load, with a neutral or no wedge control condition in patients with painful medial knee osteoarthritis. Studies must have included patient-reported pain as an outcome. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Trial data were extracted independently by 2 researchers using a standardized form. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool by 2 observers. Eligible studies were pooled using a random-effects approach. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES:Change in self-reported knee pain at follow-up. RESULTS:Twelve trials met inclusion criteria with a total of 885 participants of whom 502 received lateral wedge treatment. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) suggested a favorable association with lateral wedges compared with control (SMD, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.14); however, substantial heterogeneity was present (I2?=?82.7%). This effect size represents an effect of -2.12 points on the 20-point Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scale. Larger trials with a lower risk of bias suggested a null association. Meta-regression analyses showed that higher effect sizes (unstandardized ?, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.28 to 1.87] for trials using a no treatment control) were seen in trials using a no wedge treatment control group (n?=?4 trials; SMD, -1.20 [95% CI, -2.09 to -0.30]) and lower effect sizes (unstandardized ?, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.002 to 0.52] for each bias category deemed low risk) when the study method was deemed at low risk of bias. Among trials in which the control treatment was a neutral insole (n?=?7), lateral wedges showed no association (SMD, -0.03 [95% CI, -0.18 to 0.12] on WOMAC; this represents an effect of -0.12 points), and results showed little heterogeneity (I2?=?7.1%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Although meta-analytic pooling of all studies showed a statistically significant association between use of lateral wedges and lower pain in medial knee osteoarthritis, restriction of studies to those using a neutral insole comparator did not show a significant or clinically important association. These findings do not support the use of lateral wedges for this indication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diminished somatosensory function is a critical age-related change which is related to postural instability in the older population. Footwear is a cost-effective way to modulate the postural stability by altering sensorimotor inputs via mechanoreceptors on the plantar surface of the feet. Compared to insoles with indentions in the entire surface, we innovatively developed a textured insole with site-specific nodulous protrudous. This study thus aimed to investigate the immediate effect of the nodulous insole and supporting surface condition on static postural stability and lower limb muscle activation for healthy older women. METHODS:This is a single-session study with repeated measurements. Twenty-three healthy older women stood on the firm (i.e., concrete floor) and foam surfaces with their eyes open in the three footwear conditions, namely barefoot, plain shoes and shoes with an innovative textured insole, for 30 seconds. Static postural sway and muscle activation of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) of the dominant leg were measured during each testing condition. RESULTS:Compared to a firm surface, standing on the foam could significantly increase the body sway and lower limb muscle activation (p<0.05). When standing on the foam, compared to barefoot, wearing footwear significantly decreased the VL and TA muscle activation and minimize the postural sway in medial-lateral and anterior-posterior direction, while the influence is larger for the shoes with nodulous insloe compared to the plain shoes. No significant differences between the footwear conditions for static stability and muscle activation were observed on firm surface condition. CONCLUSIONS:For older women, footwear could improve the postural stability in the unstable surface, particularly the footwear with nodulous insole, with the underlying mechanism as enhancing the mechanoreceptors on the plantar surface of the feet.
Project description:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression has been linked to increased peak external knee adduction moments (KAMs). Although some trials have attempted to reduce pain and improve function in OA by reducing KAMs with a wedged footwear insole intervention, KAM reduction has not been specifically controlled for in trial designs, potentially explaining the mixed results seen in the literature. Therefore, the primary purpose of this trial is to identify the effects of reduced KAMs on knee OA pain and function.Forty-six patients with radiographically confirmed diagnosis medial knee OA will be recruited for this 3 month randomized controlled trial. Recruitment will be from Alberta and surrounding areas. Eligibility criteria include being between the ages of 40 and 85 years, have knee OA primarily localized to the medial tibiofemoral compartment, based on the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria and be classified as having a Kellgren-Lawrence grade of 1 to 3. Patients will visit the laboratory at baseline for testing that includes dual x-ray absorptiometry, biomechanical testing, and surveys (KOOS, PASE activity scale, UCLA activity scale, comfort visual analog scale). At baseline, patients will be randomized to either a wedged insole group to reduce KAMs, or a waitlist control group where no intervention is provided. The survey tests will be repeated at 3 months, and response to wedged insoles over 3 months will be evaluated.This study represents the first step in systematically evaluating the effects of reduced KAMs on knee OA management by using a patient-specific wedged insole prescription procedure rather than providing the same insole to all patients. The results of this trial will provide indications as to whether reduced KAMs are an effective strategy for knee OA management, and whether a personalized approach to footwear insole prescription is warranted.NCT02067208.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Athletes with chronic ankle instability (CAI) often develop complications such as pain, instability, and reduced postural control and balance stability, all of which affect athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a 4° medal wedge intervention on static and dynamic balance in athletes with CAI. METHODS:The participants were 24 healthy and 25 CAI athletes. Participants received a 4° medial wedge applied at the rear foot insole and completed the experiment measurements before and after the wedge intervention. The main outcome measures included the area and path length of the center of pressure when participants performed single-leg standing balance in the closed eye condition and the dynamic balance scores of a multiple single-leg hop stabilization test. RESULTS:The single-leg standing balance significantly improved in CAI (P = .027) and control groups (P = .005) after the medial wedge intervention. The dynamic balance scores significantly decreased from 53.00 ± 25.22 to 41.24 ± 21 48 (P = .015) in CAI group after medial wedge intervention. CONCLUSION:Wearing a 4° medial wedge applied at the rear foot insole improved static and dynamic balance immediately in athletes with CAI. We suggest that clinicians may provide the foot insole to improve balance deficit in athletes having CAI.
