Molecular cloning of cDNA for double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase, a candidate enzyme for nuclear RNA editing.
ABSTRACT: We have cloned human cDNA encoding double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (DRADA). DRADA is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that converts multiple adenosines to inosines in double-helical RNA substrates without apparent sequence specificity. The A --> I conversion activity of the protein encoded by the cloned cDNA was confirmed by recombinant expression in insect cells. Use of the cloned DNA as a molecular probe documented sequence conservation across mammals and detected a single transcript of 7 kb in RNA of all human tissues analyzed. The deduced primary structure of human DRADA revealed a bipartite nuclear localization signal, three repeats of a double-stranded RNA binding motif, and the presence of sequences conserved in the catalytic center of other deaminases, including a cytidine deaminase involved in the RNA editing of apolipoprotein B. These structural properties are consistent with the enzymatic signature of DRADA, and strengthen the hypothesis that DRADA carries out the RNA editing of transcripts encoding glutamate-gated ion channels in brain.
Project description:The RNA-editing enzyme adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (ADAR1) deaminates adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNA substrates. Currently, it is not clear how the enzyme targets and discriminates different substrates in vivo. However, it has been shown that the deaminase domain plays an important role in distinguishing various adenosines within a given substrate RNA in vitro. Previously, we could show that Xenopus ADAR1 is associated with nascent transcripts on transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes, indicating that initial substrate binding and possibly editing itself occurs cotranscriptionally. Here, we demonstrate that chromosomal association depends solely on the three double-stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) found in the central part of ADAR1, but not on the Z-DNA-binding domain in the NH2 terminus nor the catalytic deaminase domain in the COOH terminus of the protein. Most importantly, we show that individual dsRBDs are capable of recognizing different chromosomal sites in an apparently specific manner. Thus, our results not only prove the requirement of dsRBDs for chromosomal targeting, but also show that individual dsRBDs have distinct in vivo localization capabilities that may be important for initial substrate recognition and subsequent editing specificity.
Project description:ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) is an RNA-editing enzyme present in most metazoans that converts adenosines in double-stranded RNA targets into inosines. Although the RNA targets of ADAR-mediated editing have been extensively cataloged, our understanding of the cellular function of such editing remains incomplete. We report that long, double-stranded RNA added to Xenopus laevis egg extract is incorporated into an ADAR-containing complex whose protein components resemble those of stress granules. This complex localizes to microtubules, as assayed by accumulation on meiotic spindles. We observe that the length of a double-stranded RNA influences its incorporation into the microtubule-localized complex. ADAR forms a similar complex with endogenous RNA, but the endogenous complex fails to localize to microtubules. In addition, we characterize the endogenous, ADAR-associated RNAs and discover that they are enriched for transcripts encoding transcriptional regulators, zinc-finger proteins, and components of the secretory pathway. Interestingly, association with ADAR correlates with previously reported translational repression in early embryonic development. This work demonstrates that ADAR is a component of two, distinct ribonucleoprotein complexes that contain different types of RNAs and exhibit diverse cellular localization patterns. Our findings offer new insight into the potential cellular functions of ADAR.
Project description:Inosine is an abundant RNA modification in the human transcriptome and is essential for many biological processes in modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosines to inosines (A-to-I editing) in double-stranded regions. We previously established a biochemical method called "inosine chemical erasing" (ICE) to directly identify inosines on RNA strands with high reliability. Here, we have applied the ICE method combined with deep sequencing (ICE-seq) to conduct an unbiased genome-wide screening of A-to-I editing sites in the transcriptome of human adult brain. Taken together with the sites identified by the conventional ICE method, we mapped 19,791 novel sites and newly found 1258 edited mRNAs, including 66 novel sites in coding regions, 41 of which cause altered amino acid assignment. ICE-seq detected novel editing sites in various repeat elements as well as in short hairpins. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these edited mRNAs are associated with transcription, energy metabolism, and neurological disorders, providing new insights into various aspects of human brain functions.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on dsRNA (ADARs) are enzymes that target double-stranded regions of RNA converting adenosines into inosines (A-to-I editing) thus contributing to genome complexity and fine regulation of gene expression. It has been described that a member of the ADAR family, ADAR1, can target viruses and affect their replication process. Here we report evidence showing that ADAR1 stimulates human immuno deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by using both editing-dependent and editing-independent mechanisms. We show that over-expression of ADAR1 in HIV-1 producer cells increases viral protein accumulation in an editing-independent manner. Moreover, HIV-1 virions generated in the presence of over-expressed ADAR1 but not an editing-inactive ADAR1 mutant are released more efficiently and display enhanced infectivity, as demonstrated by challenge assays performed with T cell lines and primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Finally, we report that ADAR1 associates with HIV-1 RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and the Rev and Tat coding sequence. Overall these results suggest that HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to take advantage of specific RNA editing activity of the host cell and disclose a stimulatory function of ADAR1 in the spread of HIV-1.
Project description:An important molecular mechanism to create protein diversity from a limited set of genes is A-to-I RNA editing. RNA editing converts single adenosines into inosines in pre-mRNA. These single base conversions can have a wide variety of consequences. Editing can lead to codon changes and, consequently, altered protein function. Moreover, editing can alter splice sites and influences miRNA biogenesis and target recognition. The two enzymes responsible for editing in mammals are adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) 1 and 2. However, it is currently largely unknown how the activity of these enzymes is regulated in vivo. Editing activity does not always correlate with ADAR expression levels, suggesting posttranscriptional or posttranslational mechanisms for controlling activity. To investigate how editing is regulated in mammalian cells, we have developed a straightforward quantitative reporter system to detect editing levels. By employing luciferase activity as a readout, we could easily detect different levels of editing in a cellular context. In addition, increased levels of ADAR2 correlated with increased levels of luciferase activity. This reporter system therefore sets the stage for the effective screening of cDNA libraries or small molecules for strong modulators of intracellular editing to ultimately elucidate how A-to-I editing is regulated in vivo.
