Superconductivity Series in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Ionic Gating.
ABSTRACT: Functionalities of two-dimensional (2D) crystals based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have now stemmed from simple field effect transistors (FETs) to a variety of electronic and opto-valleytronic devices, and even to superconductivity. Among them, superconductivity is the least studied property in TMDs due to methodological difficulty accessing it in different TMD species. Here, we report the systematic study of superconductivity in MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 by ionic gating in different regimes. Electrostatic gating using ionic liquid was able to induce superconductivity in MoSe2 but not in MoTe2 because of inefficient electron accumulation limited by electronic band alignment. Alternative gating using KClO4/polyethylene glycol enabled a crossover from surface doping to bulk doping, which induced superconductivities in MoTe2 and WS2 electrochemically. These new varieties greatly enriched the TMD superconductor families and unveiled critical methodology to expand the capability of ionic gating to other materials.
Project description:Developing processes to controllably dope transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is critical for optical and electrical applications. Here, molecular reductants and oxidants are introduced onto monolayer TMDs, specifically MoS2 , WS2 , MoSe2 , and WSe2 . Doping is achieved by exposing the TMD surface to solutions of pentamethylrhodocene dimer as the reductant (n-dopant) and "Magic Blue," [N(C6 H4 -p-Br)3 ]SbCl6 , as the oxidant (p-dopant). Current-voltage characteristics of field-effect transistors show that, regardless of their initial transport behavior, all four TMDs can be used in either p- or n-channel devices when appropriately doped. The extent of doping can be controlled by varying the concentration of dopant solutions and treatment time, and, in some cases, both nondegenerate and degenerate regimes are accessible. For all four TMD materials, the photoluminescence intensity; for all four materials the PL intensity is enhanced with p-doping but reduced with n-doping. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also provide insight into the underlying physical mechanism by which the molecular dopants react with the monolayer. Estimates of changes of carrier density from electrical, PL, and XPS results are compared. Overall a simple and effective route to tailor the electrical and optical properties of TMDs is demonstrated.
Project description:Growing concerns regarding the safety, flammability and hazards posed by Li-ion systems have led to research on alternative rechargeable metal-ion electrochemical storage technologies. Among the most notable of these are Na-ion supercapacitors and batteries, motivated, in part, by the similar electrochemistry of Li and Na ions. However, sodium ion batteries (SIBs) come with their own set of issues, especially the large size of the Na+ ion, its relatively sluggish kinetics and low energy densities. This makes the development of novel materials and appropriate electrode architecture of absolute significance. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted a lot of attention in this regard due to their relative ease of exfoliation, diverse morphologies and architectures with superior electronic properties. Here, we study the electrochemical performance of Mo-based two-dimensional (2D) layered TMDs (e.g. MoS2, MoSe2 and MoTe2), exfoliated in a superacid, for battery and supercapacitor applications. The exfoliated TMD flakes were interfaced with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to be used as composite electrodes. Electron microscopy, elemental mapping and Raman spectra were used to analyse the exfoliated material and confirm the formation of 2D TMD/rGO layer morphology. For supercapacitor applications in aqueous electrolyte, the sulfide-based TMD (MoS2) exhibited the best performance, providing an areal capacitance of 60.25 mF cm-2. For SIB applications, TMD electrodes exhibited significantly higher charge capacities than the neat rGO electrode. The initial desodiation capacities for the composite electrodes are 468.84 mAh g-1 (1687.82 C g-1), 399.10 mAh g-1 (1436.76 C g-1) and 387.36 mAh g-1 (1394.49 C g-1) for MoS2, MoSe2 and MoTe2, respectively. Also, the MoS2 and MoSe2 composite electrodes provided a coulombic efficiency of near 100 % after a few initial cycles.
Project description:Many recent studies show that superconductivity not only exists in atomically thin monolayers but can exhibit enhanced properties such as a higher transition temperature and a stronger critical field. Nevertheless, besides being unstable in air, the weak tunability in these intrinsically metallic monolayers has limited the exploration of monolayer superconductivity, hindering their potential in electronic applications (e.g., superconductor-semiconductor hybrid devices). Here we show that using field effect gating, we can induce superconductivity in monolayer WS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition, a typical ambient-stable semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD), and we are able to access a complete set of competing electronic phases over an unprecedented doping range from band insulator, superconductor, to a reentrant insulator at high doping. Throughout the superconducting dome, the Cooper pair spin is pinned by a strong internal spin-orbit interaction, making this material arguably the most resilient superconductor in the external magnetic field. The reentrant insulating state at positive high gating voltages is attributed to localization induced by the characteristically weak screening of the monolayer, providing insight into many dome-like superconducting phases observed in field-induced quasi-2D superconductors.
Project description:The difficulty of processing two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials into working devices with any scalability is one of the largest impediments to capitalizing on their industrial promise. Here, we describe a versatile, simple, and scalable technique to directly grow self-contacted thin-film materials over a range of TMDs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2), where predeposited bulk metallic contacts serve as the nucleation site for the TMD material to grow, forming naturally contacted device structures in a single step. The conditions for growth as well as optical and physical properties are reported. Because the material grows controllably around the lithographically defined patterns, wafer scale circuits and complex device geometries can be envisioned, including lateral heterostructures of different TMD materials.
