Growth differentiation factor-15: a p53- and demethylation-upregulating gene represses cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a member of the TGF-? superfamily, affects tumor biology of certain cancers, but remains poorly understood in bladder cancer cells. This study determined the expression, regulation, function, and potential downstream target genes of GDF15 in bladder carcinoma cells. The transitional papilloma carcionoma cells (RT4) expressed higher levels of GDF15 as compared with the bladder carcinoma cells (HT1376 and T24). Treatments of recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) reduced the proliferations of HT1376 and T24 cells. Expression of GDF15 was upregulated via DNA demethylation and p53. The cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis were reduced in ectopic overexpression of GDF15, while enhanced in GDF15 knockdown. The expressions of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN) and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes (NDRG1, NDRG2, and NDRG3) were upregulated by GDF15 overexpressions and rhGDF15 treatments in bladder carcinoma cells. GDF15 knockdown induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and F-actin polarization in HT1376 cells. Our results suggest that enhanced expressions of MASPIN and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes and the modulation of EMT may account for the inhibitory functions of GDF15 in the cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells. The GDF15 should be considered as a tumor suppressor in human bladder carcinoma cells.
Project description:Metallothioneins have been viewed as modulators in a number of biological regulations regarding cancerous development; however, the function of metallothionein 3 (MT3) in bladder cancer is unexplored. We determined the regulatory mechanisms and potential function of MT3 in bladder carcinoma cells. Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) assays revealed that TSGH-8301 cells expressed more MT3 levels than RT-4, HT1376, and T24 cells. Immunoblot and RT-qPCR assays showed that arsenic (AS₂O₃) treatments enhanced the gene expression of MT3. Hypoxia induced HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and MT3 expression; furthermore, HIF-2α-knockdown attenuated hypoxic activation on MT3 expression. Ectopic overexpression of MT3 increased cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis significantly in T24 and HT1376 cells in vitro and in vivo; however, MT3-knockdown in TSGH-8301 cells had the reverse effect. Moreover, knockdown of MT3 enhanced arsenic-induced apoptosis determined by the Annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay. MT3-overexpression downregulated the gene expressions of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), and the mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN) in HT1376 and T24 cells, whereas MT3-knockdown in TSGH-8301 cells had the opposite effect. The experiments indicated that MT3 is an arsenic- and hypoxia-upregulated oncogene that promotes cell growth and invasion of bladder carcinoma cells via downregulation of NDRG1, NDRG2, and MASPIN expressions.
Project description:Connexin 26 (Cx26) expression is down-regulated and KDM5B (H3K4 demethylase) is up-regulated in the progression of bladder cancer, suggesting that Cx26 expression may be down-regulated by KDM5B in bladder cancer. To test the hypothesis, the HT1376 and T24 human bladder carcinoma cells were transfected with the plasmids pcDNA3.1-KDM5B, and caused the down-regulation of Cx26 expression. In contrast, the HT1376 and T24 cells transfected with the plasmids pTZU6+1-shRNA-KDM5B1 and pTZU6+1-shRNA-KDM5B2 caused the up-regulation of Cx26 expression. Immunohistochemistry and Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that the immunohistochemical expression of KDM5B and Cx26 was inversely related in bladder carcinoma tissues but no relationship in benign tissues. Taken together, these results indicate that KDM5B represses Cx26 expression in the bladder cancer development. Thus, a negative value to Cx26 immunohistochemical expression and a positive value to KDM5B immunohistochemical expression could be an ancillary diagnosis of primary bladder malignancy.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy with a growing worldwide incidence and prevalence. The N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG) family of NDRG1, 2, 3, and mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) gene are well-known modulators in the neoplasia process. Current research has considered iron chelators as new anti-cancer agents; however, the anticancer activities of iron chelators and their target genes in OSCC have not been well investigated. We showed that iron chelators (Dp44mT, desferrioxamine (DFO), and deferasirox) all significantly inhibit SAS cell growth. Flow cytometry further indicated that Dp44mT inhibition of SAS cells growth was partly due to induction of G1 cell cycle arrest. Iron chelators enhanced expressions of NDRG1 and NDRG3 while repressing cyclin D1 expression in OSCC cells. The in vivo antitumor effect on OSCC and safety of Dp44mT were further confirmed through a xenograft animal model. The Dp44mT treatment also increased Maspin protein levels in SAS and OECM-1 cells. NDRG3 knockdown enhanced the growth of OECM-1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that NDRG3 is a tumor suppressor gene in OSCC cells, and Dp44mT could be a promising therapeutic agent for OSCC treatment.
