Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, ?-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.
Project description:Dysferlinopathies, most commonly limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy, are degenerative myopathies caused by mutations in the DYSF gene encoding the protein dysferlin. Studies of dysferlin have focused on its role in the repair of the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle, but dysferlin's association with calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling proteins in the transverse (t-) tubules suggests additional roles. Here, we reveal that dysferlin is enriched in the t-tubule membrane of mature skeletal muscle fibers. Following experimental membrane stress in vitro, dysferlin-deficient muscle fibers undergo extensive functional and structural disruption of the t-tubules that is ameliorated by reducing external [Ca(2+)] or blocking L-type Ca(2+) channels with diltiazem. Furthermore, we demonstrate that diltiazem treatment of dysferlin-deficient mice significantly reduces eccentric contraction-induced t-tubule damage, inflammation, and necrosis, which resulted in a concomitant increase in postinjury functional recovery. Our discovery of dysferlin as a t-tubule protein that stabilizes stress-induced Ca(2+) signaling offers a therapeutic avenue for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy patients.
Project description:Dysferlinopathy is a progressive muscle disorder that includes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). It is caused by mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene, whose function is to reseal the muscular membrane. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 has been shown to increase misfolded dysferlin in fibroblasts, allowing them to recover their membrane resealing function. Here, we developed a screening system based on myocytes from MM patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. According to the screening, nocodazole was found to effectively increase the level of dysferlin in cells, which, in turn, enhanced membrane resealing following injury by laser irradiation. Moreover, the increase was due to microtubule disorganization and involved autophagy rather than the proteasome degradation pathway. These findings suggest that increasing the amount of misfolded dysferlin using small molecules could represent an effective future clinical treatment for dysferlinopathy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1017-1029.
Project description:Ferlins are multiple-C2-domain proteins involved in Ca2+-triggered membrane dynamics within the secretory, endocytic and lysosomal pathways. In bony vertebrates there are six ferlin genes encoding, in humans, dysferlin, otoferlin, myoferlin, Fer1L5 and 6 and the long noncoding RNA Fer1L4. Mutations in DYSF (dysferlin) can cause a range of muscle diseases with various clinical manifestations collectively known as dysferlinopathies, including limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy. A mutation in MYOF (myoferlin) was linked to a muscular dystrophy accompanied by cardiomyopathy. Mutations in OTOF (otoferlin) can be the cause of nonsyndromic deafness DFNB9. Dysregulated expression of any human ferlin may be associated with development of cancer. This review provides a detailed description of functions of the vertebrate ferlins with a focus on muscle ferlins and discusses the mechanisms leading to disease development.
Project description:Mutations in the gene DYSF, which codes for the protein dysferlin, underlie Miyoshi myopathy and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B in humans and produce a slowly progressing skeletal muscle degenerative disease in mice. Dysferlin is a Ca(2+)-sensing, regulatory protein that is involved in membrane repair after injury. To assess the function of dysferlin in healthy and dystrophic skeletal muscle, we generated skeletal muscle-specific transgenic mice with threefold overexpression of this protein. These mice were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type, and more importantly, the transgene completely rescued the muscular dystrophy (MD) disease in Dysf-null A/J mice. The dysferlin transgene rescued all histopathology and macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle of Dysf(-/-) A/J mice, as well as promoted the rapid recovery of muscle function after forced lengthening contractions. These results indicate that MD in A/J mice is autonomous to skeletal muscle and not initiated by any other cell type. However, overexpression of dysferlin did not improve dystrophic symptoms or membrane instability in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex-lacking Scgd (delta-sarcoglycan) null mouse, indicating that dysferlin functionality is not a limiting factor underlying membrane repair in other models of MD. In summary, the restoration of dysferlin in skeletal muscle fibers is sufficient to rescue the MD in Dysf-deficient mice, although its mild overexpression does not appear to functionally enhance membrane repair in other models of MD.
Project description:Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B, Miyoshi myopathy, and distal myopathy of anterior tibialis are severely debilitating muscular dystrophies caused by genetically determined dysferlin deficiency. In these muscular dystrophies, it is the repair, not the structure, of the plasma membrane that is impaired. Though much is known about the effects of dysferlin deficiency in skeletal muscle, little is known about the role of dysferlin in maintenance of cardiomyocytes. Recent evidence suggests that dysferlin deficiency affects cardiac muscle, leading to cardiomyopathy when stressed. However, neither the morphological location of dysferlin in the cardiomyocyte nor the progression of the disease with age are known. In this study, we examined a mouse model of dysferlinopathy using light and electron microscopy as well as echocardiography and conscious electrocardiography. We determined that dysferlin is normally localized to the intercalated disk and sarcoplasm of the cardiomyocytes. In the absence of dysferlin, cardiomyocyte membrane damage occurs and is localized to the intercalated disk and sarcoplasm. This damage results in transient functional deficits at 10 months of age, but, unlike in skeletal muscle, the cell injury is sublethal and causes only mild cardiomyopathy even at advanced ages.