Project description:Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are interesting for understanding the fundamental physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials as well as for applications to many emerging technologies, including spin electronics. Here, we report the discovery of long-range magnetic order below T M = 40 and 100 K in bulk semiconducting TMDs 2H-MoTe2 and 2H-MoSe2, respectively, by means of muon spin rotation (?SR), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The ?SR measurements show the presence of large and homogeneous internal magnetic fields at low temperatures in both compounds indicative of long-range magnetic order. DFT calculations show that this magnetism is promoted by the presence of defects in the crystal. The STM measurements show that the vast majority of defects in these materials are metal vacancies and chalcogen-metal antisites, which are randomly distributed in the lattice at the subpercent level. DFT indicates that the antisite defects are magnetic with a magnetic moment in the range of 0.9 to 2.8 ?B. Further, we find that the magnetic order stabilized in 2H-MoTe2 and 2H-MoSe2 is highly sensitive to hydrostatic pressure. These observations establish 2H-MoTe2 and 2H-MoSe2 as a new class of magnetic semiconductors and open a path to studying the interplay of 2D physics and magnetism in these interesting semiconductors.
Project description:Chalcogen vacancies are generally considered to be the most common point defects in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors because of their low formation energy in vacuum and their frequent observation in transmission electron microscopy studies. Consequently, unexpected optical, transport, and catalytic properties in 2D-TMDs have been attributed to in-gap states associated with chalcogen vacancies, even in the absence of direct experimental evidence. Here, we combine low-temperature non-contact atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art ab initio density functional theory and GW calculations to determine both the atomic structure and electronic properties of an abundant chalcogen-site point defect common to MoSe2 and WS2 monolayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition, respectively. Surprisingly, we observe no in-gap states. Our results strongly suggest that the common chalcogen defects in the described 2D-TMD semiconductors, measured in vacuum environment after gentle annealing, are oxygen substitutional defects, rather than vacancies.
Project description:To date, the in situ fabrication of the large-scale van der Waals multi-heterojunction transition metal dichalcogenides (multi-TMDs) is significantly challenging using conventional deposition methods. In this study, vertically stacked centimeter-scale multi-TMD (MoS2/WS2/WSe2 and MoS2/WSe2) thin films are successfully fabricated via sequential pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which is an in situ growth process. The fabricated MoS2/WS2/WSe2 thin film on p-type silicon (p-Si) substrate is designed to form multistaggered gaps (type-II band structure) with p-Si, and this film exhibits excellent spatial and thickness uniformity, which is verified by Raman spectroscopy. Among various application fields, MoS2/WS2/WSe2 is applied to the thin-film catalyst of a p-Si photocathode, to effectively transfer the photogenerated electrons from p-Si to the electrolyte in the photo-electrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution. From a comparison between the PEC performances of the homostructure TMDs (homo-TMDs)/p-Si and multi-TMDs/p-Si, it is demonstrated that the multistaggered gap of multi-TMDs/p-Si improves the PEC performance significantly more than the homo-TMDs/p-Si and bare p-Si by effective charge transfer. The new in situ growth process for the fabrication of multi-TMD thin films offers a novel and innovative method for the application of multi-TMD thin films to various fields.
Project description:The fermi-level pinning phenomenon, which occurs at the metal-semiconductor interface, not only obstructs the achievement of high-performance field effect transistors (FETs) but also results in poor long-term stability. This paper reports on the improvement in gate-bias stress stability in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) FETs with a titanium dioxide (TiO2) interfacial layer inserted between the 2D TMDs (MoS2 or WS2) and metal electrodes. Compared to the control MoS2, the device without the TiO2 layer, the TiO2 interfacial layer deposited on 2D TMDs could lead to more effective carrier modulation by simply changing the contact metal, thereby improving the performance of the Schottky-barrier-modulated FET device. The TiO2 layer could also suppress the Fermi-level pinning phenomenon usually fixed to the metal-semiconductor interface, resulting in an improvement in transistor performance. Especially, the introduction of the TiO2 layer contributed to achieving stable device performance. Threshold voltage variation of MoS2 and WS2 FETs with the TiO2 interfacial layer was ~2 V and ~3.6 V, respectively. The theoretical result of the density function theory validated that mid-gap energy states created within the bandgap of 2D MoS2 can cause a doping effect. The simple approach of introducing a thin interfacial oxide layer offers a promising way toward the implementation of high-performance 2D TMD-based logic circuits.
Project description:As a fast emerging topic, van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have been proposed to modify two-dimensional layered materials with desired properties, thus greatly extending the applications of these materials. In this work, the stacking characteristics, electronic structures, band edge alignments, charge density distributions and optical properties of blue phosphorene/transition metal dichalcogenides (BlueP/TMDs) vdW heterostructures were systematically studied based on vdW corrected density functional theory. Interestingly, the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are located in different parts of BlueP/MoSe2, BlueP/WS2 and BlueP/WSe2 heterostructures. The MoSe2, WS2 or WSe2 layer can be used as the electron donor and the BlueP layer can be used as the electron acceptor. We further found that the optical properties under visible-light irradiation of BlueP/TMDs vdW heterostructures are significantly improved. In particular, the predicted upper limit energy conversion efficiencies of BlueP/MoS2 and BlueP/MoSe2 heterostructures reach as large as 1.16% and 0.98%, respectively, suggesting their potential applications in efficient thin-film solar cells and optoelectronic devices.
Project description:Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract intence attention due to its unique optoelectrical features. Recent progress in production stage of TMD enables us to synthesis uniform and large area TMD with mono layer thickness. Elucidation of growth mechanism is a challenge to improve the crystallinity of TMD, which is regargeded as a next crutial subject in the production stage. Here we report novel diffusion and nucleation dynamics during tungsten disulphide (WS2) growth. The diffusion length (Ld) of the precursors have been measured with unique nucleation control methods. It was revealed that the Ld reaches up to ~750 ?m. This ultra-long diffusion can be attributed to precursor droplets observed during in-situ monitoring of WS2 growth. The integrated synthesis of >35,000 single crystals and monolayer WS2 was achieved at the wafer scale based on this model. Our findings are highly significant for both the fundamental study of droplet-mediated crystal growth and the industrial application of integrated single-crystal TMDs.