Activation of liver-X-receptor ? but not liver-X-receptor ? protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT: Liver-X-receptors, LXR? (NR1H3) and LXR? (NR1H2), encode 2 different but highly homologous isoforms of transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Whether LXR? and LXR? subtypes have discrete roles in the regulation of cardiac physiology/pathology is unknown. We determine the role of each LXR subtype in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury.Mice (wild type; those genetically depleted of LXR?, LXR?, or both; and those overexpressing LXR? or LXR? by in vivo intramyocardial adenoviral vector) were subjected to MI/R injury. Both LXR? and LXR? were detected in wild-type mouse heart. LXR?, but not LXR?, was significantly upregulated after MI/R. Dual activation of LXR? and LXR? by natural and synthetic agonists reduced myocardial infarction and improved contractile function after MI/R. Mechanistically, LXR activation inhibited MI/R-induced oxidative stress and nitrative stress, attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in ischemic/reperfused myocardium. The aforementioned cardioprotective effects of LXR agonists were impaired in the setting of cardiac-specific gene silencing of LXR?, but not LXR? subtype. Moreover, LXR?/? double-knockout and LXR?-knockout mice, but not LXR?-knockout mice, increased MI/R injury, exacerbated MI/R-induced oxidative/nitrative stress, and aggravated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, cardiac LXR?, not LXR?, overexpression via adenoviral transfection suppressed MI/R injury.Our study provides the first direct evidence that the LXR?, but not LXR?, subtype is a novel endogenous cardiac protective receptor against MI/R injury. Drug development strategies specifically targeting LXR? may be beneficial in treating ischemic heart disease.
Project description:Positive evidence from clinical trials has fueled growing acceptance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cardiac diseases; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we investigated the nature and underlying mechanisms of the effects of YiXin-Shu (YXS), an antioxidant-enriched TCM formula, on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. YXS pretreatment significantly reduced infarct size and improved viable myocardium metabolism and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic mice. Mechanistically, YXS attenuated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway (as reflected by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activity, and normalization of Bcl-2 and Bax levels) without altering the death receptor and endoplasmic reticulum-stress death pathways. Moreover, YXS reduced oxidative/nitrative stress (as reflected by decreased superoxide and nitrotyrosine content and normalized pro- and anti-oxidant enzyme levels). Interestingly, YXS upregulated endogenous nuclear receptors including LXR?, PPAR?, PPAR? and ER?, and in-vivo knockdown of cardiac-specific LXR? significantly blunted the cardio-protective effects of YXS. Collectively, these data show that YXS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and oxidative stress and by upregulating LXR?, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical trials and clinical applications.
Project description:Liver X receptor (LXR) plays a critical regulatory role in metabolism and inflammation, and has been demonstrated to be involved in cardiovascular physiology/pathology. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GW3965, a potent LXR agonist, on diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in type 2 diabetic db/db mice.Non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice received either vehicle or LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. Systemic insulin resistance was evaluated by glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Endpoint cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and catheterization. Ventricular tissue was collected for histology and gene/protein expression analysis. Untreated db/db diabetic mice exhibited diastolic dysfunction with adverse structural remodeling (including myocardial fibrosis and increased apoptosis). Treatment with GW3965 remarkably attenuated myocardial dysfunction and structural remodeling in diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, GW3965 restored Akt phosphorylation and inhibited MAP kinases phosphorylation, and reduced oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammation response in the diabetic myocardium.Our data demonstrate that GW3965 exerts a cardioprotective effect against DCM by (at least in part) attenuating insulin resistance, modulating Akt and MAP kinases pathways, and reducing oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory response. These findings strongly suggest that LXR agonist may have therapeutic potential in treating DCM.
