Hormonal contraceptive use and women's risk of HIV acquisition: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
ABSTRACT: The evidence from epidemiological research into whether use of hormonal contraception increases women's risk of HIV acquisition is inconsistent. We did a robust meta-analysis of existing data to provide summary estimates by hormonal contraceptive method which can be used to inform contraceptive guidelines, models, and future studies.We updated a recent systematic review to identify and describe studies that met inclusion criteria. To ensure inclusion of more recent research, we searched PubMed for articles published after December, 2011, using the terms "hormonal contraception", "HIV/acquisition", "injectables", "progestin", and "oral contraceptive pills". We assessed statistical heterogeneity for these studies, and, when appropriate, combined point estimates by hormonal contraception formulation using random-effects models. We assessed publication bias and investigated heterogeneity through subgroup and stratified analyses according to study population and design features.We identified 26 studies, 12 of which met inclusion criteria. There was evidence of an increase in HIV risk in the ten studies of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (pooled hazard ratio [HR] 1·40, 95% CI 1·16-1·69). This risk was lower in the eight studies done in women in the general population (pooled HR 1·31, 95% CI 1·10-1·57). There was substantial between-study heterogeneity in secondary analyses of trials (n=7, I(2) 51·1%, 95% CI 0-79·3). Although individual study estimates suggested an increased risk, substantial heterogeneity between two studies done in women at high risk of HIV infection (I(2) 54%, 0-88·7) precluded pooling estimates. There was no evidence of an increased HIV risk in ten studies of oral contraceptive pills (pooled HR 1·00, 0·86-1·16) or five studies of norethisterone enanthate (pooled HR 1·10, 0·88-1·37).Our findings show a moderate increased risk of HIV acquisition for all women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, with a smaller increase in risk for women in the general population. Whether the risks of HIV observed in our study would merit complete withdrawal of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate needs to be balanced against the known benefits of a highly effective contraceptive.None.
Project description:Some studies suggest that specific hormonal contraceptive methods [particularly depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)] may increase women's HIV acquisition risk. We updated a systematic review to incorporate recent epidemiological data.We searched for articles published between 15 January 2014 and 15 January 2016 and hand-searched reference lists. We identified longitudinal studies comparing users of a specific hormonal contraceptive method against either nonusers of hormonal contraception or users of another specific hormonal contraceptive method. We added newly identified studies to those in the previous review, assessed study quality, created forest plots to display results, and conducted a meta-analysis for data on DMPA versus non-use of hormonal contraception.We identified 10 new reports of which five were considered 'unlikely to inform the primary question'. We focus on the other five reports, along with nine from the previous review, which were considered 'informative but with important limitations'. The preponderance of data for oral contraceptive pills, injectable norethisterone enanthate, and levonorgestrel implants do not suggest an association with HIV acquisition, though data for implants are limited. The new, higher quality studies on DMPA (or nondisaggregated injectables), which had mixed results in terms of statistical significance, had hazard ratios between 1.2 and 1.7, consistent with our meta-analytic estimate for all higher quality studies of hazard ratio 1.4.Although confounding in these observational data cannot be excluded, new information increases concerns about DMPA and HIV acquisition risk in women. If the association is causal, the magnitude of effect is likely hazard ratio 1.5 or less. Data for other hormonal contraceptive methods, including norethisterone enanthate, are largely reassuring.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The effects of sex hormones on the immune defenses of the female genital mucosa and its susceptibility to infections are poorly understood. The injectable hormonal contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may increase the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. We assessed the local concentration in the female genital mucosa of cationic polypeptides with reported antiviral activity in relation to DMPA use. METHODS:HIV-1-uninfected women were recruited from among couples testing for HIV in Nairobi, Kenya. Cervicovaginal secretion samples were collected, and the concentrations of HNP1-3, LL-37, lactoferrin, HBD-2, and SLPI were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of cationic polypeptides in cervicovaginal secretions were compared between women who were not using hormonal contraception and those using DMPA, oral, or implantable contraception. RESULTS:Among 228 women, 165 (72%) reported not using hormonal contraception at enrollment, 41 (18%) used DMPA, 16 (7%) used an oral contraceptive, and 6 (3%) used a contraceptive implant. Compared with nonusers of hormonal contraception, DMPA users had significantly higher mean levels of HNP1-3 (2.38 vs. 2.04 log?? ng/mL; P = 0.024), LL-37 (0.81 vs. 0.40 log10 ng/mL; P = 0.027), and lactoferrin (3.03 vs. 2.60 log?? ng/mL; P = 0.002), whereas SLPI and HBD-2 were similar. CONCLUSIONS:Although all analyzed cationic polypeptides have intrinsic antiviral capacity, their interaction and cumulative effect on female genital mucosa susceptibility to infections in vivo has yet to be unraveled. This study suggests a potential mechanism underlying the effect of DMPA on the innate immune defenses, providing a rationale to investigate its effect on HIV-1 acquisition risk.