Project description:Mutations that result in the loss of the protein dysferlin result in defective muscle membrane repair and cause either a form of limb girdle muscular dystrophy (type 2B) or Miyoshi myopathy. Most patients are compound heterozygotes, often carrying one allele with a nonsense mutation. Using dysferlin-deficient mouse and human myocytes, we demonstrated that membrane blebbing in skeletal muscle myotubes in response to hypotonic shock requires dysferlin. Based on this, we developed an in vitro assay to assess rescue of dysferlin function in skeletal muscle myotubes. This blebbing assay may be useful for drug discovery/validation for dysferlin deficiency. With this assay, we demonstrate that the nonsense suppression drug, ataluren (PTC124), is able to induce read-through of the premature stop codon in a patient with a R1905X mutation in dysferlin and produce sufficient functional dysferlin (approximately 15% of normal levels) to rescue myotube membrane blebbing. Thus ataluren is a potential therapeutic for dysferlin-deficient patients harboring nonsense mutations.
Project description:Dysferlin deficiency causes limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B; proximal weakness) and Miyoshi myopathy (distal weakness). Muscle inflammation is often present in dysferlin deficiency, and patients are frequently misdiagnosed as having polymyositis. Because monocytes normally express dysferlin, we hypothesized that monocyte/macrophage dysfunction in dysferlin-deficient patients might contribute to disease onset and progression. We therefore examined phagocytic activity, in the presence and absence of cytokines, in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytes from LGMD2B patients and in the SJL dysferlin-deficient mouse model. Dysferlin-deficient monocytes showed increased phagocytic activity compared with control cells. siRNA-mediated inhibition of dysferlin expression in the J774 macrophage cell line resulted in significantly enhanced phagocytosis, both at baseline and in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for several mononuclear cell activation markers in LGMD2B human muscle and SJL mouse muscle. SJL muscle showed strong up-regulation of endocytic proteins CIMPR, clathrin, and adaptin-alpha, and LGMD2B muscle exhibited decreased expression of decay accelerating factor, which was not dysferlin-specific. We further showed that expression levels of small Rho family GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc 42 were increased in dysferlin-deficient murine immune cells compared with control cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that mild myofiber damage in dysferlin-deficient muscle stimulates an inflammatory cascade that may initiate, exacerbate, and possibly perpetuate the underlying myofiber-specific dystrophic process.
Project description:Biallelic mutations in the dysferlin gene cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B or Miyoshi distal myopathy. We found that nonsense mutations are the most common mutation type among Korean patients with dysferlinopathy; more than half of the patients have at least one nonsense allele, which may be amenable to readthrough therapy. We generated a knockin mouse, <i>dqx</i>, harboring <i>DYSF</i> p.Q832∗ mutation. Homozygous <i>dqx</i> mice lacked dysferlin in skeletal muscle, while 2 weeks of oral ataluren restored dysferlin expression and ameliorated skeletal muscle pathology. Their physical performance improved, and protection against eccentric contractions was noted. The improvement was most evident in mice treated with oral ataluren of 0.9 mg/mL. These improvements were sustained for 8 weeks in ataluren-treated <i>dqx</i> mice, while the parameters of A/J mice treated with ataluren over the same period did not improve. These results support that readthrough therapy by oral ataluren may also be applicable to dysferlinopathy patients with nonsense mutation.
Project description:Resealing of tears in the sarcolemma of myofibers is a necessary step in the repair of muscle tissue. Recent work suggests a critical role for dysferlin in the membrane repair process and that mutations in dysferlin are responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B and Miyoshi myopathy. Beyond membrane repair, dysferlin has been linked to SNARE-mediated exocytotic events including cytokine release and acid sphingomyelinase secretion. However, it is unclear whether dysferlin regulates SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. In this study we demonstrate a direct interaction between dysferlin and the SNARE proteins syntaxin 4 and SNAP-23. In addition, analysis of FRET and in vitro reconstituted lipid mixing assays indicate that dysferlin accelerates syntaxin 4/SNAP-23 heterodimer formation and SNARE-mediated lipid mixing in a calcium-sensitive manner. These results support a function for dysferlin as a calcium-sensing SNARE effector for membrane fusion events.
Project description:Dysferlinopathies are autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene, encoding the dysferlin protein. DYSF mutations lead to a wide range of muscular phenotypes, with the most prominent being Miyoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and the second most common being LGMD. Symptoms generally appear at the end of childhood and, although disease progression is typically slow, walking impairments eventually result. Dysferlin is a modular type II transmembrane protein for which numerous binding partners have been identified. Although dysferlin function is only partially elucidated, this large protein contains seven calcium sensor C2 domains, shown to play a key role in muscle membrane repair. On the basis of this major function, along with detailed clinical observations, it has been possible to design various therapeutic approaches for dysferlin-deficient patients. Among them, exon-skipping and minigene transfer strategies have been evaluated at the preclinical level and, to date, represent promising approaches for clinical trials. This review aims to summarize the pathophysiology of dysferlinopathies and to evaluate the therapeutic potential for treatments currently under development.