Project description:Cardiac injury upon myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of heart failure. The present study aims to investigate the role of EndoA2 in ischemia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac injury. <i>In vivo</i>, we established an MI mouse model by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, and intramyocardial injection of adenoviral EndoA2 (Ad-EndoA2) was used to overexpress EndoA2. <i>In vitro</i>, we used the siRNA and Ad-EndoA2 transfection strategies. Here, we reported that EndoA2 expression was remarkably elevated in the infarct border zone of MI mouse hearts and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) stimulated with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) which mimicked ischemia. We showed that intramyocardial injection of Ad-EndoA2 attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in response to MI injury. Using siRNA for knockdown and Ad-EndoA2 for overexpression, we validated that knockdown of EndoA2 in NRCMs exacerbated OGD-induced NRCM apoptosis, whereas overexpression of EndoA2 attenuates OGD-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, knockdown of EndoA2 activated ER stress response, which increases ER oxidoreductase 1α (ERO1α) and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP<sub>3</sub>R) activity, thus led to increased intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> accumulation, followed by elevated calcineurin activity and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) dephosphorylation. Pretreatment with the IP<sub>3</sub>R inhibitor 2-Aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) attenuated intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> accumulation, and pretreatment with the Ca<sup>2+</sup> chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) or the calcineurin inhibitor Cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibited EndoA2-knockdown-induced NRCM apoptosis. Overexpression of EndoA2 led to the opposite effects by suppressing ER-stress-mediated ERO1α/IP<sub>3</sub>R signaling pathway. This study demonstrated that EndoA2 protected cardiac function in response to MI via attenuating ER-stress-mediated ERO1α/IP<sub>3</sub>R signaling pathway. Targeting EndoA2 is a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of postinfarction-induced cardiac injury and heart failure.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Because endogenous cardiac repair mechanisms are not sufficient for meaningful tissue regeneration, MI results in loss of cardiac tissue and detrimental remodeling events. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence dependent manner. Our previous data indicate that miRNAs are dysregulated in response to ischemic injury of the heart and actively contribute to cardiac remodeling after MI.This study was designed to determine whether miRNAs are dysregulated on ischemic damage in porcine cardiac tissues and whether locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR chemistries can target cardiac expressed miRNAs to therapeutically inhibit miR-15 on ischemic injury.Our data indicate that the miR-15 family, which includes 6 closely related miRNAs, is regulated in the infarcted region of the heart in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and pigs. LNA-modified chemistries can effectively silence miR-15 family members in vitro and render cardiomyocytes resistant to hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Correspondingly, systemic delivery of miR-15 anti-miRs dose-dependently represses miR-15 in cardiac tissue of both mice and pigs, whereas therapeutic targeting of miR-15 in mice reduces infarct size and cardiac remodeling and enhances cardiac function in response to MI.Oligonucleotide-based therapies using LNA-modified chemistries for modulating cardiac miRNAs in the setting of heart disease are efficacious and validate miR-15 as a potential therapeutic target for the manipulation of cardiac remodeling and function in the setting of ischemic injury.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of the death worldwide. An increasing number of studies have found that autophagy is involved in the progression or prevention of CVD. However, the precise mechanism of autophagy in CVD, especially the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (MI/R injury), is unclear and controversial. Here, we show that the cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of autophagy by conditional knockout of Atg7 leads to severe contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and vacuolar cardiomyocytes. A negative cytoskeleton organization regulator, CLP36, was found to be accumulated in Atg7-deficient cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of Atg7 aggravates the MI/R injury with cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and severe cardiac fibrosis, most probably due to CLP36 accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Altogether, this work reveals autophagy may protect cardiomyocytes from the MI/R injury through the clearance of CLP36, and these findings define a novel relationship between autophagy and the regulation of stress fibre in heart.