Project description:Lateral wedge insoles have been used for the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) and have been shown to reduce loading of the medial compartment of the knee. However, as the entire lower extremity acts as a single kinetic chain, altering the biomechanics of the knee may also have significant effects at the ankles or hips. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lateral wedge orthotics on ankle and hip joints, compared to neutral orthotics, by assessing the changes in joint space width (JSW) during 36 months of continuous use.We prospectively enrolled 109 subjects with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the medial knee according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. The trial was double blind and patients were randomized to either wedged or neutral orthotic shoe inserts. Hip and ankle JSWs were quantified using plain radiographies at baseline and at 36-months follow-up.45 patients completed the 36 month study. 31 of those who completed the study were using the lateral wedge versus 14 were using neutral orthotics. 2 patients in the wedge group had missing radiographs and were not included in the JSW analyses. There were no significant differences between the wedge and the neutral orthotics groups in the magnitude of JSW change at either the hip or the ankles at 36 month.We found no significant adverse effects of the lateral wedges on ankles or hips. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00076453).
Project description:Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading.
Project description:Lateral wedge insoles are a potential simple treatment for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients by reducing the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). However in some patients, an increase in their EKAM is seen. Understanding the role of the ankle joint complex in the response to lateral wedge insoles is critical in understanding and potentially identifying why some patients respond differently to lateral wedge insoles.Participants with medial tibiofemoral OA underwent gait analysis whilst walking in a control shoe and a lateral wedge insole. We evaluated if dynamic ankle joint complex coronal plane biomechanical measures could explain and identify those participants that increased (biomechanical non-responder) or decreased (biomechanical responder) EKAM under lateral wedge conditions compared to the control shoe.Of the 70 participants studied (43 male), 33% increased their EKAM and 67% decreased their EKAM. Overall, lateral wedge insoles shifted the centre of foot pressure laterally, increased eversion of the ankle/subtalar joint complex (STJ) and the eversion moment compared to the control condition. Ankle angle at peak EKAM and peak eversion ankle/STJ complex angle in the control condition predicted if individuals were likely to decrease EKAM under lateral wedge conditions.Coronal plane ankle/STJ complex biomechanical measures play a key role in reducing EKAM when wearing lateral wedge insoles. These findings may assist in the identification of those individuals that could benefit more from wearing lateral wedge insoles.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In people with diabetes, offloading high-risk foot regions by optimising footwear, or insoles, may prevent ulceration. This systematic review aimed to summarise and evaluate the evidence for footwear and insole features that reduce pathological plantar pressures and the occurrence of diabetic neuropathy ulceration at the plantar forefoot in people with diabetic neuropathy. METHODS:Six electronic databases (Medline, Cinahl, Amed, Proquest, Scopus, Academic Search Premier) were searched in July 2019. The search period was from 1987 to July 2019. Articles, in English, using footwear or insoles as interventions in patients with diabetic neuropathy were reviewed. Any study design was eligible for inclusion except systematic literature reviews and case reports. Search terms were diabetic foot, physiopathology, foot deformities, neuropath*, footwear, orthoses, shoe, footwear prescription, insole, sock*, ulcer prevention, offloading, foot ulcer, plantar pressure. RESULTS:Twenty-five studies were reviewed. The included articles used repeated measure (n?=?12), case-control (n?=?3), prospective cohort (n?=?2), randomised crossover (n?=?1), and randomised controlled trial (RCT) (n?=?7) designs. This involved a total of 2063 participants. Eleven studies investigated footwear, and 14 studies investigated insoles as an intervention. Six studies investigated ulcer recurrence; no study investigated the first occurrence of ulceration. The most commonly examined outcome measures were peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and total contact area. Methodological quality varied. Strong evidence existed for rocker soles to reduce peak plantar pressure. Moderate evidence existed for custom insoles to offload forefoot plantar pressure. There was weak evidence that insole contact area influenced plantar pressure. CONCLUSION:Rocker soles, custom-made insoles with metatarsal additions and a high degree of contact between the insole and foot reduce plantar pressures in a manner that may reduce ulcer occurrence. Most studies rely on reduction in plantar pressure measures as an outcome, rather than the occurrence of ulceration. There is limited evidence to inform footwear and insole interventions and prescription in this population. Further high-quality studies in this field are required.
Project description:To assess the effect of lateral wedge insoles compared with flat control insoles on improving symptoms and slowing structural disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis.Randomised controlled trial.Community in Melbourne, Australia.200 people aged 50 or more with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of mild to moderately severe medial knee osteoarthritis.Full length 5 degree lateral wedged insoles or flat control insoles worn inside the shoes daily for 12 months.Primary symptomatic outcome was change in overall knee pain (past week) measured on an 11 point numerical rating scale. Primary structural outcome was change in volume of medial tibial cartilage from magnetic resonance imaging scans. Secondary clinical outcomes included changes in measures of pain, function, stiffness, and health related quality of life. Secondary structural outcomes included progression of medial cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions.Between group differences did not differ significantly for the primary outcomes of change in overall pain (-0.3 points, 95% confidence intervals -1.0 to 0.3) and change in medial tibial cartilage volume (-0.4 mm(3), 95% confidence interval -15.4 to 14.6), and confidence intervals did not include minimal clinically important differences. None of the changes in secondary outcomes showed differences between groups.Lateral wedge insoles worn for 12 months provided no symptomatic or structural benefits compared with flat control insoles. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12605000503628 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415259.