Project description:Deamination of adenosine in RNA to form inosine has wide ranging consequences on RNA function including amino acid substitution to give proteins not encoded in the genome. What determines which adenosines in an mRNA are subject to this modification reaction? The answer lies in an understanding of the mechanism and substrate recognition properties of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Our recent publication of X-ray crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA editing substrates shed considerable light on how the catalytic domains of these enzymes bind RNA and promote adenosine deamination. Here we review in detail the deaminase domain-RNA contact surfaces and present models of how full length ADARs, bearing double stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and deaminase domains, could process naturally occurring substrate RNAs.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA bind double-stranded and structured RNAs and convert adenosines to inosines by hydrolytic deamination. Inosines are recognized as guanosines, and, hence, RNA editing alters the sequence information but also structure of RNAs. Editing by ADARs is widespread and essential for normal life and development. Precursors of miRNAs are abundantly edited by ADARs, but neither the abundance nor the consequences of miRNA editing has been firmly established. Using transgenic mouse embryos that are deficient in the two enzymatically active editing enzymes ADAR and ADARB1, we compare relative frequencies but also sequence composition of miRNAs in these genetically modified backgrounds to wild-type mice by "next-generation sequencing." Deficiency of ADARB1 leads to a reproducible change in abundance of specific miRNAs and their predicted targets. Changes in miRNA abundance seem unrelated to editing events. Additional deletion of ADAR has surprisingly little impact on the mature miRNA repertoire, indicating that miRNA expression is primarily dependent on ADARB1. A-to-G transitions reflecting A-to-I editing events can be detected at few sites and at low frequency during the early embryonic stage investigated. Again, most editing events are ADARB1-dependent with only few editing sites being specifically edited by ADAR. Besides known editing events in miRNAs, a few novel, previously unknown editing events were identified. Some editing events are located to the seed region of miRNAs, opening the possibility that editing leads to their retargeting.
Project description:Inadequate adenosine-to-inosine editing of noncoding regions occurs in disease but is often uncorrelated with ADAR levels, underscoring the need to study deaminase-independent control of editing. C. elegans have two ADAR proteins, ADR-2 and the theoretically catalytically inactive ADR-1. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing of wild-type and adr mutant worms, we expand the repertoire of C. elegans edited transcripts over 5-fold and confirm that ADR-2 is the only active deaminase in vivo. Despite lacking deaminase function, ADR-1 affects editing of over 60 adenosines within the 3' UTRs of 16 different mRNAs. Furthermore, ADR-1 interacts directly with ADR-2 substrates, even in the absence of ADR-2, and mutations within its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domains abolish both binding and editing regulation. We conclude that ADR-1 acts as a major regulator of editing by binding ADR-2 substrates in vivo. These results raise the possibility that other dsRNA binding proteins, including the inactive human ADARs, regulate RNA editing through deaminase-independent mechanisms.
Project description:Double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific adenosine deaminase converts adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and edits transcripts of certain cellular and viral genes such as glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and hepatitis delta antigen. The first member of this type of deaminase, DRADA1, has been recently cloned based on the amino acid sequence information derived from biochemically purified proteins. Our search for DRADA1-like genes through expressed sequence tag databases led to the cloning of the second member of this class of enzyme, DRADA2, which has a high degree of sequence homology to DRADA1 yet exhibits a distinctive RNA editing site selectivity. There are four differentially spliced isoforms of human DRADA2. These different isoforms of recombinant DRADA2 proteins, including one which is a human homolog of the recently reported rat RED1, were analyzed in vitro for their GluR B subunit (GluR-B) RNA editing site selectivity. As originally reported for rat RED1, the DRADA2a and -2b isoforms edit GluR-B RNA efficiently at the so-called Q/R site, whereas DRADA1 barely edits this site. In contrast, the R/G site of GluR-B RNA was edited efficiently by the DRADA2a and -2b isoforms as well as DRADA1. Isoforms DRADA2c and -2d, which have a distinctive truncated shorter C-terminal structure, displayed weak adenosine-to-inosine conversion activity but no editing activity tested at three known sites of GluR-B RNA. The possible role of these DRADA2c and -2d isoforms in the regulatory mechanism of RNA editing is discussed.
Project description:ADAR (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) editing enzymes target coding and noncoding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and are essential for neuronal function. Early studies showed that ADARs preferentially target adenosines with certain 5' and 3' neighbours. Here we use current Sanger sequencing protocols to perform a more accurate and quantitative analysis. We quantified editing sites in an ?800-bp dsRNA after reaction with human ADAR1 or ADAR2, or their catalytic domains alone. These large data sets revealed that neighbour preferences are mostly dictated by the catalytic domain, but ADAR2's dsRNA-binding motifs contribute to 3' neighbour preferences. For all proteins, the 5' nearest neighbour was most influential, but adjacent bases also affected editing site choice. We developed algorithms to predict editing sites in dsRNA of any sequence, and provide a web-based application. The predictive power of the algorithm on fully base-paired dsRNA, compared with biological substrates containing mismatches, bulges and loops, elucidates structural contributions to editing specificity.