Project description:Immune escape and metastasis are the hallmarks of several types of cancer including bladder cancer. One of the mechanisms involved in these processes has been linked to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Although IDO is classically recognized for its immunomodulatory property, it has presented nonimmunological effects in some tumors. TGF-?1 is believed to contribute to carcinoma development by modulating immunossupressive molecules, including IDO. In addition, TGF-?1 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor invasiveness and metastasis. We investigated the role of MT and IDO modulation in the induction of EMT by TGF-?1 in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. When T24 cells were incubated with the IDO inhibitor (MT, 1-methyl-D-tryptophan), with TGF-?1, and with MT+TGF-?1, a significant decrease of IDO expression and activity was observed. In addition, downregulation of e-cadherin and upregulation of n-cadherin and EMT transcription factors were induced by the treatments, confirming the induction of EMT. siRNA-mediated knockdown of IDO decreased e-cadherin expression, but had no effect on EMT transcription factors. In the scratch-wound assay, the heightened migration process was intensified when the cells were incubated with MT+TGF-?1. These effects were associated with a robust inhibition of Akt activation. After inoculation of T24 cells under the kidney capsule of Balb/c nude, the cells were positive for IDO in the center of the cell infiltrate, being negative in the periphery, where EMT is high. In conclusion, inhibition of IDO by TGF-?1 and MT is associated with EMT in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. MT has potentiating effect in TGF-?1-induced EMT, independently of IDO. This nonimmunological effect of MT should be considered if IDO is the target to avoid immune escape in bladder cancer.
Project description:Transgelin (TAGLN/SM22-?) is a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, affecting the survival, migration, and apoptosis of various cancer cells divergently; however, the roles of TAGLN in bladder carcinoma cells remain inconclusive. We compared expressions of TAGLN in human bladder carcinoma cells to the normal human bladder tissues to determine the potential biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of TAGLN in bladder carcinoma cells. Results of RT-qPCR and immunoblot assays indicated that TAGLN expressions were higher in bladder smooth muscle cells, fibroblast cells, and normal epithelial cells than in carcinoma cells (RT-4, HT1376, TSGH-8301, and T24) in vitro. Besides, the results of RT-qPCR revealed that TAGLN expressions were higher in normal tissues than the paired tumor tissues. In vitro, TAGLN knockdown enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, while overexpression of TAGLN had the inverse effects in bladder carcinoma cells. Meanwhile, ectopic overexpression of TAGLN attenuated tumorigenesis in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays showed that TAGLN was predominantly in the cytosol and colocalized with F-actin. Ectopic overexpression of either p53 or PTEN induced TAGLN expression, while p53 knockdown downregulated TAGLN expression in bladder carcinoma cells. Our results indicate that TAGLN is a p53 and PTEN-upregulated gene, expressing higher levels in normal bladder epithelial cells than carcinoma cells. Further, TAGLN inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and blocked tumorigenesis in vivo. Collectively, it can be concluded that TAGLN is an antitumor gene in the human bladder.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vinflunine (VFL) is a microtubule-targeting drug that suppresses microtubule dynamics, showing anti-metastatic properties both in vitro and in living cancer cells. An increasing body of evidence underlines the influence of the microtubules dynamics on the cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions. E-cadherin is a marker of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a tumour suppressor; its reduced levels in carcinoma are associated with poor prognosis. In this report, we investigate the role of VFL on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells. METHODS: Human bladder epithelial tumour cell lines HT1376, 5637, SW780, T24 and UMUC3 were used to analyse cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions under VFL treatment. VFL effect on growth inhibition was measured by using a MTT colorimetric cell viability assay. Western blot, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to assess the roles of VFL effect on cell-cell adhesions, epithelial-to-mesenchymal markers and apoptosis. The role of the proteasome in controlling cell-cell adhesion was studied using the proteasome inhibitor MG132. RESULTS: We show that VFL induces cell death in bladder cancer cells and activates epithelial differentiation of the remaining living cells, leading to an increase of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion and a reduction of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin or vimentin. Moreover, while E-cadherin is increased, the levels of Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for E-cadherin, were significantly reduced in presence of VFL. In 5637, this reduction on Hakai expression was blocked by MG132 proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the proteasome pathway could be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in its degradation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore a critical function for VFL in cell-cell adhesions of epithelial bladder tumour cells, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which VFL may impact upon EMT and metastasis.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanying loss of E-cadherin is important for invasiveness and metastasis of bladder cancer. MicroRNAs (miRs) had been associated with cancer progression and differentiation in several cancers. Our goal is to find out the specific miR which modulates EMT in bladder cancer. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the miRs expression in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) cell lines. MiR or siRNA mimics was used to regulate miR and mRNA level respectively. Migration and scratch assays were used to determine the migratory ability. Zymography assay was used to confirm the metalloproteinase activity. Western blotting was used to elucidate the mechanism which regulated by specific miR. MiR-429 was highly expressed in low grade UCC cell lines. Exogenous mimic of miR-429 treatment dramatically inhibited the migratory ability of T24 cells. MiR-429 downstream target ZEB1 was decreased, E-cadherin was restored, and ?-catenin was contrarily decreased by exogenous mimic of miR-429 treatment in T24 cells. Cell invasive ability was also inhibited by exogenous mimic of miR-429 treatment through inactivating the MMP-2 activity in T24 cells. E-cadherin protein expression level was inhibited by E-cadherin siRNA accompanied with increasing cell migratory ability when compared with control group in low grade TSGH8301 cells. MiR-429 decreased the cell migratory and invasive abilities through reducing ZEB1 and ?-catenin, restoring the E-cadherin expression and inactivation of MMP-2 of UCC cells. MiR-429 might be used as a progression marker of bladder cancer.