Project description:Cardiokines play an essential role in maintaining normal cardiac functions and responding to acute myocardial injury. Studies have demonstrated the heart itself is a significant source of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9). However, the biological role of cardiac-derived CTRP9 remains unclear. We hypothesize cardiac-derived CTRP9 responds to acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury as a cardiokine. We explored the role of cardiac-derived CTRP9 in MI/R injury via genetic manipulation and a CTRP9-knockout (CTRP9-KO) animal model. Inhibition of cardiac CTRP9 exacerbated, whereas its overexpression ameliorated, left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial apoptosis. Endothelial CTRP9 expression was unchanged while cardiomyocyte CTRP9 levels decreased after simulated ischemia/`reperfusion (SI/R) in vitro. Cardiomyocyte CTRP9 overexpression inhibited SI/R-induced apoptosis, an effect abrogated by CTRP9 antibody. Mechanistically, cardiac-derived CTRP9 activated anti-apoptotic signaling pathways and inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related apoptosis in MI/R injury. Notably, CTRP9 interacted with the ER molecular chaperone calreticulin (CRT) located on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. The CTRP9-CRT interaction activated the protein kinase A-cAMP response element binding protein (PKA-CREB) signaling pathway, blocked by functional neutralization of the autocrine CTRP9. Inhibition of either CRT or PKA blunted cardiac-derived CTRP9's anti-apoptotic actions against MI/R injury. We further confirmed these findings in CTRP9-KO rats. Together, these results demonstrate that autocrine CTRP9 of cardiomyocyte origin protects against MI/R injury via CRT association, activation of the PKA-CREB pathway, ultimately inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Project description:Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) are a novel mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) subpopulation derived from cardiac tissue, which are reported to be responsible for cardiac regeneration. Notch signaling is believed to aid in cardiac repair following myocardial injury. In this study, we have investigated the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from Notch1 engineered C-MSCs on angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation in ischemic myocardium. C-MSCs were isolated from Notch1flox mice (C-MSCNotch1 FF). Notch1 gene deletion was accomplished by adenoviral vector-mediated Cre recombination, and Notch1 overexpression was achieved by overexpression of Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD). EVs were isolated by using the size exclusion column method. Proteomic composition of EV was carried out by mass spectrometry. A mouse myocardial infarction (MI) model was generated by permanent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Intramyocardial transplantation of Notch1 knockout C-MSCs (C-MSCsNotch1 KO) did not have any effect on cardiac function and scar size. On the other hand, transplantation of N1ICD-overexpressing C-MSCs (C-MSCsN1ICD) showed significant improvement in cardiac function and attenuation of fibrosis as compared to the control (PBS) group and non-modified C-MSC groups. C-MSCsN1ICD differentiated into smooth muscle cells and formed new vessels. Proteomics profiling identified several proteins, such as lysyl oxidase homolog-2 and biglycan, as highly enriched proteins in EV-C-MSCsN1ICD. Go term analysis indicated that EV-C-MSCsN1ICD were enriched with bioactive factors, potent pro-repair proteins responsible for cell migration and proliferation. EV-C-MSCs Notch1FF and EV-C-MSCsN1ICD were strongly proangiogenic under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. EV-C-MSCsN1ICD caused dense tube formation in vitro and increased neovasculogenesis in the peri-infarct area in vivo. Furthermore, EV-C-MSCsN1ICD attenuated endothelial cell (EC) and CM apoptosis under oxidative stress and ischemic injury. Similarly, EV-C-MSCNotch1 FF and EV-C-MSCN1ICD treatment improved cardiac function and decreased fibrosis in mice post-MI. EV-C-MSCsN1ICD were very effective in improving cardiac function and decreasing fibrosis. Notch1 signaling is a strong stimulus for cardiac regeneration by C-MSCs. EVs secreted by Notch1-overexpressing C-MSCs were highly effective in preventing cell death, promoting angiogenesis and CM proliferation, and restoring cardiac function post-MI. Overall, these results suggest that Notch1 overexpression may further enhance the effectiveness of EVs secreted by C-MSCs in cell-free therapy.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying alcoholic cardiomyopathy.The mechanism for alcoholic cardiomyopathy remains largely unknown.The chronic cardiac effects of alcohol were examined in mice feeding with alcohol or isocaloric control diet for 2 months. Signaling pathways of alcohol-induced cardiac cell death were examined in H9c2 cells.Compared with controls, hearts from alcohol-fed mice exhibited increased apoptosis, along with significant nitrative damage, demonstrated by 3-nitrotyrosine abundance. Alcohol exposure to H9c2 cells induced apoptosis, accompanied by 3-nitrotyrosine accumulation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) activation. Pre-incubation of H9c2 cells with urate (peroxynitrite scavenger), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (a superoxide dismutase mimetic), and apocynin (NOX inhibitor) abrogated alcohol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, alcohol exposure significantly increased the expression of angiotensin II and its type 1 receptor (AT1). A protein kinase C (PKC)-?