Project description:"U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use" (U.S. MEC) 2016 provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions (1). The U.S. MEC is adapted from global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and kept up to date through continual review of published literature (1). CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among women using hormonal contraception and intrauterine devices (IUDs) (2). After careful review, CDC adopted WHO's 2019 updated guidance for inclusion in the U.S. MEC guidance; CDC's updated guidance states that progestin-only injectable contraception (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA]) and IUDs (including levonorgestrel-releasing and copper-bearing) are safe for use without restriction among women at high risk for HIV infection (U.S. MEC category 1 [previously U.S. MEC category 2, advantages outweigh risks]) (Box). CDC's guidance also adds an accompanying clarification for women who wish to use IUDs, which states "Many women at a high risk for HIV infection are also at risk for other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). For these women, refer to the recommendations in the 'U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use' for women with other factors related to STDs, and the 'U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use' on STD screening before IUD insertion" (1,3). Recommendations for other hormonal contraceptive methods (including combined hormonal methods, implants, and progestin-only pills) remain the same; there is also no restriction for their use among women at high risk for HIV infection (U.S. MEC category 1). Finally, CDC clarified that the U.S. MEC recommendations for concurrent use of hormonal contraceptives or IUDs and antiretroviral use for treatment of HIV infection also apply to use of antiretrovirals for prevention of HIV acquisition (preexposure prophylaxis [PrEP]).
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the association between postpartum hormonal contraceptive use and postpartum depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We searched the literature through March 2018 on the association between postpartum hormonal contraception use and incident postpartum depression. We used the United States Preventive Services Task Force framework to assess study quality. RESULTS:Of 167 articles identified, four met inclusion criteria. Two studies found no differences in rates of postpartum depression between women using postpartum depot medroxyprogesterone and those not using hormonal contraception; however, a study of women receiving injectable norethisterone enanthate immediately postpartum found a 2-3-fold increased risk of depression at 6 weeks, though not at 3 months. One study compared combined hormonal contraception, progestin-only pills (POPs), etonogestrel implants and levonorgestrel intrauterine devices (LNG-IUDs) with no hormonal contraception, and found a 35-44% decreased risk of postpartum depression with POPs and LNG-IUDs, a small increased risk of postpartum antidepressant use among women using the etonogestrel implant and vaginal ring, and a decreased risk of antidepressant use with POPs. CONCLUSIONS:Limited evidence found no consistent associations between hormonal contraceptive use and incidence of postpartum depression. Future research would be strengthened by using validated diagnostic measures, careful consideration of confounders, and ensuring adequate follow-up time.
Project description:Injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is one of the most popular contraception methods in areas of high HIV seroprevalence. Evidence is accumulating that use of DMPA might be associated with an increased risk of acquiring HIV-1; however, mechanisms of this association are not completely understood. We conducted a comparative whole genome transcriptome profiling of human ectocervical tissues before and after use of two hormonal contraception methods: injectable DMPA and not linked to increased risk of HIV acquisition combined oral contraceptive (COC). Microarray analysis identified 235 ectocervical genes altered in the DMPA users. The most striking effect of DMPA, but not COC, was a strong dysregulation of genes strategically involved in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function; the alterations were most likely due to the DMPA-induced estrogen deficiency. We also demonstrated inter-individual heterogeneity in gene expression profiles of the DMPA users that clustered into distinct groups. The differential response may explain divergence in reports on effects of DMPA use. We propose that impairment of the cervicovaginal epithelial integrity in response to DMPA administration is the major mechanism underlying a potential increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in DMPA users. Overall design: Participants received hormonal contraception (HC) either DMPA (n=31) or COC (n=32). Ectocervical tissue biopsies were taken at baseline and after six weeks of HC use
Project description:Background: In vitro, animal, biological and observational clinical studies suggest that some hormonal methods, particularly depot medroxyprogesterone acetate - DMPA, may increase women's risk of HIV acquisition. DMPA is the most common contraceptive used in many countries worst affected by the HIV epidemic. To provide robust evidence for contraceptive decision-making among women, clinicians and planners, we are conducting the Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) study in four countries with high HIV incidence and DMPA use: Kenya, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zambia (Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT02550067). Study design: We randomized HIV negative, sexually active women 16-35 years old requesting effective contraception and agreeing to participate to either DMPA, the copper T 380A intrauterine device or levonorgestrel implant. Participants attend a contraception support visit after 1 month and quarterly visits thereafter for up to 18 months. Participants receive a standard HIV prevention package and contraceptive side-effect