Project description:Maspin is a member of the clade B serine protease inhibitor superfamily and exhibits diverse regulatory effects in various types of solid tumors. We compared the expressions of maspin and determined its potential biological functions and regulatory mechanisms in bladder carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The results of RT-qPCR indicated that maspin expressed significantly lower levels in the bladder cancer tissues than in the paired normal tissues. The immunohistochemical assays of human bladder tissue arrays revealed similar results. Maspin-knockdown enhanced cell invasion whereas the overexpression of maspin resulted in the opposite process taking place. Knockdown of maspin also enhanced tumorigenesis in vivo and downregulated protein levels of acetyl-histone H3. Moreover, in bladder carcinoma cells, maspin modulated HDAC1 target genes, including cyclin D1, p21, MMP9, and vimentin. Treatment with MK2206, which is an Akt inhibitor, upregulated maspin expression, whereas PTEN-knockdown or PTEN activity inhibitor (VO-OHpic) treatments demonstrated reverse results. The ectopic overexpression of p53 or camptothecin treatment induced maspin expression. Our study indicated that maspin is a PTEN-upregulated and p53-upregulated gene that blocks cell growth in vitro and in vivo, and may act as an HDAC1 inhibitor in bladder carcinoma cells. We consider that maspin is a potential tumor suppressor gene in bladder cancer.
Project description:To investigate the efficacy of pazopanib, both alone and in combination with docetaxel, in bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer expresses many potential therapeutic targets of biological agents, including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Pazopanib is a small molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-1, -2-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and c-Kit.Using human bladder cancer cells HTB3, HT1376, J82, RT4, CRL1749, T24, Sup, and HTB9, the treatment effect of pazopanib and cytotoxic chemotherapy was assessed using a tetrazolium-based assay. The combinatorial effect of these agents on clonogenic growth was further examined. Western blotting was used to assess changes in relevant downstream targets, including phospho-AKT, phospho-FAK, total AKT, and total FAK.Single-agent pazopanib had modest activity. However, synergy was seen with the combination of docetaxel and pazopanib in these multiple cells lines. J82 and T24 cells were selected for additional clonogenic testing because of their resistance to single-agent docetaxel chemotherapy. 1.25 nM of docetaxel had little effect on clonogenic formation; however, in combination with pazopanib, significant inhibition of colony formation was observed. This combination treatment additionally decreased phospho-AKT, an important mediator of cell survival in all cell lines, whereas phospho-FAK expression was variably affected.The present study demonstrates synergistic efficacy of pazopanib with docetaxel in docetaxel-resistant bladder cancer cells. This work supports future evaluation of pazopanib with docetaxel for the treatment of bladder cancer with the potential of improved efficacy and toxicity.
Project description:Experiments were performed in a modified microfluidic platform recapitulating part of the in vivo tumor microenvironment by co-culturing carcinoma cell aggregates embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffold with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were seeded in one channel of the device to initiate vessel-like structures in vitro prior to introducing the aggregates. The lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and the bladder carcinoma cell line T24 were tested. Dose-response assays of four drugs known to interfere with Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) signaling pathways were quantified using relative dispersion as a metric of EMT progression. The presence of HUVECs in one channel induces cell dispersal in A549 which then can be inhibited by each of the four drugs. Complete inhibition of T24 aggregate dispersal, however, is not achieved with any single agent, although partial inhibition was observed with 10 ?M of the Src inhibitor, AZD-0530. Almost complete inhibition of T24 dispersal in monoculture was achieved only when the four drugs were added in combination, each at 10 ?M concentration. Coculture of T24 with HUVECs forfeits the almost-complete inhibition. The enhanced dispersal observed in the presence of HUVECs is a consequence of secretion of growth factors, including HGF and FGF-2, by endothelial cells. This 3D microfluidic co-culture platform provides an in vivo-like surrogate for anti-invasive and anti-metastatic drug screening. It will be particularly useful for defining combination therapies for aggressive tumors such as invasive bladder carcinoma.