/?1 inhibitor or PKC-?1 small interfering RNA and an AT1 blocker prevented alcohol-induced activation of NOX, and the AT1 blocker losartan significantly inhibited the expression of PKC-?1, indicating that alcohol-induced activation of NOX is mediated by PKC-?1 via AT1. To define the role of AT1-mediated PKC/NOX-derived superoxide generation in alcohol-induced cardiotoxicity, mice with knockout of the AT1 gene and wild-type mice were simultaneously treated with alcohol for 2 months. The knockout AT1 gene completely prevented cardiac nitrative damage, cell death, remodeling, and dysfunction. More importantly, pharmacological treatment of alcoholic mice with superoxide dismutase mimetic also significantly prevented cardiac nitrative damage, cell death, and remodeling.Alcohol-induced nitrative stress and apoptosis, which are mediated by angiotensin II interaction with AT1 and subsequent activation of a PKC-?1-dependent NOX pathway, are a causal factor in the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:Aerobic exercise mitigates oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by myocardial infarction (MI) even though the precise mechanisms remain completely elusive. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms of aerobic exercise in ameliorating the cardiac function of mice with MI. In vivo, MI was induced by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation in wild-type mice, alcat1 knockout, and fgf21 knockout mice. The mice were exercised under a moderate-intensity protocol for 6 weeks at one week later post-MI. In vitro, H9C2 cells were treated with lentiviral vector carrying alcat1 gene, recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21), PI3K inhibitor, and H2O2 to explore the potential mechanisms. Our results showed that aerobic exercise significantly increased the FGF21 expression and decreased the ALCAT1 expression in the hearts of mice with MI. fgf21 knockout weakened the inhibitory effects of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in mice with MI. Both/either alcat1 knockout and/or aerobic exercise improved cardiac function by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis in the MI heart. rhFGF21 inhibited both H2O2 and overexpression of ALCAT1-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway in H9C2 cells. In conclusion, our results showed that aerobic exercise alleviated oxidative stress and apoptosis by activating the FGF21/FGFR1/PI3K/AKT pathway or inhibiting the hyperexpression of ALCAT1, which ultimately improved the cardiac function in MI mice.
Project description:Abstract Background Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury imposes devastating cardiovascular sequelae in particular cardiac dysfunction as a result of restored blood flow. However, the mechanism behind MI/R injury remains elusive. Mitochondrial ubiquitin ligase (MITOL/MARCH5) is localized at the mitochondria?ER contact site and may be activated in response to a variety of pathophysiological processes, such as apoptosis, mitochondrial injury, ER stress, hypoxia, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Irisin as a cleaved product of fibronectin type III domain?containing protein 5 (FNDC5) displays cardioprotection in diverse cardiac diseases. Methods This study was designed to examine the role of irisin and MITOL in MI/R injury. Male C57BL/6J mice (8?10?week?old) were administered adenovirus MITOL shRNA through intracardiac injection followed by MI/R surgery through ligation and release the slipknot of cardiac left anterior descending coronary artery. Results Our results showed that irisin improved myocardial function in the face of MI/R injury as evidenced by reduced myocardial infarct size, apoptotic rate, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ROS generation, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as lessened ER stress injury. Moreover, our results indicated that protective role of irisin was mediated by upregulation of MITOL. Irisin also protected H9c2 cells against simulated I/R through negating ER stress, apoptosis, ROS and MDA levels, as well as facilitating superoxide dismutase (SOD) by way of elevated MITOL expression. Conclusions To this end, our data favored that irisin pretreatment protects against MI/R injury, ER stress, ROS production, and mitochondrial homeostasis through upregulation of MITOL. These findings depicted the therapeutic potential of irisin and MITOL in the management of MI/R injury in patients with ST?segment elevation. Irisin improves cardiac function against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, decreases apoptosis and myocardial infarct size following MI/R injury, alleviates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production following MI/R injury, and protects against MI/R injury, ER stress, and mitochondrial homeostasis through upregulation of MITOL