management at each visit. The primary outcome is HIV seroconversion. Secondary outcomes include pregnancy, serious adverse events and method discontinuation. The sample size of 7800 women provides 80% power to detect a 50% relative increase in HIV risk between any of the three method pairs, assuming 250 incident infections per comparison. Ethical considerations: Several WHO consultations have concluded that current evidence on HIV risk associated with DMPA is inconclusive and that a randomized trial is needed to guide policy, counselling and choice. Previous studies suggest that women without a specific contraceptive preference are willing to accept randomization to different contraceptive methods. Stringent performance standards are monitored by an independent data and safety monitoring board approximately every 6 months. The study has been conducted with extensive stakeholder engagement. Conclusions: The ECHO study is designed to provide robust evidence on the relative risks (HIV acquisition) and benefits (pregnancy prevention) between three effective contraceptive methods.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the potential for a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use. DESIGN:A secondary analysis of women participating in MTN-020/ASPIRE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention. METHODS:Use of a highly effective method of contraception was an eligibility criterion for study participation. Urine pregnancy tests were performed monthly. Pregnancy incidence by arm was calculated separately for each hormonal contraceptive method and compared using an Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model stratified by site and censored at HIV-1 infection. RESULTS:Of 2629 women enrolled, 2310 women returned for follow-up and reported using a hormonal contraceptive method at any point during study participation (1139 in the dapivirine arm and 1171 in the placebo arm). Pregnancy incidence in the dapivirine arm versus placebo among women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate was 0.43% vs. 0.54%, among women using injectable norethisterone enanthate was 1.15% vs. 0%, among women using hormonal implants was 0.22% vs. 0.69%, and among women using oral contraceptive pills was 32.26% vs. 28.01%. Pregnancy incidence did not differ by study arm for any of the hormonal contraceptive methods. CONCLUSIONS:Use of the dapivirine ring does not reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives for pregnancy prevention. Oral contraceptive pill use was associated with high pregnancy incidence, potentially because of poor pill adherence. Injectable and implantable methods were highly effective in preventing pregnancy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:A recent study of HIV serodiscordant couples found that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) were associated with increased HIV risk in the presence, but not in the absence, of bacterial vaginosis. We assessed whether bacterial vaginosis is an effect modifier of the association between hormonal contraception and HIV seroconversion in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. METHODS:Data collected from HIV-negative FSWs from 1993 to 2017 were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between HIV seroconversion and use of DMPA, OCPs, or hormonal contraceptive implants (Norplant, Jadelle). RESULTS:A total of 1985 women contributed 7127 person-years of follow-up; 307 women seroconverted to HIV (4.32/100 person-years). DMPA was significantly associated with elevated risk of HIV seroconversion in women with [aHR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.25; P?=?0.02] and without (aHR 2.08, 95% CI 1.46-2.97; P?<?0.001) bacterial vaginosis (interaction P?=?0.4). Similarly, OCP use was associated with increased HIV risk both in the presence (aHR 1.50, 95% CI 0.94-2.39; P?=?0.09) and absence (aHR 1.61, 95% CI 0.99-2.64; P?=?0.06) of bacterial vaginosis (interaction P?=?0.9), though neither stratum reached statistical significance. Implants were not associated with HIV seroconversion overall (aHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.40-2.45; P?=?0.9), or in women with (aHR 0.65, 95% CI 0.16-2.72; P?=?0.6) and without (aHR 1.39, 95% CI 0.43-4.46; P?=?0.6) bacterial vaginosis (interaction P?=?0.5). CONCLUSION:Bacterial vaginosis had no effect on the associations between hormonal contraceptives and HIV seroconversion in this cohort. Contraceptive implants were not associated with increased HIV risk compared with no contraception.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between the use of hormonal contraception and an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases including HIV-1. We sought to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the effect of hormonal contraception on the immune system. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. METHODS:To delineate the biological mechanisms underlying the effect of hormonal contraceptives on the immune system, we analyzed the functional capacity of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the distribution of vaginal immune cell populations, and the systemic and genital levels of immune mediators in women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), NuvaRing, or combined oral contraceptives (COC). RESULTS:The use of DMPA or NuvaRing was associated with reduced capacity of circulating pDCs to produce interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis (TNF-?) in response to TLR-9 stimulation. Systemic levels of IFN-? and cervicovaginal fluid levels of IFN-?, CXCL10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor were significantly lower in DMPA users compared to control volunteers not using hormonal contraception. The density of CD207 Langerhans cells in the vaginal epithelium was reduced in NuvaRing and combined oral contraceptive users but not in DMPA users. CONCLUSIONS:The presented evidence suggests that the use of some types of hormonal contraception is associated with reduced functional capacity of circulating pDCs and altered immune environment in the female reproductive tract.